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Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
 JoVE Chemistry

Confocal Imaging of Confined Quiescent and Flowing Colloid-polymer Mixtures

1Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Houston


JoVE 51461

Confocal microscopy is used to image quiescent and flowing colloid-polymer mixtures, which are studied as model systems for attractive suspensions. Image analysis algorithms are used to calculate structural and dynamic metrics for the colloidal particles that measure changes due to geometric confinement.

 JoVE Biology

Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration: A “Green” Method for the Size Selection and Concentration of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles

1Department of Chemistry, Wright State University, 2Department of Neuroscience, Cell Biology, and Physiology, Wright State University


JoVE 4167

Tangential flow ultrafiltration (TFU) is a recirculation method used for the weight-based separation of biosamples. TFU was adapted to size-select (1-20 nm diameter) and highly concentrate a large volume of polydisperse silver nanoparticles (4 L of 15.2 μg ml-1 down to 4 ml of 8,539.9 μg ml-1) with minimal aggregation.

 JoVE Engineering

Preparation and Friction Force Microscopy Measurements of Immiscible, Opposing Polymer Brushes

1Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 2Materials Science and Technology of Polymer, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Universität des Saarlandes


JoVE 52285

The methodology to perform friction force microscopy experiments for contacting brushes is presented: Two polymer brushes that are grafted from (a) substrates and (b) colloidal probes are slid to show that, by using two contacting immiscible brush systems, friction in sliding contacts is reduced compared to miscible brush systems.

 JoVE Bioengineering

A Novel Method for Localizing Reporter Fluorescent Beads Near the Cell Culture Surface for Traction Force Microscopy

1Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign


JoVE 51873

Traditional techniques for fabricating polyacrylamide (PA) gels containing fluorescent probes involve sandwiching a gel between an adherent surface and a glass slide. Here, we show that coating this slide with poly-D-lysine (PDL) and fluorescent probes localizes the probes to within 1.6 µm from the gel surface.

 JoVE Chemistry

Activating Molecules, Ions, and Solid Particles with Acoustic Cavitation

1Marcoule Institute for Separative Chemistry, UMR 5257 CEA-CNRS-UM2-ENSCM


JoVE 51237

Acoustic cavitation in liquids submitted to power ultrasound creates transient extreme conditions inside the collapsing bubbles, which are the origin of unusual chemical reactivity and light emission, known as sonoluminescence. In the presence of noble gases, nonequilibrium plasma is formed. The "hot" particles and the photons generated by collapsing bubbles are able to excite species in solution.

 JoVE Chemistry

Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopic Identification of Dispersant/Particle Bonding Mechanisms in Functional Inks

1Department of Chemistry, New York City College of Technology, City University of New York (CUNY)


JoVE 52744

Formulation of stable, functional inks is critical to expanding the applications of additive manufacturing. In turn, knowledge of the mechanisms of dispersant/particle bonding is required for effective ink formulation. Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is presented as a simple, inexpensive way to gain insight into these mechanisms.

 JoVE Chemistry

Transport of Surface-modified Carbon Nanotubes through a Soil Column

1School of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Nalanda University, 2Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University


JoVE 52634

Surface properties of a nanoparticle are important for their interaction with the surrounding medium. Therefore the surface modification of carbon nanotubes can be critical for their transport and retention through porous media. Here, lab scale column experiments are used to understand the possible transport and retention of these nanoparticles.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Gold Nanostar Synthesis with a Silver Seed Mediated Growth Method

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., 3Department of Biology and Neurosciences Institute, The University of Texas at San Antonio


JoVE 3570

We synthesized star shaped gold nanostars using a silver seed mediated growth method. The diameter of the nanostars ranges from 200 to 300 nm and the number of tips vary from 7 to 10. The nanoparticles have a broad surface plasmon resonance mode centered in the near infrared.

