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JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

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Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Essentials of Biology 1

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Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
 JoVE Environment

Unraveling the Unseen Players in the Ocean - A Field Guide to Water Chemistry and Marine Microbiology

1Department of Biology, San Diego State University, 2Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego


JoVE 52131

Here, we present a comprehensive protocol to assess the organic and inorganic nutrient availability and the abundance and structure of microbial and viral communities in remote marine environments.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Chemoselective Modification of Viral Surfaces via Bioorthogonal Click Chemistry

1Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University


JoVE 4246

Adenovirus particles are engineered to contain either the unnatural amino acid analogue azidohomoalanine or the azido sugar O-GlcNAz. The azide group of each is chemoselectively ligated via "click" chemistry reactions as a means of viral surface modification.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Using Click Chemistry to Measure the Effect of Viral Infection on Host-Cell RNA Synthesis

1Department of Pathology, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch


JoVE 50809

This method describes the use of click chemistry to measure changes in host cell transcription after infection with the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) strain MP-12. Results can be visualized qualitatively via fluorescence microscopy or obtained quantitatively through flow cytometry. This method is adaptable for use with other viruses.

 JoVE Biology

Imaging Glycans in Zebrafish Embryos by Metabolic Labeling and Bioorthogonal Click Chemistry

1Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, 2Macromolecular Therapeutics Development Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, 3Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University


JoVE 2686

A click-chemistry based method that allows for the rapid, noninvasive, and robust labeling of alkyne-tagged glycans in zebrafish embryos is described. Fucosylated glycans in the enveloping layer of zebrafish embryos in the late gastrulation stage were imaged in this study.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Use of Fluorescent Immuno-Chemistry for the detection of Edwardsiella ictaluri in channel catfish (I. punctatus) samples

1Department of Basic Sciences, Mississippi State University


JoVE 2687

Here we describe a procedure allowing the labeling of Edwardsiella ictaluri in situ in histological sections from channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus using indirect immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies Ed9 as a primary, and fluorescent FitC labeled antibodies as a secondary. This allowed for the detection of the bacterium using fluorescent microscopy.

 JoVE Editorial

The 2009 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Martin Chalfie, Chemistry 2008


JoVE 1570

American Biologist Martin Chalfie shared the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Roger Tsien and Osamu Shimomura for their discovery and development of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Chalfie subcloned the coding sequence of GFP and expressed it in both E. coli and C. elegans, demonstrating for the first time that no other factor was required for GFP luminescence.

 JoVE Editorial

The 2009 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Roger Y. Tsien, Chemistry 2008


JoVE 1575

American biochemist Roger Tsien shared the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Martin Chalfie and Osamu Shimomura for their discovery and development of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Tsien dramatically improved the wild-type GFP resulting in increased fluorescence, increased photostability, and a shift in the major excitation peak to 488 nm (matching FITC).

 JoVE Editorial

The 2009 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Sir Harold Kroto, Chemistry 1996


JoVE 1576

English Chemist Harold Kroto shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Robert Curl and Richard Smalley for their discovery of Fullerenes (C60), molecules composed completely of carbon that form hollow spheres (also known as Buckyballs), tubes, or ellipsoids. These structures hold the potential for use in future technologies ranging from drug development and antimicrobial agents, to armor and superconductors.

 JoVE Chemistry

Reductive Electropolymerization of a Vinyl-containing Poly-pyridyl Complex on Glassy Carbon and Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide Electrodes

1Department of Chemistry, Virginia Military Institute


JoVE 52035

A procedure for performing reductive electropolymerization of vinyl-containing compounds onto glassy carbon and fluorine doped tin-oxide coated electrodes is presented. Recommendations on electrochemical cell configurations and troubleshooting procedures are included. Although not explicitly described here, oxidative electropolymerization of pyrrole-containing compounds follows similar procedures to vinyl-based reductive electropolymerization.

 JoVE Biology

In Vitro Reconstitution of Light-harvesting Complexes of Plants and Green Algae

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, VU University Amsterdam


JoVE 51852

This protocol details the reconstitution of light-harvesting complexes in vitro. These integral membrane proteins coordinate chlorophylls and carotenoids and are responsible for harvesting light in higher plants and green algae.

