1Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, 2London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, 3Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University, 4Translational Prostate Cancer Research Group, London Health Science Centre
We present a novel approach to quantify nanoparticle localization in the vasculature of human xenografted tumors using dynamic, real-time intravital imaging in an avian embryo model.
Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrate how the well-established chick CAM model can be used to quantitatively analyze the metastasis of human tumor cells to distant organs.
1Institute for Physiological Chemistry, Department of Biochemical Endocrinology, University of Duisburg-Essen, 2Institute for Anatomy, Department of Neuroanatomy, University of Duisburg-Essen, 3Morphoplant GmbH, 4ARCONS Institute for Applied Research and Didactics
The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a unique, naturally immunodeficient supportive culture environment to study angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. This video article demonstrates the different steps in chick ex ovo culture, application of potentially angiogenic substances and successful inoculation of tumor cells and tissues on the surface of the CAM.
Calmodulin (CaM) pull-down assay is an effective way to investigate the interaction of CaM with various proteins. This method uses CaM-sepharose beads for efficient and specific analysis of CaM-binding proteins. This provides an important tool to explore CaM signaling in cellular function.
Live Cell Calcium Imaging Combined with siRNA Mediated Gene Silencing Identifies Ca2+ Leak Channels in the ER Membrane and their Regulatory Mechanisms
The endoplasmic reticulum plays a key role in protein biogenesis and in calcium homeostasis. We have established an experimental system that allows us to address the role of Ca2+ leak channels and to characterize their putative regulatory mechanisms. This system involves siRNA mediated gene silencing and live cell Ca2+ imaging.
Normal adult vascularized mammalian tissue that lacks physiologic angiogenesis and that has not been exposed to surgical intervention is used to study: (i) the initiation and development of angiogenesis following intraperitoneal administration of test agents; and (ii) modification of angiogenesis following systemic administration of selected test agents.
Harvesting Murine Alveolar Macrophages and Evaluating Cellular Activation Induced by Polyanhydride Nanoparticles
Herein, we describe protocols for harvesting murine alveolar macrophages, which are resident innate immune cells in the lung, and examining their activation in response to co-culture with polyanhydride nanoparticles.
1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University Medical School, 2Physician/Scientist Program, Tulane University Medical School, 3Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine
Traditional, two dimensional cell culture techniques often result in altered characteristics with respect to differentiation markers, cytokines and growth factors. Three-dimensional cell culture in the rotating cell culture system (RCCS) reestablishes expression of many of these factors as shown here with an extravillous trophoblast cell line.
It is widely understood that mechanical forces in the body can influence cell differentiation and proliferation. Here we present a video protocol demonstrating the use of a custom-built bioreactor for delivering uniaxial cyclic tensile strain to stem cells cultured on flexible micropatterned substrates.
This article describes a method for the isolation and purification of intact Legionella-containing vacuoles (LCVs) from amoeba and macrophages. The two-step protocol comprises LCV enrichment by immuno-magnetic separation using an antibody against a bacterial LCV marker and further purification by density gradient centrifugation.
Here we describe a method to efficiently expand and purify large numbers of human NK cells and assess their function.
Reproducible Mouse Sciatic Nerve Crush and Subsequent Assessment of Regeneration by Whole Mount Muscle Analysis
In this report we describe a method to crush mouse sciatic nerve. This method uses readily available hemostatic forceps and easily and reproducibly produces complete sciatic nerve crush. In addition, we describe a method to prepare muscle whole mounts suitable for analysis of nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush.
This video shows how to surgically obstruct the guinea pig's endolymphatic duct to produce endolymphatic hydrops.
A method to visualize and quantify F-actin barbed ends in neuronal growth cones is described. After culturing neurons on glass coverslips, cells are permeabilized with a saponin-containing solution. Then, a short incubation with the saponin buffer containing rhodamine-actin incorporates fluorescent actin onto free actin barbed ends.
Demonstrating the Uses of the Novel Gravitational Force Spectrometer to Stretch and Measure Fibrous Proteins
This is a step-by step guide showing the purpose, operation, and representative results from the novel gravitational force spectrometer.
This video article demonstrates the establishment of organotypic retinal wholemount cultures and a cytospin procedure for analysis of exogenously induced effects. Organotypic retinal wholemount cultures mimic the in vivo situation and significantly facilitate the accessibility of murine retinas for experimental manipulations while circumventing the disadvantages of classical murine animal models.
1Australian Centre of Excellence in Plant Cell Walls, School of Botany, University of Melbourne, 2Plant Cell Biology Research Centre, School of Botany, University of Melbourne, 3CSIRO Plant Industry, Black Mountain Laboratories, 4Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Copenhagen
A technique called Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP) for the characterisation of plant cell wall glycans is described. This method combines the specificity of monoclonal antibodies directed to defined glycan-epitopes with a miniature microarray analytical platform allowing screening of glycan occurrence in a broad range of biological contexts.