 JoVE Chemistry

Preparation of Silica Nanoparticles Through Microwave-assisted Acid-catalysis

1Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, 2Air Force Research Laboratory, Airbase Technology Division, 3School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University


JoVE 51022

Silica nanoparticles were prepared using acid-catalysis of a siloxane precursor and microwave-assisted synthetic techniques resulting in the controlled growth of nanomaterials ranging from 30-250 nm in diameter. The growth dynamics can be controlled by varying the initial silicic acid concentration, time of the reaction, and temperature of reaction.

 JoVE Chemistry

Quantitative and Qualitative Examination of Particle-particle Interactions Using Colloidal Probe Nanoscopy

1Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, 2Department of Nanobiomedical Science & BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University


JoVE 51874

Colloidal probe nanoscopy can be used within a variety of fields to gain insight into the physical stability and coagulation kinetics of colloidal systems and aid in drug discovery and formulation sciences using biological systems. The method described within provides a quantitative and qualitative means to study such systems.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

A Quantitative Evaluation of Cell Migration by the Phagokinetic Track Motility Assay

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 2Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 4Feist-Weiller Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center


JoVE 4165

The phagokinetic motility track assay is a method used to assess the movement of cells. Specifically, the assay measures chemokinesis (random cell motility) over time in a quantitative manner. The assay takes advantage of the ability of cells to create a measurable track of their movement on colloidal gold-coated coverslips.

 JoVE Medicine

Substernal Thyroid Biopsy Using Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration

1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, State University of New York, Buffalo, 2Interventional Pulmonology Section, Division of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, State University of New York, Buffalo


JoVE 51867

Substernal thyroid lesions are common, and need to be differentiated from malignancy. Obtaining percutaneous fine needle biopsy is not possible due to its retrosternal location. This article proposes a protocol for biopsy of substernal thyroid lesions using Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA).

 JoVE Medicine

Protocols for Assessing Radiofrequency Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles and Biological Systems for Non-invasive Hyperthermia Cancer Therapy

1Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 2Department of Chemistry, Rice University, 3Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University


JoVE 50480

We describe the protocols used to investigate the interactions of 13.56 MHz radiofrequency (RF) electric-fields with gold nanoparticle colloids in both non-biological and biological systems (in vitro/vivo). These interactions are being investigated for applications in cancer therapy.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Determination of Molecular Structures of HIV Envelope Glycoproteins using Cryo-Electron Tomography and Automated Sub-tomogram Averaging

1Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 2The Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, 3National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 4Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5William Fremd High School, 6University of Virginia, 7Duke University, 8Yale University, 9University of Notre Dame, 10Washington University in St. Louis, 11Bioinformatics and Computational Biosciences Branch, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 12Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology


JoVE 2770

The protocol describes a high-throughput approach to determining structures of membrane proteins using cryo-electron tomography and 3D image processing. It covers the details of specimen preparation, data collection, data processing and interpretation, and concludes with the production of a representative target for the approach, the HIV-1 Envelope glycoprotein. These computational procedures are designed in a way that enables researchers and students to work remotely and contribute to data processing and structural analysis.

 JoVE Chemistry

Sedimentation Equilibrium of a Small Oligomer-forming Membrane Protein: Effect of Histidine Protonation on Pentameric Stability

1School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University


JoVE 52404

Sedimentation equilibrium (SE) can be used to study protein-protein interactions in a physiological environment. This manuscript describes the use of this technique to determine the effect of pH on the stability of a homo-pentamer formed by the small hydrophobic (SH) protein encoded by the human syncytial respiratory virus (hRSV).

