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JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

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Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Model Organisms I

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Simultaneous Electrophysiological Recording and Calcium Imaging of Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Neurons

1Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health & Science University, 2Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University


JoVE 50794

Procedures are described to perform simultaneous recordings of membrane potential or current and changes of intracellular calcium concentration. Suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons are filled with the calcium indicator bis-fura-2 using a patch clamp electrode in the whole cell patch clamp configuration.

 JoVE Neuroscience

In vivo Neuronal Calcium Imaging in C. elegans

1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 2Boston University Photonics Center


JoVE 50357

With its small transparent body, well-documented neuroanatomy and a host of amenable genetic techniques and reagents, C. elegans makes an ideal model organism for in vivo neuronal imaging using relatively simple, low-cost techniques. Here we describe single neuron imaging within intact adult animals using genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicators.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Immunohistochemical and Calcium Imaging Methods in Wholemount Rat Retina

1Department of Neurobiology, University of California, Los Angeles, 2Veterans Administration Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 3Departments of Physiology & Biophysics and Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Dalhousie University, 4Departments of Neurobiology and Medicine, Jules Stein Eye Institute, CURE-Digestive Diseases Research Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles


JoVE 51396

Immunohistochemistry protocols are used to study the localization of a specific protein in the retina. Calcium imaging techniques are employed to study calcium dynamics in retinal ganglion cells and their axons.

 JoVE Biology

Preparation of Pancreatic Acinar Cells for the Purpose of Calcium Imaging, Cell Injury Measurements, and Adenoviral Infection

1Rangos Research Center, Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, 2Department of Surgery, Tufts University Medical Center


JoVE 50391

We describe a reproducible method of preparing mouse pancreatic acinar cells from a mouse for the purpose of examining acinar cell calcium signals and cellular injury with physiologically and pathologically relevant stimuli. A method for adenoviral infection of these cells is also provided.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Preparation of Acute Subventricular Zone Slices for Calcium Imaging

1Department of Neurosurgery and Cellular & Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine


JoVE 4071

A method to load subventricular zone (SVZ) cells with calcium indicator dyes for recording calcium activity is described. The postnatal SVZ contains tightly packed cells including neural progenitor cells and neuroblasts. Rather than using bath loading we injected the dye by pressure inside the tissue allowing better dye diffusion.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Functional Calcium Imaging in Developing Cortical Networks

1Department of Integrative Neurophysiology, VU University, Amsterdam


JoVE 3550

Spontaneous activity of developing neuronal networks can be measured using AM-ester forms of calcium-sensitive indicator dyes. Changes in intracellular calcium, indicating neuronal activation, are detected as transient changes in indicator fluorescence with one- or two-photon imaging. This protocol can be adapted for a range of developmentally-dependent neuronal networks in vitro.

 JoVE Biology

Calcium Imaging of Cortical Neurons using Fura-2 AM

1Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University, 2Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine


JoVE 1067

Calcium signals play a key role in many cellular processes including gene expression, survival and differentiation. Here we demonstrate how to perform calcium imaging using Fura-2 AM. Calcium imaging is a valuable tool to study the regulation of intracellular calcium in real time and its regulation of signaling cascades.

 JoVE Biology

Live Cell Calcium Imaging Combined with siRNA Mediated Gene Silencing Identifies Ca2+ Leak Channels in the ER Membrane and their Regulatory Mechanisms

1Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saarland University, 2Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Saarland University


JoVE 2730

The endoplasmic reticulum plays a key role in protein biogenesis and in calcium homeostasis. We have established an experimental system that allows us to address the role of Ca2+ leak channels and to characterize their putative regulatory mechanisms. This system involves siRNA mediated gene silencing and live cell Ca2+ imaging.

 JoVE Behavior

Two-photon Calcium Imaging in Mice Navigating a Virtual Reality Environment

1Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, 2Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, 3Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, ETH Zurich


JoVE 50885

Here we describe the experimental procedures involved in two-photon imaging of mouse cortex during behavior in a virtual reality environment.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Calcium Imaging of Odor-evoked Responses in the Drosophila Antennal Lobe

1Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, 2Department of Biology, University of Konstanz


JoVE 2976

We describe an established technique to measure and analyze odor-evoked calcium responses in the antennal lobe of living Drosophila melanogaster.

 JoVE Biology

In Vivo 2-Photon Calcium Imaging in Layer 2/3 of Mice

1Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles


JoVE 681

To understand network dynamics of microcircuits in the neocortex, it is essential to simultaneously record the activity of a large number of neurons . In-vivo two-photon calcium imaging is the only method that allows one to record the activity of a dense neuronal population with single-cell resolution .

