1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rochester, 3Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester Medical Center
This video will illustrate a rapid, efficient method to methacrylate poly(ethylene glycol), enabling chain polymerizations and hydrogel synthesis. It will demonstrate how to similarly introduce methacrylamide functionalities into peptides, detail common analytical methods to assess functionalization efficiency, provide suggestions for troubleshooting and advanced modifications, and demonstrate typical hydrogel characterization techniques.
Published October 29, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Poly(ethylene glycol), peptides, polymerization, polymers, methacrylation, peptide functionalization, 1H-NMR, MALDI-ToF, hydrogels, macromer synthesis
1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University
We developed computational de novo protein design methods capable of tackling several important areas of protein design. To disseminate these methods we present Protein WISDOM, an online tool for protein design (http://www.proteinwisdom.org). Starting from a structural template, design of monomeric proteins for increased stability and complexes for increased binding affinity can be performed.
Published July 25, 2013. Keywords: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Computational Biology, Genomics, Proteomics, Protein, Protein Binding, Computational Biology, Drug Design, optimization (mathematics), Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, De novo protein and peptide design, Drug design, In silico sequence selection, Optimization, Fold specificity, Binding affinity, sequencing
JoVE Applied Physics
1Petroleum & Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin
This paper demonstrates the experimental procedure to measure terminal settling velocities of spherical particles in surfactant-based shear thinning viscoelastic fluids. Fluids over a wide range of rheological properties are prepared and settling velocities are measured for a range of particle sizes in unbounded fluids and fluids between parallel walls.
Published January 3, 2014. Keywords: Physics, chemical engineering, settling velocity, Reynolds number, shear thinning, wall retardation
1Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, 2Analytical Services Unit, School of Environmental Studies, Queen's University
Biochar is a carbon-rich material used as a soil amendment with the ability to sustainably sequester carbon, improve substrate quality and sorb contaminants. This protocol describes the 17 analytical methods used for the characterization of biochar, which is required prior to large scale implementation of these amendments in the environment.
Published November 28, 2014. Keywords: Environmental Sciences, biochar, characterization, carbon sequestration, remediation, International Biochar Initiative (IBI), soil amendment
1Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, 2Department of Microbial and Molecular Pathogenesis, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Texas A&M University, College Station
We present the synthesis of a split-intein-mediated protein hydrogel. The building blocks of this hydrogel are two protein copolymers each containing a subunit of a trimeric protein that serves as a crosslinker and one half of a split intein. Mixing of the two protein copolymers triggers an intein trans-splicing reaction, yielding a polypeptide unit that self-assembles into a hydrogel. This hydrogel is highly pH- and temperature-stable, compatible with organic solvents, and easily incorporates functional globular proteins.
Published January 27, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, split-intein, self-assembly, shear-thinning, enzyme, immobilization, organic synthesis
1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Ohio University, 2Biomedical Engineering Program, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University, 3Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Compared with traditional affinity chromatography using protein A agarose bead-packed columns, protein A membrane adsorbers can significantly speed laboratory-scale isolation of antibodies and other Fc fragment-expressing proteins. Appropriate analysis and quantification methods can further accelerate protein processing, allowing isolation/characterization to be completed in one workday, instead of 20+ work hours.
Published January 8, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, affinity chromatography, membrane adsorber, bioseparations, protein A, galectin-1, Gal-1hFc
1Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
We describe the device fabrication and measurement protocol for carbon nanotube based high frequency biosensors. The high frequency sensing technique mitigates the fundamental ionic (Debye) screening effect and allows nanotube biosensor to be operated in high ionic strength solutions where conventional electronic biosensors fail. Our technology provides a unique platform for point-of-care (POC) electronic biosensors operating in physiologically relevant conditions.
