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Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (Carotid artery, Internal), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (Anterior cerebral artery; Middle cerebral artery; Posterior cerebral artery), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.
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 JoVE Medicine

Combined Near-infrared Fluorescent Imaging and Micro-computed Tomography for Directly Visualizing Cerebral Thromboemboli

1Molecular Imaging and Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Dongguk University College of Medicine, 2Biomedical Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 3Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 4Departments of Radiology and Cancer Systems Imaging, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center


JoVE 54294

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 JoVE Medicine

State of the Art Cranial Ultrasound Imaging in Neonates

1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, 2Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, UZ Brussel, 4Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Leiden University Medical Center, 5Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Isala Hospital, 6Department of Pediatrics, Koningin Paola Children's Hospital


JoVE 52238

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Fabrication of a Dipole-assisted Solid Phase Extraction Microchip for Trace Metal Analysis in Water Samples

1Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 2Center for Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 3National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 4Department of Chemistry, National Changhua University of Education


JoVE 53500

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Techniques for the Evolution of Robust Pentose-fermenting Yeast for Bioconversion of Lignocellulose to Ethanol

1Bioenergy Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 2Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 3Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Great Lakes Bioenergy Center, Michigan State University


JoVE 54227

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 JoVE Medicine

Exergaming in Older People Living with HIV Improves Balance, Mobility and Ameliorates Some Aspects of Frailty

1Department of Surgery, Interdisciplinary Consortium on Advanced Motion Performance (iCAMP), College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 3Interdisciplinary Consortium on Advanced Motion Performance (iCAMP), Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine


JoVE 54275

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 JoVE Neuroscience

A Visual Description of the Dissection of the Cerebral Surface Vasculature and Associated Meninges and the Choroid Plexus from Rat Brain

1Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, 2Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, 3Office of Planning, Finance, and Information Technology, National Center for Toxicological Research


JoVE 4285

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 JoVE Behavior

Combined Invasive Subcortical and Non-invasive Surface Neurophysiological Recordings for the Assessment of Cognitive and Emotional Functions in Humans

1Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 2Department of Neurology, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Functional Neurosurgery and Stereotaxy, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf


JoVE 53466

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 Science Education: Essentials of Neuropsychology

Event-related Potentials and the Oddball Task

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

Given the overwhelming amount of information captured by the sensory organs, it is crucial that the brain is able to prioritize the processing of certain stimuli, to spend less effort on what might not be currently important and to attend to what is. One heuristic the brain uses is to ignore stimuli that are frequent or constant in favor of stimuli that are unexpected or unique. Therefore, rare events tend to be more salient and capture our attention. Furthermore, stimuli that are relevant to our current behavioral goals are prioritized over those that are irrelevant. The neurophysiological correlates of attention have been experimentally examined through the use of the oddball paradigm. Originally introduced in 1975, the oddball task presents the participant with a sequence of repetitive audio or visual stimuli, infrequently interrupted by an unexpected stimulus.1 This interruption by a target stimulus has been shown to elicit specific electrical events that are recordable at the scalp known as event-related potentials (ERPs). An ERP is the measured brain response resulting from a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event. ERPs are measured using electroencephalography (EEG), a noninv

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 Science Education: Essentials of Sensation and Perception

Finding Your Blind Spot and Perceptual Filling-in

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

In the back of everyone's eye is a small piece of neural tissue called the retina. The retina has photosensitive cells that respond to stimulation by light. The responses of these cells are sent into the brain through the optic nerve, a bundle of neural fibers. In each retina there is a place somewhere in the periphery where the outputs from retinal cells collect and the bundled optic nerve exits to the brain. At that location, there is no photosensitivity-whatever light reflects from the world and lands in that position does not produce a signal in the brain. As a result, humans have a blind spot, a place in the visual field for which they don't process incoming stimuli. However, people are not aware that they have blind spots; there is not an empty hole in the visual images in front of the eyes. So what do people see in their blind spots? The brain actually fills-in missing input based on the surroundings. This video demonstrates how to find a person's blind spot, and how to investigate the mechanisms of perceptual filling-in.