 JoVE Biology

Direct Imaging of ER Calcium with Targeted-Esterase Induced Dye Loading (TED)

1Institute for Clinical Neurobiology, University of Wuerzburg, 2Department of Synapses - Circuits - Plasticity, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, 3Walter Brendel Centre of Experimental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich


JoVE 50317

Targeted-esterase induced dye loading (TED) supports the analysis of intracellular calcium store dynamics by fluorescence imaging. The method bases on targeting of a recombinant Carboxylesterase to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it improves the local unmasking of synthetic low-affinity Ca2+ indicator dyes in the ER lumen.

 JoVE Biology

Imaging Cell Membrane Injury and Subcellular Processes Involved in Repair

1Center for Genetic Medicine Research, Children's National Medical Center, 2Department of Integrative Systems Biology, George Washington University


JoVE 51106

The process of healing injured cells involves trafficking of specific proteins and subcellular compartments to the site of cell membrane injury. This protocol describes assays to monitor these processes.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Dissection, Culture, and Analysis of Xenopus laevis Embryonic Retinal Tissue

1Department of Biology, College of William and Mary


JoVE 4377

Xenopus laevis provides an ideal model system for studying cell fate specification and physiological function of individual retinal cells in primary cell culture. Here we present a technique for dissecting retinal tissues and generating primary cell cultures that are imaged for calcium activity and analyzed by in situ hybridization.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Acute Dissociation of Lamprey Reticulospinal Axons to Enable Recording from the Release Face Membrane of Individual Functional Presynaptic Terminals

1Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago


JoVE 51925

Recording Ca2+ currents at the presynaptic release face membrane is key to a precise understanding of Ca2+ entry and neurotransmitter release. We present an acute dissociation of the lamprey spinal cord that yields functional isolated reticulospinal axons, permitting recording directly from the release face membrane of individual presynaptic terminals.

 JoVE Biology

A Method for Culturing Embryonic C. elegans Cells

1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami


JoVE 50649

We describe here a revised protocol for large-scale culture of embryonic C. elegans cells. Embryonic C. elegans cells cultured in vitro using this method, appear to differentiate and recapitulate the expression of genes in a cell specific manner. Techniques that require direct access to the cells or isolation of specific cell types from the other tissues can be applied on C. elegans cultured cells.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Using Microfluidics Chips for Live Imaging and Study of Injury Responses in Drosophila Larvae

1Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 4Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 5Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan


JoVE 50998

Drosophila larvae are an attractive model system for live imaging due to their translucent cuticle and powerful genetics. This protocol describes how to utilize a single-layer PDMS device, called the 'larva chip' for live imaging of cellular processes within neurons of 3rd instar Drosophila larvae.

 JoVE Biology

Measuring Spatial and Temporal Ca2+ Signals in Arabidopsis Plants

1Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, 2Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue University, 3Institute of Biotechnology, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 4College of Environmental & Resource Science, Zhejiang University, 5Dryland Agriculture Research Centre, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 6Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences


JoVE 51945

Ca2+ signaling regulates diverse biological processes in plants. Here we present approaches for monitoring abiotic stress induced spatial and temporal Ca2+ signals in Arabidopsis cells and tissues using the genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators Aequorin or Case12.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Targeted Labeling of Neurons in a Specific Functional Micro-domain of the Neocortex by Combining Intrinsic Signal and Two-photon Imaging

1Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina


JoVE 50025

A method is described for labeling neurons with fluorescent dyes in predetermined functional micro-domains of the neocortex. First, intrinsic signal optical imaging is used to obtain a functional map. Then two-photon microscopy is used to label and image neurons within a micro-domain of the map.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Simultaneous Long-term Recordings at Two Neuronal Processing Stages in Behaving Honeybees

1Department of Behavioral Physiology and Sociobiology (Zoology II) Biozentrum, University of Würzburg


JoVE 51750

Simultaneous extracellular long term recordings from two different brain neuropiles or two different anatomical tracts were established in honeybees. These recordings allow the investigation of temporal aspects of neuronal processing across different brain areas at the single neuron as well as at the ensemble level in a behaving animal.

 JoVE Biology

Isolation of Microvascular Endothelial Tubes from Mouse Resistance Arteries

1Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Missouri, 2Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center


JoVE 50759

We present a preparation for visualizing and manipulating calcium signaling in native, intact microvascular endothelium. Endothelial tubes freshly isolated from mouse resistance arteries supplying skeletal muscle retain in vivo morphology and dynamic signaling within and between neighboring cells. Endothelial tubes can be prepared from microvessels of other tissues and organs.