Published July 22, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Chemical Engineering, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Electrical Engineering, Nanotechnology, Biosensing Techniques, carbon nanotubes (synthesis and properties), bioelectronic instruments (theory and techniques), Carbon nanotube, biosensor, frequency mixing, biotin, streptavidin, poly-dimethylsiloxane
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Radiology, and Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University
Plant viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are promising platforms for applications in biomedicine. Here, we describe the procedures for plant VNP propagation, purification, characterization, and bioconjugation. Finally, we show the application of VNPs for tumor homing and imaging using a mouse xenograft model and fluorescence imaging.
Published November 16, 2012. Keywords: Cancer Biology, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Virology, Oncology, Viral nanoparticles, bioconjugate chemistry, tumor xenograft mouse model, fluorescence imaging
1Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, State University of New York at Buffalo, 2Chemical Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The heterologous biosynthesis of erythromycin A through E. coli includes the following experimental steps: 1) genetic transfer; 2) heterologous reconstitution; and 3) product analysis. Each step will be explained in the context of the motivation, potential, and challenges in producing therapeutic natural products using E. coli as a surrogate host.
Published January 13, 2013. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Microbiology, Basic Protocols, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Heterologous biosynthesis, natural products, antibiotics, erythromycin A, metabolic engineering, E. coli
1Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University
A guided material screening approach to develop sol-gel derived protein doped microarrays using an emerging pin-printing method of fabrication is described. This methodology is demonstrated through the development of acetylcholinesterase and multikinase microarrays, which are used for cost-effective small-molecule screening.
Published August 26, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Chemical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Biology, Biocompatible Materials, Siloxanes, Enzymes, Immobilized, chemical analysis techniques, chemistry (general), materials (general), spectroscopic analysis (chemistry), polymer matrix composites, testing of materials (composite materials), Sol-gel, microarray, high-throughput screening, acetylcholinesterase, kinase, drug discovery, assay
JoVE Applied Physics
1Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories, California Institute of Technology
This article describes a simple method to fabricate vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays by CVD and to subsequently tune their wetting properties by exposing them to vacuum annealing or dry oxidation treatment.
Published April 15, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Materials Science, Nanotechnology, Engineering, Nanotubes, Carbon, Oxidation-Reduction, Surface Properties, carbon nanotubes (synthesis and properties), Carbon nanotube, Wettability, Hydrophobic, Hydrophilic, UV/ozone, Oxygen Plasma, Vacuum Annealing
1Polymer and Composite Engineering (PaCE) Group, Institute of Materials Chemistry and Research, University of Vienna, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, 3Polymer and Composite Engineering (PaCE) Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London
We present a novel method of manufacturing rigid and robust short natural fiber preforms using a papermaking process. Bacterial cellulose acts simultaneously as the binder for the loose fibers and provides rigidity to the fiber preforms. These preforms can be infused with a resin to produce truly green hierarchical composites.
Published May 22, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, bacterial cellulose, natural fibers, preform, vacuum assisted resin infusion, hierarchical composites, binder
1Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Birck-Bindley Physiological Sensing Facility, Purdue University, 2NASA Ames Research Center, 3Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University Hazleton, 4Cooley LLP, 5NASA Life and Physical Sciences, Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters
All-solid-state ion-selective electrodes (ASSISEs) constructed from a conductive polymer (CP) transducer provide several months of functional lifetime in liquid media. Here, we describe the fabrication and calibration process of ASSISEs in a lab-on-a-chip format. The ASSISE is demonstrated to have maintained a near-Nernstian slope profile after prolonged storage in complex biological media.
Published April 18, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Anatomy, Physiology, Miniaturization, Microtechnology, Electrochemical Techniques, electrochemical processes, astrobiology, Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment, Investigative Techniques, Technology, Industry, Agriculture, electrochemical sensor, all-solid-state ion-selective electrode (ASSISE), conductive polymer transducer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), lab-on-a-chip, Chlorella vulgaris, photosynthesis, microfluidics
JoVE Applied Physics
1Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta
We report a simple method for fabricating an ultrahigh density array of vertically ordered small-molecular organic nanowires. This method allows for synthesis of complex heterostructured hybrid nanowire geometries, which can be inexpensively grown on arbitrary substrates. These structures have potential applications in organic electronics, optoelectronics, chemical sensing, photovoltaics and spintronics.
