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beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause Gangliosidosis, Gm1.
 JoVE Developmental Biology

Prediction and Validation of Gene Regulatory Elements Activated During Retinoic Acid Induced Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

1Sanford-Burnham-Prebys Medical Discovery Institute at Lake Nona, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, 3MTA-DE “Lendulet” Immunogenomics Research Group, University of Debrecen


JoVE 53978

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Using Confocal Analysis of Xenopus laevis to Investigate Modulators of Wnt and Shh Morphogen Gradients

1Department of Biomedical Science, The Bateson Centre, University of Sheffield, 2Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, 3Department of Cardiovascular Science, The Bateson Centre, University of Sheffield, 4School of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, 5Biology Department, University of York


JoVE 53162

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

In vivo Imaging of Transgenic Leishmania Parasites in a Live Host

1Interdisciplinary Immunology Program, University of Iowa, and the VA Medical Center, 2Department of Biochemistry, University of Iowa, and the VA Medical Center, 3Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, 4Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 5Division of Dermatology, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Hanley-Hardison Research Center, 6Interdisciplinary Immunology Program, Iowa City VA Medical Center, 7Departments of Internal Medicine, Microbiology and Epidemiology, University of Iowa


JoVE 1980

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

A Primary Neuron Culture System for the Study of Herpes Simplex Virus Latency and Reactivation

1Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, 2Molecular Neurobiology Program, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 3Department of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine, 4Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 5Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, 6Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 7Center for Neural Science, New York University School of Medicine


JoVE 3823

 JoVE Neuroscience

Stereotaxic Injection of a Viral Vector for Conditional Gene Manipulation in the Mouse Spinal Cord

1Département Nociception et Douleur, Institut des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Intégratives, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 2Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Columbia University, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences


JoVE 50313

 Science Education: Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

Bacterial Transformation: The Heat Shock Method

JoVE Science Education

Transformation is the process that occurs when a cell ingests foreign DNA from its surroundings. Transformation can occur in nature in certain types of bacteria. In molecular biology, transformation is artificially reproduced in the lab via the creation of pores in bacterial cell membranes. Bacterial cells that are able to take up DNA from the environment are called competent cells. In the laboratory, bacterial cells can be made competent and DNA subsequently introduced by a procedure called the heat shock method. Heat shock transformation uses a calcium rich environment provided by calcium chloride to counteract the electrostatic repulsion between the plasmid DNA and bacterial cellular membrane. A sudden increase in temperature creates pores in the plasma membrane of the bacteria and allows for plasmid DNA to enter the bacterial cell. This video goes through a step-by-step procedure on how to create chemically competent bacteria, perform heat shock transformation, plate the transformed bacteria, and calculate transformation efficiency.

 Science Education: Essentials of Biology 1

Yeast Transformation and Cloning

JoVE Science Education

S. cerevisiae are unicellular eukaryotes that are a commonly-used model organism in biological research. In the course of their work, yeast researchers rely upon the fundamental technique of transformation (the uptake of foreign DNA by the cell) to control gene expression, induce genetic deletions, express recombinant proteins, and label subcellular structures.

This video provides an overview of how and why yeast transformation is carried out in the lab. The important features of yeast plasmids will be presented, along with the procedure required to prepare yeast cells to incorporate new plasmids. The presentation also includes a step-by-step protocol for the lithium acetate method of yeast transformation. Finally, examples of the many applications of this essential technique will be provided.

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