 JoVE Biology

Analysis of Embryonic and Larval Zebrafish Skeletal Myofibers from Dissociated Preparations

1Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, University of Michigan


JoVE 50259

Zebrafish are an emerging system for modeling human disorders of the skeletal muscle. We describe a fast and efficient method to isolate skeletal muscle myofibers from embryonic and larval zebrafish. This method yields a high-density myofiber preparation suitable for study of single skeletal muscle fiber morphology, protein subcellular localization, and muscle physiology.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Monitoring Changes in the Intracellular Calcium Concentration and Synaptic Efficacy in the Mollusc Aplysia

1Fishberg Department of Neuroscience and Friedman Brain Institute, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 2Phase Five Communications Inc.


JoVE 3907

We demonstrate how changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration and synaptic efficacy can be simultaneously monitored in a ganglion preparation of Aplysia. We image intracellular calcium using a fluorescent dye, Calcium Orange, and induce and monitor synaptic transmission with sharp (intracellular) electrodes.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Optical Recording of Suprathreshold Neural Activity with Single-cell and Single-spike Resolution

1Section of Neurobiology, Center for Learning and Memory, The University of Texas at Austin


JoVE 4052

Understanding the function of the vertebrate central nervous system requires recordings from many neurons because cortical function arises on the level of populations of neurons. Here we describe an optical method to record suprathreshold neural activity with single-cell and single-spike resolution, dithered random-access scanning. This method records somatic fluorescence calcium signals from up to 100 neurons with high temporal resolution. A maximum-likelihood algorithm deconvolves the underlying suprathreshold neural activity from the somatic fluorescence calcium signals. This method reliably detects spikes with high detection efficiency and a low rate of false positives and can be used to study neural populations in vitro and in vivo.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Vibrodissociation of Neurons from Rodent Brain Slices to Study Synaptic Transmission and Image Presynaptic Terminals

1Section on Synaptic Pharmacology/Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2Department of Electronics Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 3Section on Transmitter Signaling/Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism


JoVE 2752

This report demonstrates a technique for mechanical isolation of individual viable neurons retaining attached presynaptic boutons. Vibrodissociated neurons have the advantages of rapid production, excellent pharmacological control and improved space-clamp without influence from neighboring cells. This method can be used for imaging of synaptic elements and patch-clamp recording.

 JoVE Biology

Monitoring Dynamic Changes In Mitochondrial Calcium Levels During Apoptosis Using A Genetically Encoded Calcium Sensor

1Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch


JoVE 2579

This protocol describes a method for real-time measurement of mitochondrial calcium fluxes by fluorescent imaging. The method takes advantage of a circularly permutated YFP-based dual-excitation ratiometric calcium sensor (ratiometric pericam-mt) selectively expressed in mitochondria.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Membrane Potential Dye Imaging of Ventromedial Hypothalamus Neurons From Adult Mice to Study Glucose Sensing

1Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, 2Center for Taste and Feeding Behavior, Universite de Bourgogne


JoVE 50861

The activity of single neurons from adult-aged mice can be studied by dissociating neurons from specific brain regions and using fluorescent membrane potential dye imaging. By testing responses to changes in glucose, this technique can be used to study the glucose sensitivity of adult ventromedial hypothalamic neurons.

 JoVE Biology

Automated Analysis of Dynamic Ca2+ Signals in Image Sequences

1Department of Pharmacology, University of South Alabama, 2Department of Physiology, University of South Alabama


JoVE 51560

Here a novel region of interest analysis protocol based on sorting best-fit ellipses assigned to regions of positive signal within two-dimensional time lapse image sequences is demonstrated. This algorithm may enable investigators to comprehensively analyze physiological Ca2+ signals with minimal user input and bias.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Imaging Pheromone Sensing in a Mouse Vomeronasal Acute Tissue Slice Preparation

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Lausanne, 2Department of Genetics and Evolution, University of Geneva


JoVE 3311

In mice, the ability to detect pheromones is principally mediated by the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Here, an acute tissue slice preparation of VNO for performing calcium imaging is described. This physiological approach allows observations of subpopulations and/or individual neurons in a living tissue and is convenient for receptor-ligand identification.