The localization and distribution of proteins provide important information for understanding their cellular functions. The superior spatial resolution of electron microscopy (EM) can be used to determine the subcellular localization of a given antigen following immunohistochemistry. For tissues of the central nervous system (CNS), preserving structural integrity while maintaining antigenicity has been especially difficult in EM studies. Here, we adopt a procedure that has been used to preserve structures and antigens in the CNS to study and characterize synaptic proteins in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.
Live Cell Imaging of Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pneumoniae using Automated Time-lapse Microscopy
This protocol provides a step-by-step procedure to monitor single cell behavior of different bacteria in time using automated fluorescence time-lapse microscopy. Furthermore, we provide guidelines how to analyze the microscopy images.
1School of Dentistry, Cardiff Institute of Tissue Engineering & Repair, Cardiff University, 2Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University School of Medicine, 3Dermatology and Ophthalmology Research, Institute for Regenerative Cures, University of California at Davis
This protocol demonstrates methods used to establish 2D and 3D environments in custom-designed electrotactic chambers, which can track cells in vivo/ex vivo using time-lapse recording at the single cell level, in order to investigate galvanotaxis/electrotaxis and other cellular responses to direct current (DC) electric fields (EFs).
The endothelial glycocalyx/endothelial surface layer is ideally studied using intravital microscopy. Intravital microscopy is technically challenging in a moving organ such as the lung. We demonstrate how simultaneous brightfield and fluorescent microscopy may be used to estimate endothelial surface layer thickness in a freely-moving in vivo mouse lung.
An in vivo dissection of the adult Drosophila ventral nerve cord (VNC) is demonstrated. This particular dissection method causes little damage to the VNC allowing the subsequent labeling of the giant fiber neurons with fluorescent dye for high resolution imaging.
Solution-suspendable gold nanotubes with controlled dimensions can be synthesized by electrochemical deposition in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes using a hydrophobic polymer core. Gold nanotubes and nanotube arrays hold promise for applications in plasmonic biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, photo-thermal heating, ionic and molecular transport, microfluidics, catalysis and electrochemical sensing.
We present a protocol for freezing and cryosectioning yeast communities to observe internal patterns of fluorescent cells. The method relies on methanol-fixing and OCT-embedding to preserve the spatial distribution of cells without inactivating fluorescent proteins within a community.
The turnover rate of viruses in marine and freshwater systems can be estimated by a reduction and reoccurrence technique. The data allow researchers to infer rates of virus-mediated microbial mortality in aquatic systems.
The amperometric technique measures dopamine release from a single cell by detecting the oxidative current produced by spontaneous dopamine oxidization. Simultaneous voltage clamp and amperometry methodology reveal the mechanistic relationship between the overall "activity" of dopamine transporter and the regulatory role of this activity on the reverse transport of dopamine.
This video shows the process of whole-cell voltage clamp recordings in the retinal slice of the aquatic tiger salamander. We demonstrate the preparation of the slice as well as how to perform patch clamp recordings during visual stimulation of the retina.
We present an in vitro, two-color fluorescence assay to visualize the fusion of single virus particles with a fluid target bilayer. By labeling viral particles with fluorophores that differentially stain the viral membrane and its interior, we are able to monitor the kinetics of hemifusion and pore formation.
Analyzing Responses of Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons Using the Air-phase Electroolfactogram Recording
The electroolfactogram (EOG) recording is an informative, easy-to-conduct, and reliable way of assessing olfactory function at the level of the olfactory epithelium. This protocol describes a recording setup, mouse tissue preparation, data collection, and basic data analysis.
Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) Labeling and Subsequent Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting for Culture-independent Identification of Dissolved Organic Carbon-degrading Bacterioplankton
Environmental bacterioplankton are incubated with a model dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compound and a DNA labeling reagent, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Afterward, DOC-degrading cells are separated from the bulk community based on their elevated BrdU incorporation using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). These cells are then identified by subsequent molecular analyses.
Here we present an electrophysiological method based on solid supported membranes with focus on its applications for the characterization of electrogenic membrane transporters.
Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the gold standard for kidney function assessment. Here we describe a high-throughput method which allows the determination of GFR in conscious mice by using a single bolus injection, determination of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-inulin in plasma and calculation of GFR by a two-phase exponential decay model.
Mitochondria-associated ER Membranes (MAMs) and Glycosphingolipid Enriched Microdomains (GEMs): Isolation from Mouse Brain
This procedure illustrates how to isolate from the adult mouse brain the mitochondria-associated ER membranes or MAMs and the glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomain fractions from MAMs and mitochondrial preparations.
A simple microfluidic device has been developed to perform anesthetic free in vivo imaging of C. elegans, intact Drosophila larvae and zebrafish larvae. The device utilizes a deformable PDMS membrane to immobilize these model organisms in order to perform time lapse imaging of numerous processes such as heart beat, cell division and sub-cellular neuronal transport. We demonstrate the use of this device and show examples of different types of data collected from different model systems.
