Proteins can either adopt a native structure or misfold into insoluble amyloid. Conditions that favor the misfolding pathway lead to the formation of different types of amyloid fibrils. The methods described here allow rapid conversion of native proteins into amyloid in vitro.
We present a preparation for visualizing and manipulating calcium signaling in native, intact microvascular endothelium. Endothelial tubes freshly isolated from mouse resistance arteries supplying skeletal muscle retain in vivo morphology and dynamic signaling within and between neighboring cells. Endothelial tubes can be prepared from microvessels of other tissues and organs.
1School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, 2Division of Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering, University of Nottingham, 3Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, University of Nottingham
Biocompatible pH responsive sol-gel nanosensors can be incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) electrospun scaffolds. The produced self-reporting scaffolds can be used for in situ monitoring of microenvironmental conditions whilst culturing cells upon the scaffold. This is beneficial as the 3D cellular construct can be monitored in real-time without disturbing the experiment.
1Cardiovascular Institute, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 2Division of Cardiology, Sapienza University
Here we describe the isolation of adult mouse cardiomyoctyes using a Langendorff perfusion system. The resulting cells are Ca2+-tolerant, electrically quiescent and can be cultured and transfected with adeno- or lentiviruses to manipulate gene expression. Their functionality can also be analyzed using the MMSYS system and patch clamp techniques.
Membrane protein function is regulated by the cell membrane lipid composition. This video-article details how to form a patch using bilayer patch electrodes, as well as how to use gramicidin channels as reporters of altered membrane properties.
1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami
We describe here a revised protocol for large-scale culture of embryonic C. elegans cells. Embryonic C. elegans cells cultured in vitro using this method, appear to differentiate and recapitulate the expression of genes in a cell specific manner. Techniques that require direct access to the cells or isolation of specific cell types from the other tissues can be applied on C. elegans cultured cells.
1Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 2Montreal Heart Institute
This protocol describes a method for the temporary permeabilization of adherent cells using an inert gas jet. This technique facilitates the transfer of genetic material and biomolecules into adherent mammalian cells by the utilization of mechanical forces to disrupt the plasma membrane.
Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Intact Proteins Larger than 100 kDa
1Institute of Structural Biology "J.P. Ebel", UMR5075, Commissariat à L'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Université J. Fourier
Accurate mass measurement represents an important step during the investigation of proteins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) can be used for such determination and its key advantage is the tolerance to salts, detergents and contaminants. Here we illustrate an accessible approach for the analysis of proteins larger than 100 kDa by MALDI-MS.
Simultaneously Capturing Real-time Images in Two Emission Channels Using a Dual Camera Emission Splitting System: Applications to Cell Adhesion
1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University, 2Biomedical Engineering Program, Ohio University
Dual camera emission splitting systems for two-color fluorescence microscopy generate real-time image sequences with exceptional optical and temporal resolution, a requirement of certain live cell assays including parallel plate flow chamber adhesion assays. When software is employed to merge images from simultaneously acquired emission channels, pseudocolored image sequences are produced.
A method is presented for the reconstitution of model nucleosomal arrays from recombinant core histones and tandemly repeated nucleosome positioning DNA. We also describe how sedimentation velocity experiments in the analytical ultracentrifuge, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to monitor the extent of nucleosomal array saturation after reconstitution.