 JoVE Biology

Measuring Fast Calcium Fluxes in Cardiomyocytes

1Department of Biological Sciences and Geology, Queensborough Community College, 2Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Stony Brook University


JoVE 3505

We present a method to isolate rapid (microsecond) calcium events from slower fluxes in living cells using laser scanning confocal microscopy. The method measures fluorescence intensity fluctuations of calcium indicators by recording line scans of several hundred pixels in a cell. Histogram analysis allows us to isolate the time scales of different calcium fluxes.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Patch-clamp Capacitance Measurements and Ca2+ Imaging at Single Nerve Terminals in Retinal Slices

1The Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University


JoVE 3345

Here we describe a protocol for the preparation of agar-embedded retinal slices that are suitable for electrophysiology and Ca2+ imaging. This method allows one to study ribbon-type synapses in retinal microcircuits using direct patch-clamp recordings of single presynaptic nerve terminals.

 JoVE Neuroscience

An Isolated Semi-intact Preparation of the Mouse Vestibular Sensory Epithelium for Electrophysiology and High-resolution Two-photon Microscopy

1Discipline of Biomedical Science, School of Medical Sciences, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 2School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle


JoVE 50471

Analysis of vestibular hair cell function is complicated by their location deep within the hardest part of the skull, the petrous temporal bone. Most functional hair cell studies have used acutely isolated hair cells. Here we describe a semi-intact preparation of mouse vestibular epithelium for electrophysiological and two-photon microscopy studies.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Dual Electrophysiological Recordings of Synaptically-evoked Astroglial and Neuronal Responses in Acute Hippocampal Slices

1Neuroglial Interactions in Cerebral Physiopathology, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology, CNRS UMR 7241, INSERM U1050, Collège de France, 2Paris Diderot University


JoVE 4418

The preparation of acute brain slices from isolated hippocampi, as well as the simultaneous electrophysiological recordings of astrocytes and neurons in stratum radiatum during stimulation of schaffer collaterals is described. The pharmacological isolation of astroglial potassium and glutamate transporter currents is demonstrated.

 JoVE Biology

Measuring Near Plasma Membrane and Global Intracellular Calcium Dynamics in Astrocytes

1Departments of Physiology and Neurobiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles


JoVE 1142

We describe how to measure near membrane and global intracellular calcium dynamics in cultured astrocytes using total internal reflection and epifluorescence microscopy.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Imaging Calcium Responses in GFP-tagged Neurons of Hypothalamic Mouse Brain Slices

1Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Saarland, Homburg, Germany


JoVE 4213

In this protocol, we update recent progress in imaging Ca2+ signals of GFP-tagged neurons in brain tissue slices using a red fluorescent Ca2+ indicator dye.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Multiparametric Optical Mapping of the Langendorff-perfused Rabbit Heart

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis


JoVE 3160

This article describes the basic procedures for conducting optical mapping experiments in the Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart using the panoramic imaging system, and the dual (voltage and calcium) imaging modality.

 JoVE Chemistry

Synthesis, Cellular Delivery and In vivo Application of Dendrimer-based pH Sensors

1Institute for Complex Molecular Systems & Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology & NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, 2NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR & IIT@NEST, Center for Nanotechnology Innovation, 3NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, 4IIT@NEST, Center for Nanotechnology Innovation


JoVE 50545

Fluorescence sensors are powerful tools in life science. Here we describe a methodology to synthesize and use dendrimer-based fluorescent sensors to measure pH in living cells and in vivo. The dendritic scaffold enhances the properties of conjugated fluorescent dyes leading to improved sensing properties.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Optical Mapping of Action Potentials and Calcium Transients in the Mouse Heart

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis


JoVE 3275

This paper details the dissection procedure, instrumental setup, and experimental conditions during optical mapping of transmembrane potential (Vm) and intracellular calcium transient (CaT) in intact isolated Langendorff perfused mouse hearts.

 JoVE Biology

One-channel Cell-attached Patch-clamp Recording

1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, SMBS, University at Buffalo, SUNY, 2Department of Biochemistry, SMBS, University at Buffalo, SUNY, 3Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Department, The Scripps Research Institute, 4Department of Biochemistry and Graduate Program in Neuroscience, SMBS, University at Buffalo, SUNY


JoVE 51629

Described here is a procedure for obtaining long stretches of current recording from one ion channel with the cell-attached patch-clamp technique. This method allows for observing, in real time, the pattern of open-close channel conformations that underlie the biological signal. These data inform about channel properties in undisturbed biological membranes.

