Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.
1Advanced Platform Technology Center, Rehabilitation Research and Development, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University
A method is discussed by which the in vivo mechanical behavior of stimuli-responsive materials is monitored as a function of time. Samples are tested ex vivo using a microtensile tester with environmental controls to simulate the physiological environment. This work further promotes understanding the in vivo behavior of our material.
Published August 20, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biophysics, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Electrical Engineering, Materials Science, Nanotechnology, Nanocomposites, Electrodes, Implanted, Neural Prostheses, Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems, Implants, Experimental, mechanical properties (composite materials), Dynamic materials, polymer nanocomposite, Young's modulus, modulus of elasticity, intracortical microelectrode, polymers, biomaterials
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Health Science & Technology, Cartilage Engineering & Regeneration, 2Biomaterials Department, Innovent e.V.
A bioprinter was used to create patterned hydrogels based on a sacrificial mold. The poloxamer mold was backfilled with a second hydrogel and then eluted, leaving voids which were filled with a third hydrogel. This method uses fast elution and good printability of poloxamer to generate complex architectures from biopolymers.
Published July 10, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Immunology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Molecular Biology, Materials Science, Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials, Hydrogel, Biopolymers, Structured/Patterned Hydrogels, Bioprinter, Sacrificial Mold, Thermoresponsive Polymers, Poloxamer, tissue, polymer, matrix, cell, cell culture
1Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University
This protocol combines electrospinning and microspheres to develop tissue engineered scaffolds to direct neurons. Nerve growth factor was encapsulated within PLGA microspheres and electrospun into Hyaluronic Acid (HA) fibrous scaffolds. The protein bioactivity was tested by seeding the scaffolds with primary chick Dorsal Root Ganglia and culturing for 4-6 days.
Published August 16, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Electrospinning, Hyaluronic Acid, PLGA, Microspheres, Controlled Release, Neural Tissue Engineering, Directed Cell Migration
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Radiology, and Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University
Plant viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are promising platforms for applications in biomedicine. Here, we describe the procedures for plant VNP propagation, purification, characterization, and bioconjugation. Finally, we show the application of VNPs for tumor homing and imaging using a mouse xenograft model and fluorescence imaging.
Published November 16, 2012. Keywords: Cancer Biology, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Virology, Oncology, Viral nanoparticles, bioconjugate chemistry, tumor xenograft mouse model, fluorescence imaging
1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Ohio University, 2Biomedical Engineering Program, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University, 3Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Compared with traditional affinity chromatography using protein A agarose bead-packed columns, protein A membrane adsorbers can significantly speed laboratory-scale isolation of antibodies and other Fc fragment-expressing proteins. Appropriate analysis and quantification methods can further accelerate protein processing, allowing isolation/characterization to be completed in one workday, instead of 20+ work hours.
Published January 8, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, affinity chromatography, membrane adsorber, bioseparations, protein A, galectin-1, Gal-1hFc
1Institute for Computational Medicine and the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University
A methodology to estimate ventricular fiber orientations from in vivo images of patient heart geometries for personalized modeling is described. Validation of the methodology performed using normal and failing canine hearts demonstrate that that there are no significant differences between estimated and acquired fiber orientations at a clinically observable level.
Published January 8, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cardiology, Myocytes, Cardiac, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI, Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cardiac Electrophysiology, computerized simulation (general), mathematical modeling (systems analysis), Cardiomyocyte, biomedical image processing, patient-specific modeling, Electrophysiology, simulation
1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University
We developed computational de novo protein design methods capable of tackling several important areas of protein design. To disseminate these methods we present Protein WISDOM, an online tool for protein design (http://www.proteinwisdom.org). Starting from a structural template, design of monomeric proteins for increased stability and complexes for increased binding affinity can be performed.