A Low Mortality Rat Model to Assess Delayed Cerebral Vasospasm After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding that occurs into the subarachnoid space when an aneurysm ruptures. While the morbidity and mortality from this event has been on a decline due to improved treatment approaches, the risk of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage continues to be the same as it was several years ago. The importance of establishing a comprehensive and reproducible animal model to identify initiating events of cerebral vasospasm has been the focus of research since the first use of rats in an experimental vasospasm model in 1979 by Barry et al. Early work in rats demonstrated that a single injection of autologous blood into the cisterna magna led to acute (within minutes) but not delayed cerebral vasospasm 3, 6, 14. Here we characterize a low mortality SAH rat model that results in reproducible delayed vasospasm.
Here we describe an optimized technique to produce high-quality vitamin A/RBP complex and two real-time monitoring techniques to study vitamin A transport by STRA6, the RBP receptor.
1Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University, 2Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, 3Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University, 4Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School
Here we present a method to isolate and culture cerebellar granule neuron progenitor cells and cerebellar granule neurons from postnatal mouse.
The rotorod test is used to assess motor status in the walking movement of hemi-Parkinson analogue rats.
The cDNA microarray PtGen2 was developed for gene expression studies in loblolly pine, P. taeda, and other conifer species. Here, we show pre- and post-hybridization handling and washing techniques that can be used with this array to yield better consistency, reduced artifacts, and lower backgrounds.
Investigating Tissue- and Organ-specific Phytochrome Responses using FACS-assisted Cell-type Specific Expression Profiling in Arabidopsis thaliana
The molecular basis of spatial-specific phytochrome responses is being investigated using transgenic plants that exhibit tissue- and organ-specific phytochrome deficiencies. The isolation of specific cells exhibiting induced phytochrome chromophore depletion by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting followed by microarray analyses is being utilized to identify genes involved in spatial-specific phytochrome responses.
Multi-analyte Biochip (MAB) Based on All-solid-state Ion-selective Electrodes (ASSISE) for Physiological Research
1Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Birck-Bindley Physiological Sensing Facility, Purdue University, 2NASA Ames Research Center, 3Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University Hazleton, 4Cooley LLP, 5NASA Life and Physical Sciences, Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters
All-solid-state ion-selective electrodes (ASSISEs) constructed from a conductive polymer (CP) transducer provide several months of functional lifetime in liquid media. Here, we describe the fabrication and calibration process of ASSISEs in a lab-on-a-chip format. The ASSISE is demonstrated to have maintained a near-Nernstian slope profile after prolonged storage in complex biological media.
This protocol describes the production of KLRG1 tetramer, which is a powerful tool for the analysis of KLRG1 ligands.
Visualization of UV-induced Replication Intermediates in E. coli using Two-dimensional Agarose-gel Analysis
We present a procedure by which two-dimensional agarose-gel analysis can be used to identify the structure of replication intermediates that occur following UV irradiation.
This protocol is a cost effective alternative for efficient parallel clarification and plasmid DNA purification from E. coli cultures. The AcroPrep Advance process starts with an optimized lysate clarification filter plate followed by purification on a high binding capacity DNA binding filter plate.
Collecting Variable-concentration Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Datasets in Order to Determine Binding Mechanisms
ITC is a powerful tool for studying the binding of a ligand to its host. In complex systems however, several models may fit the data equally well. The method described here provides a means to elucidate the appropriate binding model for complex systems and extract the corresponding thermodynamic parameters.
Time lapse imaging of 3D tissue culture allows studying migratory behavior of individual cells originating from ganglionic eminence in reaction to fractionated protein extract from cerebral cortex.
Protein Membrane Overlay Assay: A Protocol to Test Interaction Between Soluble and Insoluble Proteins in vitro
Testing protein-protein interaction is indispensable for dissection of protein functionality. Here, we introduce an in vitro protein-protein binding assay to probe a membrane-immobilized protein with a soluble protein. This assay provides a reliable method to test interaction between an insoluble protein and a protein in solution.
We present a high-throughput flow cytometric assay to determine the phagocytic activity of antigen-specific antibodies from clinical samples, utilizing fluorescent antigen-coated beads and a monocytic cell line expressing multiple Fc receptors—providing receptor usage and phagocytic activity determinations in a standardized and reproducible fashion for any antigen of interest.
MAME Models for 4D Live-cell Imaging of Tumor: Microenvironment Interactions that Impact Malignant Progression
We have developed 3D coculture models for live-cell imaging in real-time of interactions among breast tumor cells and other cells in their microenvironment that impact progression to an invasive phenotype. These models can serve as preclinical screens for drugs to target paracrine-induced proteolytic, chemokine/cytokine and kinase pathways implicated in invasiveness.
Sampling Human Indigenous Saliva Peptidome Using a Lollipop-Like Ultrafiltration Probe: Simplify and Enhance Peptide Detection for Clinical Mass Spectrometry
Considering saliva sampling for future clinical application, a lollipop-like ultrafiltration (LLUF) probe was fabricated to fit in the human oral cavity. Direct analysis of undigested saliva by NanoLC-LTQ mass spectrometry demonstrated the ability of LLUF probes to remove large proteins and high abundance proteins, and make low-abundant peptides more detectable.