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Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species Clostridium botulinum. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon Endocytosis into Presynaptic nerve endings. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific Snare proteins which are essential for secretion of Acetylcholine by Synaptic vesicles. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular Paralysis.
 JoVE Medicine

Ultrasound-guided Botulinum Toxin-A Injections: A Method of Treating Sialorrhea

1Clinical and Biological Sciences Department, Neurology Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 2Oncology Department, Radiology Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 3Clinical and Biological Sciences Department, Dietologic and Nutrition Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital


JoVE 54606

 JoVE Neuroscience

A High Content Imaging Assay for Identification of Botulinum Neurotoxin Inhibitors

1Perkin Elmer Inc., 2Henry M. Jackson Foundation, 3The Geneva Foundation, 4ORISE, 5Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, 6Division of Molecular and Translational Sciences, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 7DoD Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute (BHSAI), Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC)


JoVE 51915

 Science Education: Essentials of General Chemistry

Solutions and Concentrations

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Michael Evans — Georgia Institute of Technology

A solution is a homogeneous mixture containing some components in small amounts, called solutes, and one component in a large amount, called the solvent. Solid-liquid solutions contain one or more solid solutes dissolved in a liquid solvent. Solutions are ubiquitous in chemistry: they are used to store and handle small amounts of material, carry out chemical reactions, and develop materials with controllable properties. The density of a solute in a solution is known as the concentration of the solute. Concentration can be expressed in several ways, differing in the units used to convey the amounts of solute, solvent, and solution. This demonstration illustrates how to prepare a sucrose solution with a target concentration using precise analytical techniques. Additionally, various measures of the concentration of this solution are presented and explained.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

IgY Technology: Extraction of Chicken Antibodies from Egg Yolk by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Precipitation

1Center for Biological Security, Robert Koch-Institute, 2CICVyA - INTA Castelar, Instituto de Virología, 3Center of Molecular Immunology, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba, 4Department of Biology, Chemistry, Pharmacy, Institute of Biology-Neurobiology, Free University of Berlin, 5Institut of Pharmacology, Charité-University Medicine of Berlin


JoVE 3084

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 JoVE Neuroscience

SNARE-mediated Fusion of Single Proteoliposomes with Tethered Supported Bilayers in a Microfluidic Flow Cell Monitored by Polarized TIRF Microscopy

1Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Nanobiology Institute, Yale University, 3Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, 4Laboratoire de Neurophotonique, Université Paris Descartes, Faculté des Sciences Fondamentales et Biomédicales, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)


JoVE 54349

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 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 1. Biosafety Level 4 Suit Laboratory Suite Entry and Exit Procedures

1Integrated Research Facility at Frederick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), 2Environmental Health and Safety, Biological and Chemical Safety Program, University of Texas Medical Branch


JoVE 52317

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 Science Education: Essentials of Environmental Microbiology

Algae Enumeration via Culturable Methodology

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Bradley Schmitz

Algae are a highly heterogeneous group of microorganisms that have one common trait, namely the possession of photosynthetic pigments. In the environment, algae can cause problems for swimming pool owners by growing in the water. Algae can also cause problems in surface waters, such as lakes and reservoirs, due to algal blooms that release toxins. More recently, algae are being evaluated as novel sources of energy via algal biofuels. Blue-green algae are actually bacteria classified as cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria not only photosynthesize, but also have the ability to fix nitrogen gas from the atmosphere. Other algae are eukaryotic, ranging from single-celled organisms to complex multicellular organisms, like seaweeds. These include the green algae, the euglenoids, the dinoflagellates, the golden brown algae, diatoms, the brown algae, and the red algae. In soils, algal populations are frequently 106 per gram. These numbers are lower than corresponding numbers for bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, mostly because the sunlight required for photosynthesis cannot penetrate far beneath the soil surface. Because algae are phototrophic, obtaining energy from photosyn

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 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 4. Medical Imaging Procedures

1Integrated Research Facility at Frederick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH)


JoVE 53601

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