1Department of Oncological Sciences, University of Utah
Certain genetic perturbations or exposure to toxins can disrupt normal developmental processes leading to death of specific cell types. The analysis of activated Caspase 3 by whole-mount immunofluorescence in zebrafish embryos reveals stage- and tissue-specific localization of cells specifically undergoing apoptosis.
Published December 20, 2013. Keywords: Developmental Biology, zebrafish, embryo, apoptosis, Caspase 3, Immunofluorescence, whole-mount, cell death
1Department of Veterans Affairs, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System, 2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, 3Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of Minnesota, 4Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, University of Minnesota
Multiplex assays can provide beneficial information for basic cellular mechanisms and eliminate waste of reagents and unnecessary repetitive experiments. We describe here a multiplex caspase-3/7 activity assay, using fluorescent- and luminescent-based methods, to determine cell viability in an in vitro hypothalamic model following oxidative challenge with palmitic acid.
Published April 16, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, apoptosis, obesity, caspase, resazurin, DEVD, palmitic acid, hypothalamic model
1Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph
Live-cell imaging of caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in immortalized N19-oligodendrocyte cell cultures using the NucView 488 caspase-3 substrate. This technique is applicable for programmed cell death assays in real-time in a variety of cell types and tissues.
Published January 13, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, myelin basic protein, apoptosis, neuroprotection, caspase-3, live-cell imaging, glia, oligodendrocytes
1Neurodevelopment Group, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham
An injury paradigm using the Drosophila larval ventral nerve cord to investigate central nervous system regeneration and repair is described. Stabbing followed by laser scanning confocal microscopy in time-lapse and fixed specimens, combined with quantitative analysis with purposefully developed software and genetics, are used to investigate the molecular mechanisms of CNS regeneration and repair.
Published March 28, 2013. Keywords: Neurobiology, Developmental Biology, Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Bioengineering, Central Nervous System, Neuroglia, Drosophila, fruit fly, animal models, Wounds and Injuries, Cell Physiological Phenomena, Genetic Phenomena, injury, repair, regeneration, central nervous system, ventral nerve cord, larva, live imaging, cell counting, Repo, GS2, glia, neurons, nerves, CNS, animal model
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Northeastern University
Type B gelatin-based engineered nanovectors system (GENS) was developed for systemic gene delivery and transfection in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. By modification with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) specific peptide on the surface of nanparticles, they could target on EGFR receptor and release plasmid under reducing environment, such as high intracellular glutathione concentrations.
Published January 4, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Gelatin Nanoparticle, Gene Therapy, Targeted Delivery, Pancreatic Cancer, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, EGFR
1Pediatric Airway Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado, 2Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines
This protocol is designed to demonstrate exposure method of cell cultures to inhaled toxic chemicals. Exposure of differentiated air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of airway epithelial cells provides a unique model of airway exposure to toxic gases such as chlorine. In this manuscript we describe effect of chlorine exposure on air-liquid interface cultures of epithelial cells and submerged culture of cardiomyocytes. In vitro exposure systems allow important mechanistic studies to evaluate pathways that could then be utilized to develop novel therapeutic agents.
Published May 8, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, air-liquid interface, chlorine exposure, toxic inhaled chemicals, Transepithelial Electrical Resistance, Immunocytochemistry
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1St. Erik's Eye Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, 2Gullstrand lab, Section for Ophthalmology, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University
Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in the world. Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the main risk factor for cataract development. An animal model of far UVR-B induced cataract was developed. In this article we describe methods for investigation of cataract formation: exposure to UVR, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.
Published November 28, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Ophthalmology, Immunology, UVR-B, lens, cataract, qRT-PCR, PCR, immunohistochemistry, rat restrainer, animal model
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center, 3Division of Hematology and Oncology, Hess Center for Science and Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center
Dendritic cells (DCs) secrete IL-1β in response to TLR8 recognition of synthetic purine, R848, followed by NLRP3 inflammasome activation with nigericin, therefore, IL-1β can be used to measure NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Intracellular cytokine staining, immunoblotting, and ELISA are used to accurately measure NLRP3 inflammasome priming and activation via IL-1β expression.
Published May 22, 2014. Keywords: Immunology, NLRP3, inflammasome, IL-1beta, Interleukin-1 beta, dendritic, cell, Nigericin, Toll-Like Receptor 8, TLR8, R848, Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cells
1Department of Chemistry, Tunghai University, 2Department of Biochemistry, University of California, Riverside
MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was successfully utilized to monitor the amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange in protein kinase Pak2 activation.
Published November 26, 2011. Keywords: Biochemistry, Deuterium, H/D exchange, Mass Spectrometry, Pak2, Caspase 3, MALDI-TOF
1Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California
We present a simple protocol to visualize regions of programmed cell death (PCD) in mouse embryos and differentiating embryonic stem (ES) cell cultures using a highly soluble dye called LysoTracker.
Published October 11, 2012. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Molecular Biology, Stem Cell Biology, Cellular Biology, mouse embryo, embryonic stem cells, lysosome, programmed cell death, imaging, sonic hedgehog