Published June 18, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Electrical Engineering, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Nanotechnology, nanodevices (electronic), semiconductor devices, solid state devices, thin films (theory, deposition and growth), crystal growth (general), Organic semiconductors, small molecular organics, organic nanowires, nanorods and nanotubes, bottom-up nanofabrication, electrochemical self-assembly, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), template-assisted synthesis of nanostructures, Raman spectrum, field emission scanning electron microscopy, FESEM
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan
Aqueous two-phase systems were used to simultaneously pattern multiple populations of cells. This fast and easy method for cell patterning takes advantage of the phase separation of aqueous solutions of dextran and polyethylene glycol and the interfacial tension that exists between the two polymer solutions.
Published March 26, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Cell Migration Assays, Culture Techniques, bioengineering (general), Patterning, Aqueous Two-Phase System, Co-Culture, cell, Dextran, Polyethylene glycol, media, PEG, DEX, colonies, cell culture
1ISOF - Bio Free Radicals, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
Radical-based biomimetic chemistry has been applied to building-up libraries necessary for biomarker development.
Published April 15, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Chemical Engineering, Chemical Biology, chemical analysis techniques, chemistry (general), life sciences, radiation effects (biological, animal and plant), biomarker, biomimetic chemistry, free radicals, trans lipids, cyclopurine lesions, DNA, chromatography, spectroscopy, synthesis
1Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), Louisiana State University, 2Center for Atomic-Level Catalyst Design, Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, 3Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Louisiana State University, 4Argonne National Laboratory
Millifluidic devices are utilized for controlled synthesis of nanomaterials, time-resolved analysis of reaction mechanisms and continuous flow catalysis.
Published November 27, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Millifluidics, Millifluidic Device, Time-resolved Kinetics, Synthesis, Catalysis, Nanomaterials, Lab-on-a-Chip
JoVE Applied Physics
1Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 3XG Sciences, Inc.
A microdevice with high throughput potential is used to demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) dielectrophoresis (DEP) with novel materials. Graphene nanoplatelet paper and double sided tape were alternately stacked; a 700 μm micro-well was drilled transverse to the layers. DEP behavior of polystyrene beads was demonstrated in the micro-well.
Published June 22, 2014. Keywords: Physics, graphene paper, dielectrophoresis, graphene electrodes, 3D laminated microdevice, polystyrene beads, cell diagnostics
1Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brush-arm star polymers (BASPs) with narrow mass distributions and tunable nanoscopic sizes are synthesized in via ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of a PEG-norbornene macromonomer followed by transfer of portions of the resulting living brush initiator to vials containing varied amounts of a rigid, photo-cleavable bis-norbornene crosslinker.
Published October 10, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Nanoparticles, Polymers, Drug Delivery Systems, Polymerization, polymers, Biomedical and Dental Materials, brush first, polyethylene glycol, photodegradable, ring opening metathesis polymerization, brush polymer, star polymer, drug delivery, gel permeation chromatography, arm first, core functional, photocleavable
1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa
Micro-particle image velocimetry (μPIV) is used to visualize paired images of micro particles seeded in blood flows which are cross-correlated to give an accurate velocity profile. Shear rate, maximum velocity, velocity profile shape, and flow rate, each of which has clinical applications, can be derived from these measurements.
Published April 25, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biophysics, Chemical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Hematology, Blood Physiological Phenomena, Hemorheology, Hematocrit, flow characteristics, flow measurement, flow visualization, rheology, Red blood cells, cross correlation, micro blood flows, microfluidics, microhemorheology, microcirculation, velocimetry, visualization, imaging
JoVE Applied Physics
1School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, 2Institute of Materials Research, University of Leeds, 3School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, 5Department of Physics, Northeastern University
A method to prepare epitaxial layers of ordered alloys by sputtering is described. The B2-ordered FeRh compound is used as an example, as it displays a metamagnetic transition that depends sensitively on the degree of chemical order and the exact composition of the alloy.
