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Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at Birth. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
 JoVE Neuroscience

Functional Interrogation of Adult Hypothalamic Neurogenesis with Focal Radiological Inhibition

1Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 2Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, and Ophthalamology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Radiation Oncology & Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, University Of Washington Medical Center, 5Institute for Cell Engineering and High-Throughput Biology Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine


JoVE 50716

 JoVE Behavior

Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Quantification of Social Behavior in Adult Rats

1Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of New Mexico, 4Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge


JoVE 52407

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Instrumentation of Near-term Fetal Sheep for Multivariate Chronic Non-anesthetized Recordings

1Département de sciences cliniques, CHUV, Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, QC, 2Département d'obstetriques et de gynécologie, CHU Ste-Justine Research Centre, Université de Montréal, 3Département de neurosciences, CHU Ste-Justine Centre de recherche, Université de Montréal, 4Centre de recherche en reproduction animale (CRRA), Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, QC


JoVE 52581

 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Fundamentals of Breeding and Weaning

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Millions of mice and rats are bred for use in biomedical research each year. Worldwide, there are several large commercial breeding facilities that supply mice to research laboratories, but many facilities choose to also breed mice and rats in-house to reduce costs and increase research options. When breeding in the animal facility, researchers are able to manipulate the genetics of the animals, time the pregnancies to meet the needs of the research, and work with embryos and neonates as required. Mice and rats can be bred in a variety of schemes and methods. Technical procedures, such as the use of vaginal cytology, visualization of the vaginal area, and observation of copulatory plugs, have been developed to assist with the synchronization of breeding to correspond to research requirements. This manuscript is an overview of the basic fundamentals of mouse and rat breeding and technical procedures used. More detailed descriptions of the complex breeding schemes, and the full description of the methods for vaginal cytology, are available in the list of references.

 JoVE Behavior

Recording Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations to Evaluate Social Communication

1Human Genetics and Cognitive Functions, University Paris Diderot, CNRS UMR 3571, Institut Pasteur, 2Neurophysiology and Behavior, University Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, CNRS UMR 7102, 3Bio Image Analysis, CNRS URA 2582, Institut Pasteur


JoVE 53871

 JoVE Medicine

Fetal Echocardiography and Pulsed-wave Doppler Ultrasound in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

1Division Woman and Child, Department Women, University Hospitals Leuven, 2The Ritchie Centre, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash University, Victoria, Australia, 3Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 4Fetal and Perinatal Medicine Research Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), 5Maternal-Fetal Medicine Department, ICGON, Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER)


JoVE 50392

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 4. Medical Imaging Procedures

1Integrated Research Facility at Frederick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH)


JoVE 53601

 JoVE Medicine

Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize Dysphagia in Murine Disease Models

1Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Missouri, 2Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Missouri, 3Department of Medicine, University of Missouri


JoVE 52319

 JoVE Bioengineering

Determination of the Transport Rate of Xenobiotics and Nanomaterials Across the Placenta using the ex vivo Human Placental Perfusion Model

1Department of Obstetrics, Perinatal Pharmacology, University Hospital Zurich, 2Laboratory for Materials - Biology Interactions, EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, 3Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Bern


JoVE 50401

 JoVE Medicine

A Murine Model of Cervical Spinal Cord Injury to Study Post-lesional Respiratory Neuroplasticity

1UFR des sciences de la santé - Simone Veil, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 2Service de Physiologie - Explorations fonctionnelles, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, 3Services de Physiologie, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Réanimation Médicale et Centre d'Investigation Clinique et d'Innovation Technologique (Unité Inserm 805), Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines


JoVE 51235

 JoVE Medicine

Human Vastus Lateralis Skeletal Muscle Biopsy Using the Weil-Blakesley Conchotome

1Academic Geriatric Medicine, University of Southampton, University Hospital Southampton, 2National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Center, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, 3MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, 4National Institute for Health Research Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, University of Oxford, 5National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care, 6Newcastle University Institute of Ageing and Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University


JoVE 53075

 JoVE Medicine

Fundus Photography as a Convenient Tool to Study Microvascular Responses to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Epidemiological Studies

1Environmental Risk and Health, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), 2Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, 3Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, 4Department of Public Health, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Leuven University


JoVE 51904

 JoVE Medicine

Isolation of Human Lymphatic Endothelial Cells by Multi-parameter Fluorescence-activated Cell Sorting

1Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, The Royal Children’s Hospital, 2Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, 3Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Clayton


JoVE 52691

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