 JoVE Bioengineering

Characteristics of Precipitation-formed Polyethylene Glycol Microgels Are Controlled by Molecular Weight of Reactants

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Akron, 2Saint Vincent Saint Mary's High School


JoVE 51002

This work describes the formation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microgels via a photopolymerized precipitation reaction. Increasing the PEG molecular weight increased microgel diameter and swelling ratio. Simple adaptations to the PEG microgel precipitation reaction are explored for future applications of microgels as drug delivery vehicles and tissue engineering scaffolds.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Longitudinal Measurement of Extracellular Matrix Rigidity in 3D Tumor Models Using Particle-tracking Microrheology

1Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Boston


JoVE 51302

Particle-tracking microrheology can be used to non-destructively quantify and spatially map changes in extracellular matrix mechanical properties in 3D tumor models.

 JoVE Engineering

Monolayer Contact Doping of Silicon Surfaces and Nanowires Using Organophosphorus Compounds

1Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem


JoVE 50770

A detailed procedure for surface doping of Silicon interfaces is provided. The ultra-shallow surface doping is demonstrated by using phosphorus containing monolayers and rapid annealing process. The method can be used for doping of macroscopic area surfaces as well as nanostructures.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Synthesis, Assembly, and Characterization of Monolayer Protected Gold Nanoparticle Films for Protein Monolayer Electrochemistry

1Department of Chemistry, Gottwald Center for the Sciences, University of Richmond, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gottwald Center for the Sciences, University of Richmond


JoVE 3441

Alkanethiolate stabilized gold colloids known as monolayer protected clusters (MPCs) are synthesized, characterized, and assembled into thin films as an adsorption interface for protein monolayer electrochemistry of simple redox protein like Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin (AZ) and cytochrome c (cyt c).

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Analysis of the Solvent Accessibility of Cysteine Residues on Maize rayado fino virus Virus-like Particles Produced in Nicotiana benthamiana Plants and Cross-linking of Peptides to VLPs

1Plant Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 2Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture


JoVE 50084

A method to analyze the solvent accessibility of the thiol group of cysteine residues of Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV)-virus-like particles (VLPs) followed by a peptide cross-linking reaction is described. The method takes advantage of the availability of several chemical groups on the surface of the VLPs that can be targets for specific reactions.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Small and Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies of Biological Macromolecules in Solution

1Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute


JoVE 4160

The demonstration of the small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS) procedure has become instrumental in the study of biological macromolecules. Through the use of the instrumentation and procedures of specific angle methods and preparation, the experimental data from the SWAXS displays the atomic and nano-scale characterization of macromolecules.

 JoVE Biology

Reconstitution of a Transmembrane Protein, the Voltage-gated Ion Channel, KvAP, into Giant Unilamellar Vesicles for Microscopy and Patch Clamp Studies

1Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, CNRS, UMR 168, PhysicoChimie Curie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 2Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind, University of California, San Diego, 3Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Section, National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Health


JoVE 52281

The reconstitution of the transmembrane protein, KvAP, into giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) is demonstrated for two dehydration-rehydration methods — electroformation, and gel-assisted swelling. In both methods, small unilamellar vesicles containing the protein are fused together to form GUVs that can then be studied by fluorescence microscopy and patch-clamp electrophysiology.

 JoVE Engineering

Preparation and Use of Photocatalytically Active Segmented Ag|ZnO and Coaxial TiO2-Ag Nanowires Made by Templated Electrodeposition

1MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente


JoVE 51547

Procedures are outlined to prepare segmented and coaxial nanowires via templated electrodeposition in nanopores. As examples, segmented nanowires consisting of Ag and ZnO segments, and coaxial nanowires consisting of a TiO2 shell and a Ag core were made. The nanowires were used in photocatalytic hydrogen formation experiments.

 JoVE Medicine

Tracking the Mammary Architectural Features and Detecting Breast Cancer with Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging

1Department of Biological Regulation, Weizmann Institute of Science, 2Unit of Biological Services, Weizmann Institute of Science, 3Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Meir Medical Center, 4Pathology Department, Meir Medical Center


JoVE 52048

We describe how to obtain parametric and vector maps of the diffusion tensor of the breast using magnetic resonance imaging. The protocol and final output following imaging processing are tailored for tracking breast architectural features and detecting breast malignancy.