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 JoVE Neuroscience

SNARE-mediated Fusion of Single Proteoliposomes with Tethered Supported Bilayers in a Microfluidic Flow Cell Monitored by Polarized TIRF Microscopy

1Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Nanobiology Institute, Yale University, 3Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, 4Laboratoire de Neurophotonique, Université Paris Descartes, Faculté des Sciences Fondamentales et Biomédicales, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)


JoVE 54349

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 JoVE Cancer Research

Advanced Animal Model of Colorectal Metastasis in Liver: Imaging Techniques and Properties of Metastatic Clones

1Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, 2Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology and Ludwig Center for Metastasis Research, The University of Chicago


JoVE 54657

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Comprehensive Breast Exam

JoVE Science Education

Source:
Alexandra Duncan, GTA, Praxis Clinical, New Haven, CT
Tiffany Cook, GTA, Praxis Clinical, New Haven, CT
Jaideep S. Talwalkar, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Breast exams are a key part of an annual gynecological exam and are important for all patients, no matter their sex or gender expression. One out of every 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer; male breast cancer, though less common, has a lifetime incidence of 1 in 1000. Breast exams can feel invasive to patients, so it is important to do everything possible to make the patients feel comfortable and empowered, rather than vulnerable. Examiners should be aware of what they are communicating, both verbally and non-verbally, and give their patients control wherever possible (for instance, always allowing them to remove their own gowns). Examiners may choose to utilize chaperones for the patients' (as well as their own) comfort. Some institutions require the use of chaperones. While it is always important to avoid overly clinical language, certain colloquial words can cross the line from caring to overly intimate in this exam. It is helpful to avoid the words "touch" and "feel" in this exam, as this lan

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 Science Education: Essentials of Sensation and Perception

Just-noticeable Differences

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Psychophysics is a branch of psychology and neuroscience that tries to explain how physical quantities are translated into neural firing and mental representations of magnitude. One set of questions in this area pertains to just-noticeable differences (JND): How much does something need to change in order for the change to be perceivable? To pump intuitions about this, consider the fact that small children grow at an enormous rate, relatively speaking, but one rarely notices growth taking place on a daily basis. However, when the child returns from sleep-away camp or when a grandparent sees the child after a prolonged absence, just a few weeks of growing is more than perceptible. It can seem enormous! Changes in height are only noticed after an absence because the small changes that take place on a day-to-day basis are too small to be perceivable. But after an absence, many small changes add up. So how much growth needs to take place to be noticeable? The minimal amount is the JND. Psychologists and neuroscientists measure JND in many domains. How much brighter does a light need to be to be noticed? How much louder does a sound need to be? They often obtain the measurements by employing a forced-choice paradigm. This video w

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 Science Education: Essentials of Sensation and Perception

Object Substitution Masking

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Visual masking is a term used by perceptual scientists to refer to a wide range of phenomena in which in an image is presented but not perceived by an observer because of the presentation of a second image. There are several different kinds of masking, many of them relatively intuitive and unsurprising. But one surprising and important type of masking is called Object Substitution Masking. It has been a focus of research in vision science since it was discovered, relatively recently, around 1997 by Enns and Di Lollo.1 This video will demonstrate standard procedures for how to conduct an object substitution experiment, how to analyze the results, and it will also explain the hypothesized causes for this unusual form of masking.

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 JoVE Behavior

Morris Water Maze Test: Optimization for Mouse Strain and Testing Environment

1Department of Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience, West Virginia University, 2Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, 3Department of Neurology, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, 4Department of Neuroscience, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, 5GRECC, VA Medical Center, 6Center for Neuroscience, Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research, West Virginia University


JoVE 52706

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