Published July 25, 2013. Keywords: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Computational Biology, Genomics, Proteomics, Protein, Protein Binding, Computational Biology, Drug Design, optimization (mathematics), Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, De novo protein and peptide design, Drug design, In silico sequence selection, Optimization, Fold specificity, Binding affinity, sequencing
1Tissue Engineered Mechanics, Imaging and Materials Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, 3College of Medicine, University of Florida, 4King Faisal Specialty Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
There has been renewed interest in developing polymer valves. Here, the objectives are to demonstrate the feasibility of modifying a commercial pulse duplicator to accommodate tri-leaflet geometries and to define a protocol to present polymer valve hydrodynamic data in comparison to native and prosthetic valve data collected under near-identical conditions.
Published October 17, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Cardiovascular Diseases, Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Mechanical Engineering, valve disease, valve replacement, polymer valves, pulse duplicator, modification, tri-leaflet geometries, hydrodynamic studies, relative assessment, medicine, bioengineering, physiology
1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa
Micro-particle image velocimetry (μPIV) is used to visualize paired images of micro particles seeded in blood flows which are cross-correlated to give an accurate velocity profile. Shear rate, maximum velocity, velocity profile shape, and flow rate, each of which has clinical applications, can be derived from these measurements.
Published April 25, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biophysics, Chemical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Hematology, Blood Physiological Phenomena, Hemorheology, Hematocrit, flow characteristics, flow measurement, flow visualization, rheology, Red blood cells, cross correlation, micro blood flows, microfluidics, microhemorheology, microcirculation, velocimetry, visualization, imaging
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis
We report on techniques to micropattern nanoporous gold thin films via stencil printing and photolithography, as well as methods to culture cells on the microfabricated patterns. In addition, we describe image analysis methods to characterize morphology of the material and the cultured cells using scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy techniques.
Published July 15, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Biophysics, Physics, Nanotechnology, Nanostructures, Biomedical Technology, Miniaturization, Gold, Staining and Labeling, Cell Culture Techniques, Microscopy, Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence, Nanotechnology, thin films (theory, deposition and growth), Nanoporous gold, cell culture, image analysis, microfabrication, nanotechnology, quantitative immunochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, fluorescence microscopy, stencil printing, photolithography, cell culture
1Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, 2Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, 3Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield
Electrospun scaffolds can be processed post production for tissue engineering applications. Here we describe methods for spinning complex scaffolds (by consecutive spinning), for making thicker scaffolds (by multi-layering using heat or vapour annealing), for achieving sterility (aseptic production or sterilisation post production) and for achieving appropriate biomechanical properties.
Published August 9, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Materials Science, Biomedical Engineering, Tissue Engineering, Medicine, Chemistry, Electrospinning, bilayer, biaxial distension, heat and vapour annealing, mechanical testing, fibres
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University
Synthesis and fabrication of electrospun long fibers spanning a larger deposit area via a newly designed collector from a novel biodegradable polymer named poly(glycerol-dodecanoate) (PGD) was reported. The fibers were able to support the growth of cells derived from mouse pluripotent stem cells.
Published June 18, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, tissue engineering, electrospinning, fiber scaffolds, Poly(glycerol-dodecanedioate) (PGD), gelatin, Mouse embryonic stem cells
1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California at Irvine, 4Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, 5Research Service, Hines Veterans Administration Hospital
In the following sections, we outline procedures for the preparation of alginate microspheres for use in biomedical applications. We specifically illustrate a technique for creating multilayered alginate microspheres for the dual purpose of cell and protein encapsulation as a potential treatment for type 1 diabetes.
Published August 12, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Chemical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Alginate, angiogenesis, FGF-1, encapsulation
1Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University & University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3Atlantic Prosthetics & Orthotics, LLC
Neural-machine interfaces (NMI) have been developed to identify the user's locomotion mode. These NMIs are potentially useful for neural control of powered artificial legs, but have not been fully demonstrated. This paper presented (1) our designed engineering platform for easy implementation and development of neural control for powered lower limb prostheses and (2) an experimental setup and protocol in a laboratory environment to evaluate neurally-controlled artificial legs on patients with lower limb amputations safely and efficiently.