Published October 5, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Sputtering, epitaxial growth, magnetism, ordered alloys
1The School of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, 3The Institute for Sustainable and Renewable Resources, The Institute for Advanced Learning and Research, 4Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University
A double stranded RNA interference (dsRNAi) technique is employed to down-regulate the maize cinnamoyl coenzyme A reductase (ZmCCR1) gene to lower plant lignin content. Lignin down-regulation from the cell wall is visualized by microscopic analyses and quantified by the Klason method. Compositional changes in hemicellulose and crystalline cellulose are analyzed.
Published July 23, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Zea mays, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), dsRNAi, Klason lignin measurement, cell wall carbohydrate analysis, gas chromatography (GC)
1Department of Physics, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute
This paper demonstrates a protocol to characterize the mechanical properties of living cells by means of microindentation using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).
Published June 27, 2013. Keywords: Biophysics, Bioengineering, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Physics, Chemical Engineering, Biomechanics, bioengineering (general), AFM, cell stiffness, microindentation, force spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, microscopy
1Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto
Solution-suspendable gold nanotubes with controlled dimensions can be synthesized by electrochemical deposition in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes using a hydrophobic polymer core. Gold nanotubes and nanotube arrays hold promise for applications in plasmonic biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, photo-thermal heating, ionic and molecular transport, microfluidics, catalysis and electrochemical sensing.
Published April 1, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Materials Science, Physics, Nanotechnology, Chemistry and Materials (General), Composite Materials, Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry, Metals and Metallic Materials, Gold, nanotubes, anodic aluminum oxide templates, surface plasmon resonance, sensing, refractive index, template directed synthesis, nano
1Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, Imperial College London, 2Centre for Synthetic Biology and Innovation, Division of Molecular Biosciences, Imperial College London
A description of how to calibrate Förster Resonance Energy Transfer integrated biological sensors (FIBS) for in situ metabolic profiling is presented. The FIBS can be used to measure intracellular levels of metabolites noninvasively aiding in the development of metabolic models and high throughput screening of bioprocess conditions.
Published February 3, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, metabolite monitoring, in vivo biosensors, in situ monitoring, mammalian cell culture, bioprocess engineering, medium formulation
JoVE Applied Physics
1Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh
We discussed the synthesis of individual graphitic nanocups using a series of techniques including chemical vapor deposition, acid oxidation and probe-tip sonication. By citrate reduction of HAuCl4, the graphitic nanocups were effectively corked with gold nanoparticles due to the chemically reactive edges of the cups.
Published May 13, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Materials Science, Physical Chemistry, Nanotechnology, Metal Nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes (synthesis and properties), carbon nanotubes, chemical vapor deposition, CVD, gold nanoparticles, probe-tip sonication, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube cups, nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanomaterial, synthesis
1Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 2Montreal Heart Institute
This protocol describes a method for the temporary permeabilization of adherent cells using an inert gas jet. This technique facilitates the transfer of genetic material and biomolecules into adherent mammalian cells by the utilization of mechanical forces to disrupt the plasma membrane.
Published September 4, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Transfection, Permeabilization, transfection, shear stress, adherent cells, SEM, cell, microscopy, imaging
1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University
We describe experimental details of the synthesis of patterned and reconfigurable particles from two dimensional (2D) precursors. This methodology can be used to create particles in a variety of shapes including polyhedra and grasping devices at length scales ranging from the micro to centimeter scale.
Published February 4, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Biomolecular Engineering, Materials Science, Physics, Nanotechnology, Molecular Self-assembly, Electrochemistry, Folding, three dimensional, lithography, colloid, patchy particles, particles, nanoparticles, robotics, drug delivery, microfabrication, nanofabrication, nano, assembly, synthesis, reaction, origami
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis
We report on techniques to micropattern nanoporous gold thin films via stencil printing and photolithography, as well as methods to culture cells on the microfabricated patterns. In addition, we describe image analysis methods to characterize morphology of the material and the cultured cells using scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy techniques.