 JoVE Engineering

Preparation and Use of Photocatalytically Active Segmented Ag|ZnO and Coaxial TiO2-Ag Nanowires Made by Templated Electrodeposition

1MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente


JoVE 51547

Procedures are outlined to prepare segmented and coaxial nanowires via templated electrodeposition in nanopores. As examples, segmented nanowires consisting of Ag and ZnO segments, and coaxial nanowires consisting of a TiO2 shell and a Ag core were made. The nanowires were used in photocatalytic hydrogen formation experiments.

 JoVE Chemistry

In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions

1Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory


JoVE 51344

Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of novel materials. Coupled with analysis by in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), soft landing provides unprecedented insights into the interactions of well-defined species with surfaces.

 JoVE Chemistry

Quantitative Detection of Trace Explosive Vapors by Programmed Temperature Desorption Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector

1Chemical Sensing & Fuel Technology, Chemistry Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 2NOVA Research, Inc., 3Bio/Analytical Chemistry, Chemistry Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4Navy Technology Center for Safety and Survivability, Chemistry Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory


JoVE 51938

Trace explosive vapors of TNT and RDX collected on sorbent-filled thermal desorption tubes were analyzed using a programmed temperature desorption system coupled to GC with an electron capture detector. The instrumental analysis is combined with direct liquid deposition method to reduce sample variability and account for instrumentation drift and losses.

 JoVE Engineering

Flame Experiments at the Advanced Light Source: New Insights into Soot Formation Processes

1Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, 2Chemical Sciences Division, Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 3Physikalische Chemie I, Universität Bielefeld


JoVE 51369

Gas sampling from laboratory-scale flames with online analysis of all species by mass spectrometry is a powerful method to investigate the complex mixture of chemical compounds occurring during combustion processes. Coupled with tunable soft ionization via synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation, this technique provides isomer-resolved information and potentially fragment-free mass spectra.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Harnessing the Bioorthogonal Inverse Electron Demand Diels-Alder Cycloaddition for Pretargeted PET Imaging

1Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center


JoVE 52335

The bioorthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition has been harnessed to create an effective and modular pretargeted PET imaging strategy for cancer. In this protocol, the steps of this methodology are described in the context of a model system employing the colorectal cancer targeted antibody huA33 and a 64Cu-labeled radioligand.

 JoVE Biology

Probe-based Real-time PCR Approaches for Quantitative Measurement of microRNAs

1Diabetes and Islet Biology Group, NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Sydney, 2Biomarkers Laboratory, NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Sydney


JoVE 52586

Circulating microRNAs have recently emerged as promising and novel biomarkers for various cancers and other diseases. The goal of this article is to discuss three different probe-based real-time PCR platforms and methods that are available to quantify and determine the abundance of circulating microRNAs.

 JoVE Chemistry

Steady-state, Pre-steady-state, and Single-turnover Kinetic Measurement for DNA Glycosylase Activity

1Laboratory of Structural Biology, NIEHS, National Institutes of Health


JoVE 50695

Time courses for the glycosylase activity of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase are biphasic exhibiting a burst of product formation and a linear steady-state phase. Utilizing quench-flow techniques, the burst and the steady-state rates can be measured, which correspond to excision of 8-oxoguanine and release of the glycosylase from the product DNA, respectively.

 JoVE Biology

Development of a Quantitative Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay with an Internal Positive Control

1Department of Bioengineering, Rice University


JoVE 52620

Provided is a protocol for developing a real-time recombinase polymerase amplification assay to quantify initial concentration of DNA samples using either a thermal cycler or a microscope and stage heater. Also described is the development of an internal positive control. Scripts are provided for processing raw real-time fluorescence data.

 JoVE Chemistry

A Guided Materials Screening Approach for Developing Quantitative Sol-gel Derived Protein Microarrays

1Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University


JoVE 50689

A guided material screening approach to develop sol-gel derived protein doped microarrays using an emerging pin-printing method of fabrication is described. This methodology is demonstrated through the development of acetylcholinesterase and multikinase microarrays, which are used for cost-effective small-molecule screening.