Published July 22, 2014. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, neural control, powered transfemoral prosthesis, electromyography (EMG), neural-machine interface, experimental setup and protocol
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University
A method to obtain nanofibers and complex nanostructures from single or multiple extracellular matrix proteins is described. This method uses protein-surface interactions to create free-standing protein-based materials with tunable composition and architecture for use in a variety of tissue engineering and biotechnology applications.
Published April 17, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Nanofibers, Nanofabrics, Extracellular Matrix Proteins, Microcontact Printing, Fibronectin, Laminin, Tissue Engineering, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), Surface-Initiated Assembly
1Department of Physics, Clemson University, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, East Carolina University, 3Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 4Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University
Graphene offers potential as a coating material for biomedical implants. In this study we demonstrate a method for coating nitinol alloys with nanometer thick layers of graphene and determine how graphene may influence implant response.
Published March 1, 2013. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Medicine, Biophysics, Materials Science, Physics, Pharmacology, Toxicology, Surgery, Chemistry and Materials (General), graphene, biomedical implants, surface modification, chemical vapor deposition, protein expression, confocal microscopy, implants, stents, clinical
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Cell culture substrates functionalized with microscale patterns of biological ligands have immense utility in the field of tissue engineering. Here, we demonstrate the versatile and automated manufacture of tissue culture substrates with multiple, micropatterned poly(ethylene glycol) brushes presenting orthogonal chemistries that enable spatially precise and site-specific immobilization of biological ligands.
Published October 31, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Robotic microcontact printing, R-μCP, click chemistry, surface chemistry, tissue engineering, micropattern, advanced manufacturing
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology
This model system starts from a myofibroblast-populated fibrin gel that can be used to study endogenous collagen (re)organization real-time in a nondestructive manner. The model system is very tunable, as it can be used with different cell sources, medium additives, and can be adapted easily to specific needs.
Published October 28, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Connective Tissue, Myofibroblasts, Heart Valves, Heart Valve Diseases, Mechanotransduction, Cellular, Adaptation, Biological, Cellular Microenvironment, collagen remodeling, fibrin-based tissues, tissue engineering, cardiovascular
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 2Stemorgan Inc., 3Institute of Advanced Study, Technical University of Munich, 4Institute of Virology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, 5Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 6Research Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science
The methods described in this paper show how to convert a commercial inkjet printer into a bioprinter with simultaneous UV polymerization. The printer is capable of constructing 3D tissue structure with cells and biomaterials. The study demonstrated here constructed a 3D neocartilage.
Published June 10, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, cartilage, inkjet printing, chondrocytes, hydrogel, photopolymerization, tissue engineering
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University
We describe the isolation of neonatal cardiomyocytes and the preparation of the cells for encapsulation in fibrin hydrogel constructs for tissue engineering. We describe methods for analyzing the tissue engineered myocardium after the culture period including active force generated upon electrical stimulation and cell viability and immunohistological staining.
Published September 19, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, fibrin, scaffold, hydrogel, cardiac tissue engineering, contraction force, neonatal cardiomyocytes
1Biotactical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Science, Swinburne University of Technology, 2Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Melbourne
Infrared nerve stimulation has been proposed as an alternative to electrical stimulation in a range of nerve types, including those associated with the auditory system. This protocol describes a patch clamp method for studying the mechanism of infrared nerve stimulation in a culture of primary auditory neurons.
Published July 31, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Biomedical Engineering, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Primary Cell Culture, Biophysics, Electrophysiology, fiber optics, infrared neural stimulation, patch clamp, in vitro models, spiral ganglion neurons, neurons, patch clamp recordings, cell culture
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, Indiana University - Purdue University at Indianapolis
The following protocol provides techniques for encapsulating pancreatic β-cells in step-growth PEG-peptide hydrogels formed by thiol-ene photo-click reactions. This material platform not only offers a cytocompatible microenvironment for cell encapsulation, but also permits user-controlled rapid recovery of cell structures formed within the hydrogels.