Published July 15, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Biophysics, Physics, Nanotechnology, Nanostructures, Biomedical Technology, Miniaturization, Gold, Staining and Labeling, Cell Culture Techniques, Microscopy, Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence, Nanotechnology, thin films (theory, deposition and growth), Nanoporous gold, cell culture, image analysis, microfabrication, nanotechnology, quantitative immunochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, fluorescence microscopy, stencil printing, photolithography, cell culture
1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University, 2Biomedical Engineering Program, Ohio University
Dual camera emission splitting systems for two-color fluorescence microscopy generate real-time image sequences with exceptional optical and temporal resolution, a requirement of certain live cell assays including parallel plate flow chamber adhesion assays. When software is employed to merge images from simultaneously acquired emission channels, pseudocolored image sequences are produced.
Published September 4, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Biophysics, Biochemistry, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Biological Markers, Antigens, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Cell Physiological Processes, Cell Adhesion, Cell Physiological Phenomena, Colocalization, cell rolling, two-color fluorescence, cell, imaging
1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, 2Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University
In this article, a high throughput method is presented for the synthesis of oligosaccharides and their attachment to the surface of polyanhydride nanoparticles for further use in targeting specific receptors on antigen presenting cells.
Published July 6, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Chemical Engineering, High-throughput, Automation, Carbohydrates, Synthesis, Polyanhydrides, Nanoparticles, Functionalization, Targeting, Fluorous Solid Phase Extraction
1Department of Chemistry, City College of New York, City University of New York Graduate Center and Institute for Macromolecular Assemblies, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, City College of New York
Aerial plant organs are protected by the cuticle, a supramolecular biopolyester-wax assembly. We present protocols to monitor selective removal of epi- and intracuticular waxes from tomato fruit cuticles on molecular and micro scales by solid-state NMR and atomic force microscopy, respectively, and to assess the cross-linking capacity of engineered cuticular biopolyesters.
Published March 30, 2012. Keywords: Biophysics, Plant Biology, Tomato, cuticle, dewaxing, cutin, solid-state NMR, contact mode AFM
JoVE Applied Physics
1Organic Chemistry Institute and CeNTech, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 2Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, 3Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry and Soft Matter Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology
The goal of this experiment is to determine and control the size, shape and stability of self-assembled discotic amphiphiles in water. For aqueous based supramolecular polymers such level of control is very difficult. We apply a strategy using both repulsive and attractive interactions. The experimental techniques applied to characterize this system are broadly applicable.
Published August 2, 2012. Keywords: Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Physics, Self-assembly, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, circular dichroism, controlled architecture, discotic amphiphile
1Department of Chemistry, Duke University, 2Hajim School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Rochester, 3Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rochester
Here we describe a simple method for patterning oxide-free silicon and germanium with reactive organic monolayers and demonstrate functionalization of the patterned substrates with small molecules and proteins. The approach completely protects surfaces from chemical oxidation, provides precise control over feature morphology, and provides ready access to chemically discriminated patterns.
Published December 16, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Soft lithography, microcontact printing, protein arrays, catalytic printing, oxide-free silicon
JoVE Applied Physics
1School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, 2Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University
A protocol to construct and test coin cells of lithium ion batteries is described. The specific procedures of making a working electrode, preparing a counter electrode, assembling a cell inside a glovebox and testing the cell are presented.
Published August 2, 2012. Keywords: Materials Science, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Physics, Battery, coin cells, CR2032, lithium, lithium ion
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California at Irvine, 4Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, 5Research Service, Hines Veterans Administration Hospital
In the following sections, we outline procedures for the preparation of alginate microspheres for use in biomedical applications. We specifically illustrate a technique for creating multilayered alginate microspheres for the dual purpose of cell and protein encapsulation as a potential treatment for type 1 diabetes.