 JoVE Chemistry

Towards Biomimicking Wood: Fabricated Free-standing Films of Nanocellulose, Lignin, and a Synthetic Polycation

1Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, Virginia Tech, 2Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute, Virginia Tech, 3Institute for Food Safety and Health, Illinois Institute of Technology- Moffett Campus, 4Wood, Cellulose, and Paper Research Department, University of Guadalajara, 5Department of Sustainable Biomaterials, Virginia Tech, 6Sustainable Nanotechnology Interdisciplinary Graduate Education Program, Virginia Tech


JoVE 51257

The objective of this research was to form synthetic plant cell wall tissue using layer-by-layer assembly of nanocellulose fibrils and isolated lignin assembled from dilute aqueous suspensions.  Surface measurement techniques of quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy were used to monitor the formation of the polymer-polymer nanocomposite material.

 JoVE Engineering

Evaluating Plasmonic Transport in Current-carrying Silver Nanowires

1Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne CNRS-UMR 6303, Université de Bourgogne, 2Department of Optics and Optical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, 3CEMES, CNRS-UPR 8011


JoVE 51048

Silver nanowires can simultaneously transport electrons and optical information in the form of surface plasmons. A procedure is described here to realize such a shared circuitry and the limitations at propagating both information carriers are evaluated.

 JoVE Chemistry

Seeded Synthesis of CdSe/CdS Rod and Tetrapod Nanocrystals

1Department of Chemical Engineering, UC Berkeley, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, UC Berkeley, 3Department of Chemistry, UC Berkeley, 4Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 5Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, 6Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory


JoVE 50731

A protocol for the seeded synthesis of rod-shaped and tetrapod-shaped multicomponent nanostructures consisting of CdS and CdSe is presented.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Visualizing Protein-DNA Interactions in Live Bacterial Cells Using Photoactivated Single-molecule Tracking

1Microbiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, 2Biological Physics Research Group, Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford


JoVE 51177

Photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) combined with single-molecule tracking allows direct observation and quantification of protein-DNA interactions in live Escherichia coli cells.

 JoVE Medicine

An Isolated Working Heart System for Large Animal Models

1Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, 2Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University Hospital of South Manchester


JoVE 51671

Most studies involving the Langendorff apparatus use small animal models due to the increased complexity of systems for larger mammals. We describe a Langendorff system for large animal models that allows for use across a range of species, including humans, and relatively easy data acquisition.

 JoVE Engineering

Convergent Polishing: A Simple, Rapid, Full Aperture Polishing Process of High Quality Optical Flats & Spheres

1Lasers, Optics, & Targets for the National Ignition Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory


JoVE 51965

A novel optical polishing process, called “Convergent Polishing”, which enables faster, lower cost polishing, is described. Unlike conventional polishing processes, Convergent Polishing allows a glass workpiece to be polished in a single iteration and with high surface quality to its final surface figure without requiring changes to polishing parameters.

 JoVE Bioengineering

High Throughput Microfluidic Rapid and Low Cost Prototyping Packaging Methods

1Electrical Engineering Department, Polytechnique Montreal


JoVE 50735

In this article we describe different techniques for microfluidic rapid prototyping platforms. The proposed techniques are based on ultraviolet (UV) sensitive and temperature curing epoxies, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based tubing, wire-bonding, and anisotropic adhesive films. The assembling procedures presented are developed for both one-time use devices as well as reusable microfluidic systems.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Nanomechanics of Drug-target Interactions and Antibacterial Resistance Detection

1London Centre for Nanotechnology and Departments of Medicine, University College London


JoVE 50719

Acquired resistance to antibiotics is a major public healthcare problem and is presently ranked by the WHO as one of the greatest threats to human life. Here we describe the use of cantilever technology to quantify antibacterial resistance, critical to the discovery of novel and powerful agents against multidrug resistant bacteria.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Bridging the Bio-Electronic Interface with Biofabrication

1Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, 2Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland


JoVE 4231

This article describes a biofabrication approach: deposition of stimuli-responsive polysaccharides in the presence of biased electrodes to create biocompatible films which can be functionalized with cells or proteins. We demonstrate a bench-top strategy for the generation of the films as well as their basic uses for creating interactive biofunctionalized surfaces for lab-on-a-chip applications.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Formation of Biomembrane Microarrays with a Squeegee-based Assembly Method

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 3Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 4Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine


JoVE 51501

Supported lipid bilayers and natural membrane particles are convenient systems that can approximate the properties of cell membranes and be incorporated in a variety of analytical strategies. Here we demonstrate a method for preparing microarrays composed of supported lipid bilayer-coated SiO2 beads, phospholipid vesicles or natural membrane particles.

 JoVE Engineering

Visualization of High Speed Liquid Jet Impaction on a Moving Surface

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia


JoVE 52603

Two experimental devices for examining liquid jet impingement on a high-speed moving surface are described: an air cannon device and a spinning disk device. The apparatuses are used to determine optimal approaches to the application of liquid friction modifier (LFM) onto rail tracks for top-of-rail friction control.

 JoVE Bioengineering

High Throughput Single-cell and Multiple-cell Micro-encapsulation

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University


JoVE 4096

Combining monodisperse drop generation with inertial ordering of cells and particles, we describe a method to encapsulate a desired number of cells or particles in a single drop at kHz rates. We demonstrate efficiencies twice exceeding those of unordered encapsulation for single- and double-particle drops.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Printing Thermoresponsive Reverse Molds for the Creation of Patterned Two-component Hydrogels for 3D Cell Culture

1Department of Health Science & Technology, Cartilage Engineering & Regeneration, 2Biomaterials Department, Innovent e.V.


JoVE 50632

A bioprinter was used to create patterned hydrogels based on a sacrificial mold. The poloxamer mold was backfilled with a second hydrogel and then eluted, leaving voids which were filled with a third hydrogel. This method uses fast elution and good printability of poloxamer to generate complex architectures from biopolymers.

 JoVE Engineering

Development of a 3D Graphene Electrode Dielectrophoretic Device

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 3XG Sciences, Inc.


JoVE 51696

A microdevice with high throughput potential is used to demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) dielectrophoresis (DEP) with novel materials. Graphene nanoplatelet paper and double sided tape were alternately stacked; a 700 μm micro-well was drilled transverse to the layers. DEP behavior of polystyrene beads was demonstrated in the micro-well.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Millifluidics for Chemical Synthesis and Time-resolved Mechanistic Studies

1Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), Louisiana State University, 2Center for Atomic-Level Catalyst Design, Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, 3Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Louisiana State University, 4Argonne National Laboratory


JoVE 50711

Millifluidic devices are utilized for controlled synthesis of nanomaterials, time-resolved analysis of reaction mechanisms and continuous flow catalysis.

 JoVE Biology

Digital Inline Holographic Microscopy (DIHM) of Weakly-scattering Subjects

1The Rowland Institute, Harvard University, 2Faculdade de Ciências e Letras de Assis, Universidade Estadual Paulista


JoVE 50488

The three-dimensional locations of weakly-scattering objects can be uniquely identified using digital inline holographic microscopy (DIHM), which involves a minor modification to a standard microscope. Our software uses a simple imaging heuristic coupled with Rayleigh-Sommerfeld back-propagation to yield the three-dimensional position and geometry of a microscopic phase object.

 JoVE Engineering

Analyzing the Movement of the Nauplius 'Artemia salina' by Optical Tracking of Plasmonic Nanoparticles

1Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität


JoVE 51502

We use optical tracking of plasmonic nanoparticles to probe and characterize the frequency movements of aquatic organisms.