Published December 6, 2012. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Tissue Engineering, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomaterials, beta cells, β-cell, PEG, PEG-peptide hydrogels, hydrogel, MIN6, poylmers, peptides, spheroids, pancreas
1Department of Extremity Trauma Research and Regenerative Medicine, United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin
This protocol focuses on utilizing the inherent ability of stem cells to take cue from their surrounding extracellular matrix and be induced to differentiate into multiple phenotypes. This methods manuscript extends our description and characterization of a model utilizing a bilayered hydrogel, composed of PEG-fibrin and collagen, to simultaneously co-differentiate adipose-derived stem cells1.
Published May 25, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Tissue Engineering, chitosan, microspheres, collagen, hydrogel, PEG fibrin, cell delivery, adipose-derived stem cells, ASC, CSM
1Department of Neurobiology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 3School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, 4School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, 5Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and System Engineering, University of Genova
This manuscript describes a protocol to grow in vitro modular networks consisting of spatially confined, functionally inter-connected neuronal circuits. A polymeric mask is used to pattern a protein layer to promote cellular adhesion over the culturing substrate. Plated neurons grow on coated areas establishing spontaneous connections and exhibiting electrophysiological activity.
Published April 15, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, In vitro, patterning, PDMS stencils, SU8-2075, silicon wafer, calcium imaging, Micro Electrode Array
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Akron, 2Saint Vincent Saint Mary's High School
This work describes the formation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microgels via a photopolymerized precipitation reaction. Increasing the PEG molecular weight increased microgel diameter and swelling ratio. Simple adaptations to the PEG microgel precipitation reaction are explored for future applications of microgels as drug delivery vehicles and tissue engineering scaffolds.
Published December 23, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, hydrogels, microgels, polyethylene glycol, molecuar weight, photopolymerized precipitation reaction, polymers, polydispersity index
1Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
In this paper, an experimental framework to perform closed-loop experiments is presented, in which information processing (i.e., coding and decoding) and learning of neuronal assemblies are studied during the continuous interaction with a robotic body.
Published March 2, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Micro Electrode Arrays (MEA), in vitro cultures, coding, decoding, tetanic stimulation, spike, burst
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rochester, 3Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester Medical Center
This video will illustrate a rapid, efficient method to methacrylate poly(ethylene glycol), enabling chain polymerizations and hydrogel synthesis. It will demonstrate how to similarly introduce methacrylamide functionalities into peptides, detail common analytical methods to assess functionalization efficiency, provide suggestions for troubleshooting and advanced modifications, and demonstrate typical hydrogel characterization techniques.
Published October 29, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Poly(ethylene glycol), peptides, polymerization, polymers, methacrylation, peptide functionalization, 1H-NMR, MALDI-ToF, hydrogels, macromer synthesis
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan
Aqueous two-phase systems were used to simultaneously pattern multiple populations of cells. This fast and easy method for cell patterning takes advantage of the phase separation of aqueous solutions of dextran and polyethylene glycol and the interfacial tension that exists between the two polymer solutions.
Published March 26, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Cell Migration Assays, Culture Techniques, bioengineering (general), Patterning, Aqueous Two-Phase System, Co-Culture, cell, Dextran, Polyethylene glycol, media, PEG, DEX, colonies, cell culture
JoVE Application Notes
In vitro mammalian cell culture has served as an invaluable tool in cell biology for several decades. Classically, monolayer cultures of adherent cells were grown on flat and rigid two-dimensional (2D) substrates, such as polystyrene or glass. However, many cells, when isolated from tissues and placed onto stiff planar 2D cell culture surfaces, such as tissue culture plastic, become progressively flatter, divide aberrantly, and lose their differentiated phenotype1,2. While these two-dimensional cell culture studies have played a pivotal role in furthering our understanding of many biological processes, they do not emulate in vivo conditions.
Published October 16, 2014. Keywords:
1Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 2Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 3Green Center for Systems Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
Homologous recombination techniques greatly advance Drosophila genetics by enabling the creation of molecularly precise mutations. The recent adoption of recombineering allows one to manipulate large pieces of DNA and transform them into Drosophila6. The methods presented here combine these techniques to rapidly generate large homologous recombination vectors.
