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Black Widow Spider: A venomous New World spider with an hourglass-shaped red mark on the abdomen.
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 Science Education: Essentials of Sensation and Perception

The Attentional Blink

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

In order for recognition of a certain stimulus to take place, visual attention needs to be directed towards said stimulus. To the earliest parts of the visual system, objects are not objects, they are collections of visual features-lines, corners, changes in texture, color, and light. Attention is the resource that is necessary for later processing in order to recognize what a given bundle of features adds up to. This makes attention a central focus of research. One especially important set of questions concerns how people sustain attention, that is, the extent to which they can continuously maintain a focus of attention from moment-to-moment. It is now known that sustained attention takes great effort. When attention needs to be focused very rapidly on something that is moving or changing very quickly, the effort involved causes a momentary lapse in attention once it is disengaged. This kind of lapse in attention is called an attentional blink. It is like the brain blinks for a moment, shutting down attention for a rest. Stimuli that appear during an attentional blink will not be perceived. In 1992, a group of researchers devised a paradigm to study the attentional blink, and the paradigm has come to be known by the same nam

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 JoVE Environment

Application of Two-spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae for Plant-pest Interaction Studies

1Department of Biology, The University of Western Ontario, 2Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y el Vino, 3Department of Crop Protection, Ghent University, 4Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam


JoVE 51738

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 Science Education: Essentials of Developmental Psychology

Children's Reliance on Artist Intentions When Identifying Pictures

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Judith Danovitch and Nicholaus Noles—University of Louisville

Children are not the best artists. Sometimes it’s easy to pick out the characteristic triangular head, whiskers, and tail of a cat, but children often describe elaborate scenarios that they depict as a beautifully unrecognizable mess. Thus, given children’s questionable artistic talent, how do they know what their drawings, and the drawings of others, represent? One way children identify pictures is by relying on resemblance. If it looks like a cat, then it’s a cat. However, some pictures do not clearly resemble any real object. In this situation, children must use other means to figure out what the picture represents, including their understanding of what the person who created the picture intended it to represent. By their first birthday, children are sensitive to the intentions of other people. They know that people’s actions are driven by their goals, and they can infer a person’s intentions even if the goal-directed action is not successful (e.g., they understand a person struggling to turn a lid intends to open a jar, even if they never see them succeed in opening it). By about age 3, children can use this understanding of intention to guide their interpretation

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 JoVE Environment

Surface Renewal: An Advanced Micrometeorological Method for Measuring and Processing Field-Scale Energy Flux Density Data

1Crops Pathology and Genetics Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, 2Department of Viticulture & Enology, University of California, Davis, 3Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Chile, 4Atmospheric Science, University of California, Davis, 5URS Corporation Australia Pty. Ltd.


JoVE 50666

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 Science Education: Essentials of Earth Science

Purification of a Total Lipid Extract with Column Chromatography

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jeff Salacup - University of Massachusetts Amherst

The product of an organic solvent extraction, a total lipid extract (TLE), is often a complex mixture of hundreds, if not thousands, of different compounds. The researcher is often only interested in a handful of compounds. The compounds of interest may belong to one of several classes of compounds, such as alkanes, ketones, alcohols, or acids (Figure 1), and it may be useful to remove the compound classes to which it does not belong in order to get a clearer view of the compounds you are interested in. For example, a TLE may contain 1,000 compounds, but the Uk'37 sea surface temperature proxy is based on only two compounds (alkenones) and the TEX86 sea surface temperature proxy is based on only four (glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers). It would behoove the researcher to remove as many of the compounds they are not interested in. This makes the instrumental analysis of the compounds of interest (alkenones or GDGTs) less likely to be complicated by other extraneous compounds. In other cases, an upstream purification technique may have produced compounds you wish to now remove from the sample, such as the production of carboxylic acids during saponification in our

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 JoVE Chemistry

Characterization, Quantification and Compound-specific Isotopic Analysis of Pyrogenic Carbon Using Benzene Polycarboxylic Acids (BPCA)

1Department of Geography, University of Zurich, 2Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of South Carolina, 3Department of Earth Sciences, ETH Zurich, 4Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 5Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University


JoVE 53922

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 JoVE Behavior

Contextual and Cued Fear Conditioning Test Using a Video Analyzing System in Mice

1Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, 2Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology (CREST), 3Center for Genetic Analysis of Behavior, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences


JoVE 50871

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Localization and Relative Quantification of Carbon Nanotubes in Cells with Multispectral Imaging Flow Cytometry

1Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes (MSC), CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, 2ImagoSeine BioImaging Core Facility, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, 3Laboratoire d'Immunopathologie et Chimie Thérapeutique, CNRS/Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire


JoVE 50566

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 Science Education: Essentials of Sensation and Perception

Color Afterimages

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Human color vision is impressive. People with normal color vision can tell apart millions of individual hues. Most amazingly, this ability is achieved with fairly simple hardware.

Part of the power of human color vision comes from a clever bit of engineering in the human brain. There, color perception relies on what is known as an 'opponent system.' This means that the presence of one kind of stimulus is treated as evidence for the absence of another, and vice versa; absence of one kind of stimulus is taken as evidence for the presence of the other. In particular, in the human brain there are cells that fire both when they receive signals to suggest that blue light is present, or when they do not receive signals suggesting yellow light. Similarly, there are cells that fire in the presence of yellow or the absence of blue. Blue and yellow are thus treated as opponent values in one dimension, and can be thought of as negative versus positive values on one axis of a Cartesian plane. If a stimulus is characterized as having a negative value on that axis, it can't also have a positive value. So, if it is characterized as yellow, it can't also be characterized as blue. Similarly, green and red (or really, magenta), o

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 JoVE Medicine

Lesion Explorer: A Video-guided, Standardized Protocol for Accurate and Reliable MRI-derived Volumetrics in Alzheimer's Disease and Normal Elderly

1LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Research Unit, Heart & Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Brain Sciences Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2Department of Medicine (Neurology), Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto


JoVE 50887

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 Science Education: Essentials of Analytical Chemistry

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Andrew J. Steckl — University of Cincinnati

A scanning electron microscope, or SEM, is a powerful microscope that uses electrons to form an image. It allows for imaging of conductive samples at magnifications that cannot be achieved using traditional microscopes. Modern light microscopes can achieve a magnification of ~1,000X, while typical SEM can reach magnifications of more than 30,000X. Because the SEM doesn’t use light to create images, the resulting pictures it forms are in black and white.  Conductive samples are loaded onto the SEM’s sample stage. Once the sample chamber reaches vacuum, the user will proceed to align the electron gun in the system to the proper location. The electron gun shoots out a beam of high-energy electrons, which travel through a combination of lenses and apertures and eventually hit the sample. As the electron gun continues to shoot electrons at a precise position on the sample, secondary electrons will bounce off of the sample. These secondary electrons are identified by the detector. The signal found from the secondary electrons is amplified and sent to the monitor, creating a 3D image. This video will demonstrate SEM sample preparation, operation, and imaging capabilities.

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Techniques for the Evolution of Robust Pentose-fermenting Yeast for Bioconversion of Lignocellulose to Ethanol

1Bioenergy Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 2Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 3Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Great Lakes Bioenergy Center, Michigan State University


JoVE 54227

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