Published August 12, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Chemical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Alginate, angiogenesis, FGF-1, encapsulation
JoVE Applied Physics
1Department of Chemistry, The George Washington University, 2Lynntech
A protocol is presented to study multi-electron metal/air battery systems by using previous technology developed for the zinc/air cell. Electrochemical testing is then performed on fabricated batteries to evaluate performance.
Published August 5, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Materials Science, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Inorganic Chemicals, Chemistry and Materials (General), Composite Materials, Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry, Metals and Metallic Materials, Nonmetallic Materials, Engineering (General), Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Physics (General), energy storage, metal/air battery, nanoscopic vanadium diboride, VB2, multi-electron oxidation, electrochemical testing, electrode, fabrication
1Department of Chemistry, Wright State University, 2Department of Neuroscience, Cell Biology, and Physiology, Wright State University
Tangential flow ultrafiltration (TFU) is a recirculation method used for the weight-based separation of biosamples. TFU was adapted to size-select (1-20 nm diameter) and highly concentrate a large volume of polydisperse silver nanoparticles (4 L of 15.2 μg ml-1 down to 4 ml of 8,539.9 μg ml-1) with minimal aggregation.
Published October 4, 2012. Keywords: Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Nanotechnology, silver nanoparticles, size selection, concentration, tangential flow ultrafiltration
JoVE Applied Physics
1Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, 2Department of Electrical Engineering-Electrophysics, University of Southern California
We describe the use of a carbon dioxide laser reflow technique to fabricate silica resonant cavities, including free-standing microspheres and on-chip microtoroids. The reflow method removes surface imperfections, allowing long photon lifetimes within both devices. The resulting devices have ultra high quality factors, enabling applications ranging from telecommunications to biodetection.
Published July 2, 2012. Keywords: Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Physics, Electrophysics, Biosensor, device fabrication, microcavity, optical resonator
JoVE Applied Physics
1Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
We have developed a self-contained liquid cell, which allows imaging through liquids using a transmission electron microscope. Dynamic processes of nanoparticles in liquids can be revealed in real time with sub-nanometer resolution.
Published December 20, 2012. Keywords: Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Physics, Engineering, Life sciences, Liquid cell, Transmission Electron Microscopy, TEM, In situ TEM, Single nanoparticle trajectory, dynamic imaging, nanocrystals
1Life Sciences, Queen's University, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen's University, 3Department of Biology, Queen's University
A method of quantitatively evaluating the chemotactic response of Caenorhabditis elegans is described. A chemotactic index (CI) was employed as a way to precisely evaluate the response of worms to certain targets, and serve as a platform of comparison between strains and compounds of interest.
Published April 27, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Biochemistry, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Developmental Biology, Physiology, Anatomy, Chemical Engineering, chemotaxis, Caenorhabditis elegans, C. elegans, chemotaxis assay, nematode, chemotactic index, worm movement, animal model
JoVE Applied Physics
1Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Materials Processing Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Lithium ion batteries employ flammable and volatile organic electrolytes that are suitable for ambient temperature applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes are solid polymer batteries. Solid polymer batteries operate safely at high temperatures (>120 °C), thus making them applicable to high temperature applications such as deep oil drilling and hybrid electric vehicles. This paper will discuss (a) the polymer synthesis, (b) the polymer conduction mechanism, and (c) provide temperature cycling for both solid polymer and organic electrolytes.
Published August 12, 2013. Keywords: Materials Science, Physics, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry and Materials, Engineering, Lithium Batteries, Polymer Electrolytes, Polyethylene oxide, Graft Copolymer, LiFePO4, synthesis, polymers
1Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wuhan University of China, 3Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis
Flue gas from power plants is a cheap CO2 source for algal growth. We have built prototype "flue gas to algal cultivation" systems and described how to scale up the algal cultivation process. We have demonstrated the use of a mass-transfer bio-reaction model to simulate and to design the optimal operation of flue gas for the growth of Chlorella sp. in algal photo-bioreactors.