Published July 13, 2013. Keywords: Genetics, Bioengineering, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Physiology, Drosophila melanogaster, genetics (animal and plant), Recombineering, Drosophila, Homologous Recombination, Knock-out, recombination, genetic engineering, gene targeting, gene, genes, DNA, PCR, Primers, sequencing, animal model
1Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Birck-Bindley Physiological Sensing Facility, Purdue University, 2NASA Ames Research Center, 3Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University Hazleton, 4Cooley LLP, 5NASA Life and Physical Sciences, Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters
All-solid-state ion-selective electrodes (ASSISEs) constructed from a conductive polymer (CP) transducer provide several months of functional lifetime in liquid media. Here, we describe the fabrication and calibration process of ASSISEs in a lab-on-a-chip format. The ASSISE is demonstrated to have maintained a near-Nernstian slope profile after prolonged storage in complex biological media.
Published April 18, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Anatomy, Physiology, Miniaturization, Microtechnology, Electrochemical Techniques, electrochemical processes, astrobiology, Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment, Investigative Techniques, Technology, Industry, Agriculture, electrochemical sensor, all-solid-state ion-selective electrode (ASSISE), conductive polymer transducer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), lab-on-a-chip, Chlorella vulgaris, photosynthesis, microfluidics
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University
We present a novel surgical procedure to implant electrodes in Manduca sexta during its early metamorphic stages. This technique allows mechanically stable and electrically reliable coupling with the neuromuscular tissue to study flight neurophysiology dynamics. We also present a novel magnetic levitation platform for tethered studies of insect yaw.
Published July 12, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Manduca sexta; telemetry; metamorphosis; bioelectronics; neurophysiology; electrophysiology; neuromuscular
1School of Biomedical Engineering and Science, Virginia Tech, 2Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Tech
Contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) achieves sorting and enrichment of particles via their intrinsic dielectric properties. Fluidic electrode channels replace metallic electrodes traditional to DEP, suiting cDEP to non-damaging sterile characterization and sorting of biological particles. We demonstrate how to prepare a cDEP microdevice and conduct cell characterization and sorting experiments.
Published September 3, 2013. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Biophysics, Physics, Microfluidics, Cell Separation, Microfluidic Analytical Techniques, Electrophoresis, Microchip, cancer diagnosis, cell enrichment, cell sorting, microfluidics, dielectrophoresis, Lab on a chip, cells, imaging
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, California Polytechnic State University, 3Office of Animal Welfare, University of Virginia, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering & Institute for Computational Medicine, Johns Hopkins University
We demonstrate a novel arterial ligation model in murine spinotrapezius muscle, including a step-by-step procedure and description of required instrumentation. We describe the surgery and relevant outcome measurements relating to vascular network remodeling and functional vasodilation using intravital and confocal microscopy.
Published March 3, 2013. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, Immunology, Hematology, Microvessels, Capillaries, Arterioles, Venules, Vascular Diseases, Ischemia, spinotrapezius, peripheral vascular disease, functional vasodilation, arteriolar ligation, vessels, circulation, confocal microscopy, animal model
1Department of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, University Hospital Würzburg
Methods to create human 3D tumor tissues as test systems are described. These technologies are based on a decellularized Biological Vascularized Scaffold (BioVaSc), primary human cells and a tumor cell line, which can be cultured under static as well as under dynamic conditions in a flow bioreactor.
Published August 6, 2013. Keywords: Cancer Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Tissue Engineering, Tumor Cells, Cultured, Biotechnology, Culture Techniques, Cell Engineering, Cellular Microenvironment, Equipment and Supplies, Decellularization, BioVaSc, primary cell isolation, tumor test system, dynamic culture conditions, bioreactor, 3D in vitro models, cell culture
1Functional and Applied Biomechanics Group, National Institutes of Health, 2Laboratory for Non-invasive Brain-Machine Interface Systems, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, 3Department of Health and Human Performance, University of Houston, 4Center for Neuromotor & Biomechanics Research, University of Houston, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston
Development of an effective brain-machine-interface (BMI) system for restoration and rehabilitation of bipedal locomotion requires accurate decoding of user's intent. Here we present a novel experimental protocol and data collection technique for simultaneous non-invasive acquisition of neural activity, muscle activity, and whole-body kinematics during various locomotion tasks and conditions.