 JoVE Chemistry

The Bioconjugation and Radiosynthesis of 89Zr-DFO-labeled Antibodies

1Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center


JoVE 52521

Due to its multi-day radioactive half-life and favorable decay properties, the positron-emitting radiometal 89Zr is extremely well-suited for use in antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals for PET imaging. In this protocol, the bioconjugation, radiosynthesis, and preclinical application of 89Zr-labeled antibodies will be described.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Detection of Protein Palmitoylation in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons by Immunoprecipitation and Acyl-Biotin Exchange (ABE)

1Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, Brain Research Centre, University of British Columbia


JoVE 50031

The reversible addition of palmitate to proteins is an important regulator of intracellular protein trafficking. This is of particular interest in neurons where many synaptic proteins are palmitoylated. We utilize a simple biochemical method to detect palmitoylated proteins in cultured neurons, which can be adapted for multiple cell types and tissues.

 JoVE Environment

Laboratory Estimation of Net Trophic Transfer Efficiencies of PCB Congeners to Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Its Prey

1Great Lakes Science Center, U. S. Geological Survey, 2Annis Water Resources Institute, Grand Valley State University, 3Daniel P. Haerther Center for Conservation and Research, Shedd Aquarium


JoVE 51496

A technique for laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiency of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to piscivorous fish from their prey is presented. To maximize applicability of the laboratory results to the field, the piscivorous fish should be fed prey fish that are typically eaten in the field.

 JoVE Biology

A Strategy for Sensitive, Large Scale Quantitative Metabolomics

1Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, 2Field of Biochemistry, and Molecular Cell Biology, Cornell University


JoVE 51358

Metabolite profiling has been a valuable asset in the study of metabolism in health and disease. Utilizing normal-phased liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry with polarity switching and a rapid duty cycle, we describe a protocol to analyze the polar metabolic composition of biological material with high sensitivity, accuracy, and resolution.

 JoVE Chemistry

Isolation and Chemical Characterization of Lipid A from Gram-negative Bacteria

1Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, The University of Texas at Austin, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, 3The Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin


JoVE 50623

Isolation and characterization of the lipid A domain of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria provides insight into cell surface based mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, bacterial survival and fitness, and how chemically diverse lipid A molecular species differentially modulate host innate immune responses.

 JoVE Chemistry

Template Directed Synthesis of Plasmonic Gold Nanotubes with Tunable IR Absorbance

1Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto


JoVE 50420

Solution-suspendable gold nanotubes with controlled dimensions can be synthesized by electrochemical deposition in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes using a hydrophobic polymer core. Gold nanotubes and nanotube arrays hold promise for applications in plasmonic biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, photo-thermal heating, ionic and molecular transport, microfluidics, catalysis and electrochemical sensing.

 JoVE Chemistry

Synthetic Methodology for Asymmetric Ferrocene Derived Bio-conjugate Systems via Solid Phase Resin-based Methodology

1Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University


JoVE 52399

The synthesis of asymmetric species of ferrocene is challenging using solution techniques. This report focuses on the methods carried out to produce a ferrocene-biotin bioconjugate using facile and clean reactions accomplished via solid-phase synthesis. Incorporation of a thiolate moiety is shown to impart the ability for immobilization on gold surfaces.

 JoVE Biology

Genetically-encoded Molecular Probes to Study G Protein-coupled Receptors

1Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Signal Transduction, The Rockefeller University


JoVE 50588

We genetically-encode the unnatural amino acid, p-azido-L-phenylalanine at various targeted positions in GPCRs and show the versatility of the azido group in different applications. These include a targeted photocrosslinking technology to identify residues in the ligand-binding pocket of a GPCR, and site-specific bioorthogonal modification of GPCRs with a peptide-epitope tag or fluorescent probe.

 JoVE Chemistry

Conducting Miller-Urey Experiments

1School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 3Institute for Advanced Study, 4Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, 5Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego


JoVE 51039

The Miller-Urey experiment was a pioneering study regarding the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds with possible relevance to the origins of life. Simple gases were introduced into a glass apparatus and subjected to an electric discharge, simulating the effects of lightning in the primordial Earth’s atmosphere-ocean system. The experiment was conducted for one week, after which, the samples collected from it were analyzed for the chemical building blocks of life.

