1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University
We developed computational de novo protein design methods capable of tackling several important areas of protein design. To disseminate these methods we present Protein WISDOM, an online tool for protein design (http://www.proteinwisdom.org). Starting from a structural template, design of monomeric proteins for increased stability and complexes for increased binding affinity can be performed.
Published July 25, 2013. Keywords: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Computational Biology, Genomics, Proteomics, Protein, Protein Binding, Computational Biology, Drug Design, optimization (mathematics), Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, De novo protein and peptide design, Drug design, In silico sequence selection, Optimization, Fold specificity, Binding affinity, sequencing
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, 2Department of Radiology, University of Calgary
We demonstrate methods for the detection of architectural distortion in prior mammograms. Oriented structures are analyzed using Gabor filters and phase portraits to detect sites of radiating tissue patterns. Each site is characterized and classified using measures to represent spiculating patterns. The methods should assist in the detection of breast cancer.
Published August 30, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cancer Biology, angular spread, architectural distortion, breast cancer, Computer-Assisted Diagnosis, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), entropy, fractional Brownian motion, fractal dimension, Gabor filters, Image Processing, Medical Informatics, node map, oriented texture, Pattern Recognition, phase portraits, prior mammograms, spectral analysis
1Institute for Computational Medicine and the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University
A methodology to estimate ventricular fiber orientations from in vivo images of patient heart geometries for personalized modeling is described. Validation of the methodology performed using normal and failing canine hearts demonstrate that that there are no significant differences between estimated and acquired fiber orientations at a clinically observable level.
Published January 8, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cardiology, Myocytes, Cardiac, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI, Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cardiac Electrophysiology, computerized simulation (general), mathematical modeling (systems analysis), Cardiomyocyte, biomedical image processing, patient-specific modeling, Electrophysiology, simulation
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine, Umeå University, 2Cell Transplant Center, Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami,, 3EMBL-CRG Systems Biology Program, Centre for Genomic Regulation, Catalan Institute of Research and Advanced Studies, 4Dept. of Computing Science, Umeå University
We describe the adaptation of optical projection tomography (OPT)1 to imaging in the near infrared spectrum, and the implementation of a number of computational tools. These protocols enable assessments of pancreatic β-cell mass (BCM) in larger specimens, increase the multichannel capacity of the technique and increase the quality of OPT data.
Published January 12, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biophysics, Pancreas, Islets of Langerhans, Diabetes Mellitus, Imaging, Three-Dimensional, Optical Projection Tomography, Beta-cell Mass, Near Infrared, Computational Processing
1Max von Pettenkofer Institute, 2Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, 3Institute for Informatics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich
Total cellular RNA provides a poor template for studying short-term changes in RNA synthesis and decay as well as the kinetics of RNA processing. Here, we describe metabolic labeling of newly transcribed RNA with 4-thiouridine followed by thiol-specific biotinylation and purification of newly transcribed RNA allowing to overcome these limitations.
Published August 8, 2013. Keywords: Genetics, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Eukaryota, Investigative Techniques, Biological Phenomena, Gene expression profiling, RNA synthesis, RNA processing, RNA decay, 4-thiouridine, 4sU-tagging, microarray analysis, RNA-seq, RNA, DNA, PCR, sequencing
1Brain and Behavior Discovery Institute, Georgia Health Sciences University, 2Vision Discovery Institute, Georgia Health Sciences University, 3Department of Opthalmology, Georgia Health Sciences University, 4Intelligent Systems Laboratory, Palo Alto Research Center, 5Pattern Recognition Systems, Palo Alto Research Center, 6Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota
We describe a novel methodology for creating naturalistic 3-D objects and object categories with precisely defined feature variations. We use simulations of the biological processes of morphogenesis and phylogenesis to create novel, naturalistic virtual 3-D objects and object categories that can then be rendered as visual images or haptic objects.
Published November 2, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, machine learning, brain, classification, category learning, cross-modal perception, 3-D prototyping, inference
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Department of Neurology, University of Ulm
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) basically serves as an MRI-based tool to identify in vivo the microstructure of the brain and pathological processes due to neurological disorders within the cerebral white matter. DTI-based analyses allow for application to brain diseases both at the group level and in single subject data.
Published July 28, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Neurodegenerative Diseases, nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR, MR, MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, fiber tracking, group level comparison, neurodegenerative diseases, brain, imaging, clinical techniques
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 2The Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, 3National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 4Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5William Fremd High School, 6University of Virginia, 7Duke University, 8Yale University, 9University of Notre Dame, 10Washington University in St. Louis, 11Bioinformatics and Computational Biosciences Branch, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 12Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology
The protocol describes a high-throughput approach to determining structures of membrane proteins using cryo-electron tomography and 3D image processing. It covers the details of specimen preparation, data collection, data processing and interpretation, and concludes with the production of a representative target for the approach, the HIV-1 Envelope glycoprotein. These computational procedures are designed in a way that enables researchers and students to work remotely and contribute to data processing and structural analysis.
Published December 1, 2011. Keywords: Immunology, HIV, Envelope glycoprotein, membrane protein, vaccine design, cryo-electron tomography, transmission electron microscopy, structural biology, high school science, scientific outreach, scientific visualization, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, National Library of Medicine
1Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 2Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
We describe the preparation of barcoded DNA libraries and subsequent hybridization-based exon capture for detection of key cancer-associated mutations in clinical tumor specimens by massively parallel "next generation" sequencing. Targeted exon sequencing offers the benefits of high throughput, low cost, and deep sequence coverage, thus yielding high sensitivity for detecting low frequency mutations.
Published October 18, 2013. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Molecular Diagnostic Techniques, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Genetics, Neoplasms, Diagnosis, Massively parallel sequencing, targeted exon sequencing, hybridization capture, cancer, FFPE, DNA mutations
1The Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, 2Graduate Program in Quantitative and Computational Biology, Princeton University, 3Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University
This protocol describes an experimental procedure for performing Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) for counting mRNAs in single cells at single-molecule resolution.
Published June 14, 2013. Keywords: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Genomics, Life Sciences (General), FISH, single cells, mRNA, transcripts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yeast cells, single-molecule, yeast