Published July 26, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Electroencephalography, EEG, Electromyography, EMG, electroencephalograph, gait, brain-computer interface, brain machine interface, neural decoding, over-ground walking, robotic gait, brain, imaging, clinical techniques
1Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University
In animals with large identified neurons (e.g. mollusks), analysis of motor pools is done using intracellular techniques1,2,3,4. Recently, we developed a technique to extracellularly stimulate and record individual neurons in Aplysia californica5. We now describe a protocol for using this technique to uniquely identify and characterize motor neurons within a motor pool.
Published March 25, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Behavior, Neurobiology, Animal, Neurosciences, Neurophysiology, Electrophysiology, Aplysia, Aplysia californica, California sea slug, invertebrate, feeding, buccal mass, ganglia, motor neurons, neurons, extracellular stimulation and recordings, extracellular electrodes, animal model
1Biomatériaux et Bioingénieriee, INSERM, 2Service Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 3Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, Université de Strasbourg
In this video, we will demonstrate modification techniques for porous metallic implants to improve their functionality and to control cell migration. Techniques include development of pore gradients to control cell movement in 3D and production of basement membrane mimics to control cell movement in 2-D. Also, a HPLC-based method for monitoring implant integration in-vivo via analysis of blood proteins is described.
Published July 1, 2013. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Biophysics, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Materials Science, Biomedical and Dental Materials, Composite Materials, Metals and Metallic Materials, Engineering (General), Titanium, pore gradient, implant, in vivo, blood analysis, freeze-extraction, foams, implants, transplantation, clinical applications
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Duke University, 3Department of Anesthesia, Yale University
We have developed a decellularized lung extracellular matrix and novel biomimetic bioreactor that can be used to generate functional lung tissue. By seeding cells into the matrix and culturing in the bioreactor, we generate tissue that demonstrates effective gas exchange when transplanted in vivo for short periods of time.
Published March 8, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Decellularization, tissue engineering, lung engineering, lung tissue, extracellular matrix
1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University, 2Biomedical Engineering Program, Ohio University
Dual camera emission splitting systems for two-color fluorescence microscopy generate real-time image sequences with exceptional optical and temporal resolution, a requirement of certain live cell assays including parallel plate flow chamber adhesion assays. When software is employed to merge images from simultaneously acquired emission channels, pseudocolored image sequences are produced.
Published September 4, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Biophysics, Biochemistry, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Biological Markers, Antigens, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Cell Physiological Processes, Cell Adhesion, Cell Physiological Phenomena, Colocalization, cell rolling, two-color fluorescence, cell, imaging
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Soft Tissue Biomechanics and Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
Engineered muscle tissue has great potential in regenerative medicine, as disease model and also as an alternative source for meat. Here we describe the engineering of a muscle construct, in this case from mouse myoblast progenitor cells, and the stimulation by electrical pulses.
Published March 19, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Biomechanics, Anatomy, Physiology, Stem Cell Biology, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Tissue Engineering, skeletal muscle, muscle progenitor cells, biophysical stimulation, iPS cells, myoblasts, muscle tissue, soft tissue, stem cells, cell culture, collagen, Matrigel, animal model
1Department of Orthopaedics, The Warren Alpert Brown Medical School of Brown University and the Rhode Island Hospital, 2Center for Restorative and Regenerative Medicine, VA Medical Center, Providence, RI, 3University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
We designed a novel mechanical loading bioreactor that can apply uniaxial or biaxial mechanical strain to a cartilage biocomposite prior to transplantation into an articular cartilage defect.
Published April 25, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cell Engineering, Bioreactors, Culture Techniques, Cell Engineering, Tissue Engineering, compression loads, shear loads, Tissues, bioreactor, mechanical loading, compression, shear, musculoskeletal, cartilage, bone, transplantation, cell culture
1InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 2Bernstein Focus for Neurotechnology, University of Goettingen, 3Auditory Systems Physiology Group, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 4Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, University of Goettingen, 5Department of Chemical, Electronic, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Guanajuato
Cochlear implants (CIs) enable hearing by direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. However, poor frequency and intensity resolution limits the quality of hearing with CIs. Here we describe optogenetic stimulation of the auditory nerve in mice as an alternative strategy for auditory research and developing future CIs.