 JoVE Chemistry

Transport of Surface-modified Carbon Nanotubes through a Soil Column

1School of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Nalanda University, 2Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University


JoVE 52634

Surface properties of a nanoparticle are important for their interaction with the surrounding medium. Therefore the surface modification of carbon nanotubes can be critical for their transport and retention through porous media. Here, lab scale column experiments are used to understand the possible transport and retention of these nanoparticles.

 JoVE Chemistry

Free Radicals in Chemical Biology: from Chemical Behavior to Biomarker Development

1ISOF - Bio Free Radicals, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche


JoVE 50379

Radical-based biomimetic chemistry has been applied to building-up libraries necessary for biomarker development.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Multi-step Preparation Technique to Recover Multiple Metabolite Compound Classes for In-depth and Informative Metabolomic Analysis

1Department of Immunology, National Jewish Health, 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver


JoVE 51670

The reliability of results in metabolomics experiments depends on the effectiveness and reproducibility of the sample preparation. Described is a rigorous and in-depth method that enables extraction of metabolites from biological fluids with the option of subsequently analyzing up to thousands of compounds, or just the compound classes of interest.

 JoVE Engineering

Dry Oxidation and Vacuum Annealing Treatments for Tuning the Wetting Properties of Carbon Nanotube Arrays

1Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories, California Institute of Technology


JoVE 50378

This article describes a simple method to fabricate vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays by CVD and to subsequently tune their wetting properties by exposing them to vacuum annealing or dry oxidation treatment.

 JoVE Chemistry

Microfluidic On-chip Capture-cycloaddition Reaction to Reversibly Immobilize Small Molecules or Multi-component Structures for Biosensor Applications

1Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital


JoVE 50772

We present a method for rapid, reversible immobilization of small molecules and functionalized nanoparticle assemblies for Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) studies, using sequential on-chip bioorthogonal cycloaddition chemistry and antibody-antigen capture.

 JoVE Biology

Synthesis of Nine-atom Deltahedral Zintl Ions of Germanium and their Functionalization with Organic Groups

1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame


JoVE 3532

We present the high-temperature synthesis of intermetallic precursors K4Ge9, their dissolution in ethylenediamine to form Ge94- deltahedral Zintl ions, and the reaction of the clusters with alkynes to form organo-Zintl ions. The latter are characterized by electrospray mass spectrometry in solutions and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in the solid state.

 JoVE Chemistry

Confocal Imaging of Confined Quiescent and Flowing Colloid-polymer Mixtures

1Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Houston


JoVE 51461

Confocal microscopy is used to image quiescent and flowing colloid-polymer mixtures, which are studied as model systems for attractive suspensions. Image analysis algorithms are used to calculate structural and dynamic metrics for the colloidal particles that measure changes due to geometric confinement.

 JoVE Biology

Isolation and Functional Analysis of Mitochondria from Cultured Cells and Mouse Tissue

1Chemistry Department, Elon University, 2Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest School of Medicine, 3Neuroscience Graduate Program, Wake Forest School of Medicine, 4ALS Center Translational Science Unit, Wake Forest School of Medicine


JoVE 52076

Comparison of mitochondrial membrane potential between samples yields valuable information about cellular status. Detailed steps for isolating mitochondria and assessing response to inhibitors and uncouplers using fluorescence are described. The method and utility of this protocol are illustrated by use of a cell culture and animal model of cellular stress.

 JoVE Medicine

Profiling of Estrogen-regulated MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer Cells

1Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston


JoVE 51285

Molecular signaling through both estrogen and microRNAs are critical in breast cancer development and growth. Estrogen activates the estrogen receptors, which are transcription factors. Many transcription factors can regulate the expression of microRNAs, and estrogen-regulated microRNAs can be profiled using different large-scale techniques.

 JoVE Chemistry

Preparation of Silica Nanoparticles Through Microwave-assisted Acid-catalysis

1Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, 2Air Force Research Laboratory, Airbase Technology Division, 3School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University


JoVE 51022

Silica nanoparticles were prepared using acid-catalysis of a siloxane precursor and microwave-assisted synthetic techniques resulting in the controlled growth of nanomaterials ranging from 30-250 nm in diameter. The growth dynamics can be controlled by varying the initial silicic acid concentration, time of the reaction, and temperature of reaction.