 JoVE Neuroscience

In Vivo Two-photon Imaging Of Experience-dependent Molecular Changes In Cortical Neurons

1Unit on Neural Circuits and Adaptive Behaviors, Genes Cognition and Psychosis Program, National Institute of Mental Health, 2Department of Neuroscience, Brown University - National Institutes of Health Graduate Partnership Program, 3Section on Synaptic Pharmacology, Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 4Champalimaud Neuroscience Programme, Champalimaud Center for the Unknown


JoVE 50148

Experience-dependent molecular changes in neurons are essential for the brain's ability to adapt in response to behavioral challenges. An in vivo two-photon imaging method is described here that allows the tracking of such molecular changes in individual cortical neurons through genetically encoded reporters.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Isolation and Culture of Human Fungiform Taste Papillae Cells

1Monell Chemical Senses Center, 2New York University College of Dentistry, 3AFB International


JoVE 3730

We aimed to develop a reproducible protocol for isolating and maintaining long-term cultures of human fungiform taste papillae cells. Cells from human fungiform papillae obtained by biopsy were successfully maintained in culture for more than eight passages (12 months) without loss of viability.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Simultaneous Recording of Calcium Signals from Identified Neurons and Feeding Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster

1Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School


JoVE 3625

The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, extends its proboscis for feeding, responding to a sugar stimulus from its proboscis or tarsus. I have combined observations of the proboscis extension response (PER) with a calcium imaging technique, allowing us to monitor the activity of neurons in the brain, simultaneously with behavioral observation.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Isolation and Culture of Dissociated Sensory Neurons From Chick Embryos

1Department of Natural Sciences, Assumption College


JoVE 51991

Cell culture models provide detailed control over environmental conditions and thus provide a powerful platform to elucidate numerous aspects of neuronal cell biology. We describe a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable method to isolate, dissociate, and culture sensory neurons from chick embryos. Details of substrata preparation and immunocytochemistry are also provided.

 JoVE Biology

Isolation and Genetic Manipulation of Adult Cardiac Myocytes for Confocal Imaging

1Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, Universty of Saarland


JoVE 1433

Adult cardiac myocytes are primary cells that can be isolated from animal hearts and cultured for several days. Within this culture period adenoviral gene transfer can be used to express genetically encoded biosensors (GEBs) or fluorescent fusion proteins. Both approaches allow cellular investigations by means of confocal microscopy.

 JoVE Neuroscience

The Olfactory System as a Model to Study Axonal Growth Patterns and Morphology In Vivo

1Institute of Neurophysiology and Cellular Biophysics and Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain (CNMPB), University of Göttingen


JoVE 52143

We describe a protocol for in vivo labeling of olfactory sensory neurons by electroporation and subsequent confocal laser-scanning or multiphoton microscopy to visualize neuronal morphology and its development over time.

 JoVE Neuroscience

High-throughput Analysis of Mammalian Olfactory Receptors: Measurement of Receptor Activation via Luciferase Activity

1Monell Chemical Senses Center


JoVE 51640

Olfactory receptor activation patterns encode odor identity, but the lack of published data identifying odorant ligands for mammalian olfactory receptors hinders the development of a comprehensive model of odor coding. This protocol describes a method to facilitate high-throughput identification of olfactory receptor ligands and quantification of receptor activation.

 JoVE Biology

In vivo Ca2+- Imaging of Mushroom Body Neurons During Olfactory Learning in the Honey Bee

1Institut für Biologie - Neurobiologie, Freie Universität Berlin, 2Institut für Biologie - Neurobiologie, Free University Berlin - Freie Universitaet Berlin


JoVE 1353

Bees can be conditioned in an appetitive olfactory learning paradigm (PER-conditioning). Using odors as stimuli, we established a method in which behavior is recorded while simultaneously Calcium Imaging is used to measure odor evoked activity in mushroom body neurons in vivo.

 JoVE Biology

Primary Neuronal Cultures from the Brains of Late Stage Drosophila Pupae

1Department of Development and Cell Biology, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine (UCI)


JoVE 200

This video demonstrates the preparation of primary neuronal cultures from the brains of late stage Drosophila pupae. Views of live cultures show neurite outgrowth and imaging of calcium levels using Fura-2.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Voltage-sensitive Dye Recording from Axons, Dendrites and Dendritic Spines of Individual Neurons in Brain Slices

1Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine


JoVE 4261

An imaging technique for monitoring of membrane potential changes with sub-micrometer spatial and sub-millisecond temporal resolution is described. The technique, based on laser excitation of voltage-sensitive dyes, allows measurements of signals in axons and axon collaterals, terminal dendritic branches, and individual dendritic spines.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Guide to In vivo Single-unit Recording from Optogenetically Identified Cortical Inhibitory Interneurons

1Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon


JoVE 51757

Here we describe our strategy for obtaining stable, well-isolated single-unit recordings from identified inhibitory interneurons in the anesthetized mouse cortex. Neurons expressing ChR2 are identified by their response to blue light. The method uses standard extracellular recording equipment, and serves as an inexpensive alternative to calcium imaging or visually-guided patching.

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