Published October 8, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, hearing, cochlear implant, optogenetics, channelrhodopsin, optical stimulation, deafness
1Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 3XG Sciences, Inc.
A microdevice with high throughput potential is used to demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) dielectrophoresis (DEP) with novel materials. Graphene nanoplatelet paper and double sided tape were alternately stacked; a 700 μm micro-well was drilled transverse to the layers. DEP behavior of polystyrene beads was demonstrated in the micro-well.
Published June 22, 2014. Keywords: Physics, graphene paper, dielectrophoresis, graphene electrodes, 3D laminated microdevice, polystyrene beads, cell diagnostics
1Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, State University of New York at Buffalo, 2Chemical Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The heterologous biosynthesis of erythromycin A through E. coli includes the following experimental steps: 1) genetic transfer; 2) heterologous reconstitution; and 3) product analysis. Each step will be explained in the context of the motivation, potential, and challenges in producing therapeutic natural products using E. coli as a surrogate host.
Published January 13, 2013. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Microbiology, Basic Protocols, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Heterologous biosynthesis, natural products, antibiotics, erythromycin A, metabolic engineering, E. coli
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis
We demonstrate variations of the extracellular multi-unit recording technique to characterize odor-evoked responses in the first three stages of the invertebrate olfactory pathway. These techniques can easily be adapted to examine ensemble activity in other neural systems as well.
Published January 25, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Physiology, Anatomy, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Entomology, Olfactory Receptor Neurons, Sensory Receptor Cells, Electrophysiology, Olfactory system, extracellular multi-unit recordings, first-order olfactory receptor neurons, second-order projection neurons, third-order Kenyon cells, neurons, sensilla, antenna, locust, Schistocerca Americana, animal model
1Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering / Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 2Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto
Creation of micro-tissues using cylindrical collagen gels, called modules, that contain embedded cells and which surface is coated with endothelial cells.
Published December 13, 2010. Keywords: Bioengineering, Tissue engineering, micro-tissue, endothelial cells, collagen gels, modules, 3D tissue culture.
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 2Research Triangle MRSEC, Duke University
Elastin-like polypeptides are stimulus-responsive biopolymers with applications ranging from recombinant protein purification to drug delivery. This protocol describes the purification and characterization of elastin-like polypeptides and their peptide or protein fusions from Escherichia coli using their lower critical solution temperature phase transition behavior as a simple alternative to chromatography.
Published June 9, 2014. Keywords: Molecular Biology, elastin-like polypeptides, lower critical solution temperature, phase separation, inverse transition cycling, protein purification, batch purification
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Louisiana Tech University
Multiphoton microscopy of whole mouse organs is possible by optically clearing the organ before imaging, but not all protocols preserve the fluorescent signal of fluorescent proteins. Using an optical clearing method with ethanol-based dehydration and benzyl alcohol:benzyl benzoate clearing, we show high-resolution multiphoton images of whole mouse brain expressing YFP.
Published September 23, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, multiphoton microscopy, mouse, brain, clearing, YFP, fluroescence
1Biomedical Engineering Department, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Translational Tissue Engineering Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
A protocol for nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and high-throughput flow cytometry to evaluate polymeric gene delivery nanoparticles is described. NTA is utilized to characterize the nanoparticle particle size distribution and the plasmid per particle distribution. High-throughput flow cytometry enables quantitative transfection efficacy evaluation for a library of gene delivery biomaterials.
Published March 1, 2013. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Tissue Engineering, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Genetics, Biocompatible Materials, Biopolymers, Drug Delivery Systems, Nanotechnology, bioengineering (general), Therapeutics, Nanoparticle, poly(beta-amino ester), high-throughput, transfection, nanoparticle tracking analysis, biomaterial, gene delivery, flow cytometry