Published October 1, 2013. Keywords: Environmental Sciences, Microbiology, Cellular Biology, Marine Biology, Primary Cell Culture, Chlorella, CO2, mass transfer, Monod model, On-off pulse, Simulink
1Structural Biology Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 2The University of Melbourne
Biophysical and biochemical studies of interactions among membrane-embedded protein domains face many technical challenges, the first of which is obtaining appropriate study material. This article describes a protocol for producing and purifying disulfide-stabilized transmembrane peptide complexes that are suitable for structural analysis by solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and other analytical applications.
Published March 6, 2013. Keywords: Biochemistry, Structural Biology, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Biophysics, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Membrane Proteins, Proteins, Molecular Structure, transmembrane domain, peptide chemistry, membrane protein structure, immune receptors, reversed-phase HPLC, HPLC, peptides, lipids, protein, cloning, TFA Elution, CNBr Digestion, NMR, expression, cell culture
1Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering / Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 2Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto
Creation of micro-tissues using cylindrical collagen gels, called modules, that contain embedded cells and which surface is coated with endothelial cells.
Published December 13, 2010. Keywords: Bioengineering, Tissue engineering, micro-tissue, endothelial cells, collagen gels, modules, 3D tissue culture.
JoVE Applied Physics
1Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
We describe the use of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), photolithography and wire-bonding techniques to create micrometer scale complex oxides devices. The PLD is utilized to grow epitaxial thin films. Photolithography and wire-bonding techniques are introduced to create practical devices for measurement purposes.
Published July 1, 2013. Keywords: Materials Science, Physics, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Nanotechnology, electrical transport properties in solids, condensed matter physics, thin films (theory, deposition and growth), conductivity (solid state), Pulsed laser deposition, oxides thin films, photolithography, wire-bonding, thin film, etching, fabrication, nanofabrication
1Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Institute for Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, 2Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems at Stuttgart
We describe a method for accomplishing efficient immobilization of BMP-2 on surfaces. Our approach is based on the formation of a self-assembled monolayer to achieve the covalent binding of BMP-2 via its free amine residues. This method is a useful tool to study signaling at the cell membrane.
Published August 26, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Genetics, Chemical Biology, Physical Chemistry, Proteins, life sciences, Biological Factors, Chemistry and Materials (General), Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), self-assembled monolayer (SAM), covalent immobilization, NHS-linker, BMP-2 signaling, protein, assay
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1School of Biomedical Engineering and Science, Virginia Tech, 2Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Tech
Contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) achieves sorting and enrichment of particles via their intrinsic dielectric properties. Fluidic electrode channels replace metallic electrodes traditional to DEP, suiting cDEP to non-damaging sterile characterization and sorting of biological particles. We demonstrate how to prepare a cDEP microdevice and conduct cell characterization and sorting experiments.
Published September 3, 2013. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Biophysics, Physics, Microfluidics, Cell Separation, Microfluidic Analytical Techniques, Electrophoresis, Microchip, cancer diagnosis, cell enrichment, cell sorting, microfluidics, dielectrophoresis, Lab on a chip, cells, imaging
JoVE Applied Physics
1Department of Chemical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University
We have used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition to deposit thin films ranging from a few nm to several 100 nm on nano-sized particles of various materials. We subsequently etch the core material to produce hollow nanoshells whose permeability is controlled by the thickness of the shell. We characterize the permeability of these coatings to small solutes and demonstrate that these barriers can provide sustained release of the core material over several days.
Published August 16, 2012. Keywords: Physics, Chemical Engineering, Plasma Physics, Plasma coating, Core-shell structure, Hollow particles, Permeability, nanoparticles, nanopowders
1Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University
In this article we describe the use of magnetic tweezers to study the effect of force on enzymatic proteolysis at the single molecule level in a highly parallelizable manner.
Published July 25, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Chemical Engineering, Physics, Single-molecule spectroscopy, magnetic tweezers, force proteolysis, collagen, MMP-1