 JoVE Biology

Giant Liposome Preparation for Imaging and Patch-Clamp Electrophysiology

1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington


JoVE 50227

Reconstituting functional membrane proteins into giant liposomes of defined composition is a powerful approach when combined with patch-clamp electrophysiology. However, conventional giant liposome production may be incompatible with protein stability. We describe protocols for producing giant liposomes from pure lipids or small liposomes containing ion channels.

 JoVE Chemistry

Origami Inspired Self-assembly of Patterned and Reconfigurable Particles

1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University


JoVE 50022

We describe experimental details of the synthesis of patterned and reconfigurable particles from two dimensional (2D) precursors. This methodology can be used to create particles in a variety of shapes including polyhedra and grasping devices at length scales ranging from the micro to centimeter scale.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Paper-based Devices for Isolation and Characterization of Extracellular Vesicles

1Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems, National Tsing Hua University, 2Taichung Veterans General Hospital


JoVE 52722

This protocol details a method to isolate extracellular vesicles (EVs), small membranous particles released from cells, from as little as 10 μl serum samples. This approach circumvents the need for ultracentrifugation, requires only a few minutes of assay time, and enables the isolation of EVs from samples of limited volumes.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Lipid Bilayer Vesicle Generation Using Microfluidic Jetting

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, 4Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, 5Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


JoVE 51510

Microfluidic jetting against a droplet interface lipid bilayer provides a reliable way to generate vesicles with control over membrane asymmetry, incorporation of transmembrane proteins, and encapsulation of material. This technique can be applied to study a variety of biological systems where compartmentalized biomolecules are desired.

 JoVE Biology

Electron Cryotomography of Bacterial Cells

1Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology - Caltech, 2Howard Hughes Medical Institute, California Institute of Technology - Caltech


JoVE 1943

We illustrate here how to use electron cryotomography (ECT) to study the ultrastructure of bacterial cells in near-native states, to "macromolecular" (~4 nm) resolution.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Generation of Shear Adhesion Map Using SynVivo Synthetic Microvascular Networks

1Biomedical Technology, CFD Research Corporation


JoVE 51025

Flow chambers used in adhesion experiments typically consist of linear flow paths and require multiple experiments at different flow rates to generate a shear adhesion map. SynVivo-SMN enables the generation of shear adhesion map using a single experiment utilizing microliter volumes resulting in significant savings in time and consumables.

 JoVE Biology

Long-term Silencing of Intersectin-1s in Mouse Lungs by Repeated Delivery of a Specific siRNA via Cationic Liposomes. Evaluation of Knockdown Effects by Electron Microscopy

1Department of Pharmacology, Rush University, 2Pulmonary and Critical Care Department, Rush University


JoVE 50316

Repeated retro-orbital injections of cationic liposomes/siRNA/ITSN-1s complexes in mice, every 72 hours for 24 days, efficiently deliver the siRNA duplex to the mouse lung microvasculature reducing ITSN-1s mRNA and protein expression by 75%. This technique is highly reproducible in an animal model, has no adverse effects and avoids fatalities.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Plasma Lithography Surface Patterning for Creation of Cell Networks

1Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Arizona, 2Biomedical Engineering IDP and BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona


JoVE 3115

A versatile plasma lithography technique has been developed to generate stable surface patterns for guiding cellular attachment. This technique can be applied to create cell networks including those that mimic natural tissues and has been used for studying several, distinct cell types.

 JoVE Medicine

Multispectral Real-time Fluorescence Imaging for Intraoperative Detection of the Sentinel Lymph Node in Gynecologic Oncology

1Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, 2Helmholtz Zentrum, Technical University Munich, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Medical Center Groningen


JoVE 2225

Fluorescence imaging is a promising innovative modality for image-guided surgery in surgical oncology. In this video we describe the technical procedure for detection of the sentinel lymph node using fluorescence imaging as showcased in gynecologic oncologicy. A multispectral fluorescence camera system, together with the fluorescent agent indocyanine green, is applied.

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