 JoVE Chemistry

Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Intact Proteins Larger than 100 kDa

1Institute of Structural Biology "J.P. Ebel", UMR5075, Commissariat à L'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Université J. Fourier


JoVE 50635

Accurate mass measurement represents an important step during the investigation of proteins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) can be used for such determination and its key advantage is the tolerance to salts, detergents and contaminants. Here we illustrate an accessible approach for the analysis of proteins larger than 100 kDa by MALDI-MS.

 JoVE Engineering

In Situ Neutron Powder Diffraction Using Custom-made Lithium-ion Batteries

1School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, 2Institute for Superconducting & Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, 3Australian Synchrotron, 4Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 5School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, 6School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales


JoVE 52284

We describe the design and construction of an electrochemical cell for the examination of electrode materials using in situ neutron powder diffraction (NPD). We briefly comment on alternate in situ NPD cell designs and discuss methods for the analysis of the corresponding in situ NPD data produced using this cell.

 JoVE Bioengineering

An In Vitro Enzymatic Assay to Measure Transcription Inhibition by Gallium(III) and H3 5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)corroles

1Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope


JoVE 52355

Gallium(III) 5,10,15-(tris)pentafluorophenylcorrole and its freebase analogue exhibit low micromolar cell cytotoxicity. This manuscript describes an RNA transcription reaction, imaging RNA with an ethidium bromide-stained gel, and quantifying RNA with UV-Vis spectroscopy, in order to assess transcription inhibition by corroles and demonstrates a straightforward method of evaluating anticancer candidate properties.

 JoVE Chemistry

Analysis of Volatile and Oxidation Sensitive Compounds Using a Cold Inlet System and Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry

1Department of Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, Bielefeld University


JoVE 51858

This video presents a protocol for the mass spectrometrical analysis of volatile and oxidation sensitive compounds using electron impact ionization. The presented technique is especially of interest for inorganic chemists, working with metal organyls, silanes, or phosphanes which have to be handled using inert conditions, such as the Schlenk technique.

 JoVE Chemistry

Nucleoside Triphosphates - From Synthesis to Biochemical Characterization

1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern


JoVE 51385

The protocol described herein aims to explain and abridge the numerous obstacles in the way of the intricate route leading to modified nucleoside triphosphates. Consequently, this protocol facilitates both the synthesis of these activated building-blocks and their availability for practical applications.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Production and Targeting of Monovalent Quantum Dots

1Department of Otolaryngology, University of California, San Francisco, 2Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, 3Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 4Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, 5Tetrad Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco, 6Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology, University of California, San Francisco, 7Chemistry and Chemical Biology Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco


JoVE 52198

We provide detailed instructions for the preparation of monovalent targeted quantum dots (mQDs) from phosphorothioate DNA of defined length. DNA wrapping occurs in high yield, and therefore, products do not require purification. We demonstrate the use of the SNAP tag to target mQDs to cell-surface receptors for live-cell imaging applications.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Fluorescence-quenching of a Liposomal-encapsulated Near-infrared Fluorophore as a Tool for In Vivo Optical Imaging

1Experimental Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, Jena University Hospital, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, 3Center for Electron Microscopy, Jena University Hospital


JoVE 52136

The use of fluorophores for in vivo imaging can be greatly limited by opsonization, rapid clearance, low detection sensitivity and cytotoxic effects on the host. Encapsulation of fluorophores in liposomes by film hydration and extrusion leads to fluorescence quenching and protection which enables in vivo imaging with high detection sensitivity.

 JoVE Biology

Sequence-specific Labeling of Nucleic Acids and Proteins with Methyltransferases and Cofactor Analogues

1Institute of Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University


JoVE 52014

DNA and proteins are sequence-specifically labeled with affinity or fluorescent reporter groups using DNA or protein methyltransferases and synthetic cofactor analogues. Depending on the cofactor specificity of the enzymes, aziridine or double activated cofactor analogues are employed for one- or two-step labeling.

 JoVE Biology

Assembly of Nucleosomal Arrays from Recombinant Core Histones and Nucleosome Positioning DNA

1Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University


JoVE 50354

A method is presented for the reconstitution of model nucleosomal arrays from recombinant core histones and tandemly repeated nucleosome positioning DNA. We also describe how sedimentation velocity experiments in the analytical ultracentrifuge, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to monitor the extent of nucleosomal array saturation after reconstitution.

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