1Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine, Umeå University, 2Cell Transplant Center, Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami,, 3EMBL-CRG Systems Biology Program, Centre for Genomic Regulation, Catalan Institute of Research and Advanced Studies, 4Dept. of Computing Science, Umeå University
We describe the adaptation of optical projection tomography (OPT)1 to imaging in the near infrared spectrum, and the implementation of a number of computational tools. These protocols enable assessments of pancreatic β-cell mass (BCM) in larger specimens, increase the multichannel capacity of the technique and increase the quality of OPT data.
Published January 12, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biophysics, Pancreas, Islets of Langerhans, Diabetes Mellitus, Imaging, Three-Dimensional, Optical Projection Tomography, Beta-cell Mass, Near Infrared, Computational Processing
1Department of Medicine, University of Chicago
The following protocol outlines the process of pancreatic dissection for virtual slice imaging, and the subsequent quantification of all GFP-tagged beta-cells in the entire pancreas.
Published June 7, 2010. Keywords: Cellular Biology, beta-cells, islets, mouse, pancreas
1Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, 2Department of Cellular & Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine
This protocol allows one to identify factors that modulate functional beta cell mass to find potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diabetes. The protocol consists of a streamlined method to assess islet replication and beta cell function in isolated rat islets following manipulation of gene expression with adenoviruses.
Published June 25, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Physiology, beta cell, gene expression, islet, diabetes, insulin secretion, proliferation, adenovirus, rat
1Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida
This video demonstrates procedures for characterization of human pancreatic islets using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Pancreatic sections from head, body, and tail regions are stained by both H&E and IHC to determine islet endocrine composition (insulin, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide), cell replication (Ki67), and inflammatory infiltrates (H&E, CD3). The uncinate region is localized using IHC for pancreatic polypeptide.
Published May 23, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Physiology, type 1 diabetes, histology, H&E, immunohistochemistry, insulin, beta-cells, glucagon, alpha-cells, pancreatic polypeptide, islet, pancreas, spleen, organ donor
1Department of Nutrional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo
Assaying in vitro β-cell function using isolated mouse islets of Langerhans is an important component in the study of diabetes pathophysiology and therapeutics. While many downstream applications are available, this protocol specifically describes the measurement of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) as an essential parameter determining β-cell function.
Published June 25, 2014. Keywords: Physiology, islet, isolation, insulin secretion, β-cell, diabetes, cAMP production, mouse
1Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 2Laboratory of Biological Modeling, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 3Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, 4Diabetes Division, University of Massachusetts
Novel computer-assisted methods of large-scale procurement and analysis of immunohistochemically stained pancreatic specimens are described: (1) Virtual Slice capture of the entire section; (2) Mass analysis of large-scale data; (3) Reconstruction of 2D Virtual Slices; (4) 3D islet mapping; and (5) Mathematical analysis.
Published March 4, 2011. Keywords: Cellular Biology, beta-cells, islets, large-scale analysis, pancreas
1Montreal Diabetes Research Center, CRCHUM, 2Department of Medicine, University of Montreal
A protocol for chronic infusions of glucose and Intralipid in rats is described. This model can be used to study the impact of nutrient excess on organ function and physiological parameters.
Published August 14, 2013. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Basic Protocols, Surgery, Metabolic Diseases, Infusions, Intravenous, Infusion Pumps, Glucolipotoxicity, Rat, Infusion, Glucose, Intralipid, Catheter, canulation, canula, diabetes, animal model
1Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Institute of Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania-School of Medicine
We have derived a strategy to detect sequential incorporation of thymidine analogues (CldU and IdU) into tissues of adult mice to quantify two successive rounds of cell division. This strategy is useful to detect cell turnover of long-lived tissues, oncogenic transformation, or transit-amplifying cells.
Published December 7, 2010. Keywords: Immunology, CldU, IDU, Thymidine Analogue, immunofluorescence, Lineage-Tracing, Mouse, Cell Division, Replication, Turnover, Stem Cell
1Department of Biotechnology & Bioinformatics, California State University Channel Islands, 2Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 3The Irell & Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope
A three-dimensional clonogenic assay that allows pancreatic-like progenitors to differentiate into insulin-expressing colonies is described. This method takes advantage of semi-solid media containing methylcellulose, Matrigel and growth factors, in which single progenitors proliferate and differentiate in vitro, permitting quantification of the number of functional progenitors in a population.
Published November 28, 2011. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Pancreas, insulin-expressing cells, embryonic stem cells, colony assay, progenitor cells, 3-dimensional culture, semi-solid media, Matrigel, methylcellulose
1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Center for Stem Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Department of Pharmacology, Center for Stem Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 3Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Isolation of embryonic neural crest from the neural tube facilitates the use of in vitro methods for studying migration, self-renewal, and multipotency of neural crest.
Published June 2, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Developmental Biology, neural crest, explant, cell culture, mouse, embryo
1Department of Neurosurgery, Aarhus University Hospital, 2Department of Neurobiology, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aarhus University, 3Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Centre, Aarhus University Hospital
The use of domestic and miniature pigs in science has increased significantly in recent years. By demonstrating how to perform intubation, transurethral bladder catheterization, femoral artery and vein catheterization, as well as transcardial perfusion, we aim to further increase the value of Göttingen minipigs in biomedical research.
Published June 26, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, Animal model, Animal preparation, Animal handling, Sus scrofa, Swine, Tissue fixation