1Department of Psychology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
This protocol includes the designs and software necessary to upgrade an existing stereotaxic instrument to a robotic (computer numeric controlled; CNC) stereotaxic instrument for around $1,000 (excluding a drill).
Published October 29, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Surgical Instruments, computer aided manufacturing (CAM), Engineering, Behavioral Sciences, Stereotactic Surgery, Robotic Surgery, Replicability, Open-Source, Computer Numerical Control, G-Code, CNC
1Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 2Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, and Ophthalamology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Radiation Oncology & Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, University Of Washington Medical Center, 5Institute for Cell Engineering and High-Throughput Biology Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
The function of adult-born mammalian neurons remains an active area of investigation. Ionizing radiation inhibits the birth of new neurons. Using computer tomography-guided focal irradiation (CFIR), three-dimensional anatomical targeting of specific neural progenitor populations can now be used to assess the functional role of adult neurogenesis.
Published November 14, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neural Stem Cells (NSCs), Body Weight, Radiotherapy, Image-Guided, Metabolism, Energy Metabolism, Neurogenesis, Cell Proliferation, Neurosciences, Irradiation, Radiological treatment, Computer-tomography (CT) imaging, Hypothalamus, Hypothalamic Proliferative Zone (HPZ), Median Eminence (ME), Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP)
1Ophthalmology Department, Center for Vision Research, SUNY Eye Institute, Upstate Medical University
Xenopus laevis tadpoles prefer swimming on the white side of a black/white tank. This behavior is guided by their vision. Based on this behavior, we present a simple assay to test the visual function of tadpoles.
Published June 12, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, eye, retina, vision, color preference, Xenopus laevis, behavior, light, guidance, visual assay
1Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, 2Center for Bioinformatics and Department of Molecular Bioscience, University of Kansas
Guidelines for computer based structural and functional characterization of protein using the I-TASSER pipeline is described. Starting from query protein sequence, 3D models are generated using multiple threading alignments and iterative structural assembly simulations. Functional inferences are thereafter drawn based on matches to proteins with known structure and functions.
Published November 3, 2011. Keywords: Biochemistry, On-line server, I-TASSER, protein structure prediction, function prediction
1DFG - Research Center and Cluster of Excellence for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Germany
Controlling the expansion of somatic stem cells is a major factor hampering their study and use in therapy. Here we describe a system to temporally control neural stem cells expansion during development and adulthood, which can be used to increase the number of neurons generated in the mouse brain.
Published October 6, 2012. Keywords: Stem Cell Biology, Neuroscience, Developmental Biology, Neural stem cells (NSC), brain development, adult neurogenesis, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4), cyclin D1, in utero electroporation, viral stereotaxic injection
1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki
This method creates a tangible, familiar environment for the mouse to navigate and explore during microscopic imaging or single-cell electrophysiological recordings, which require firm fixation of the animal’s head.
Published June 29, 2014. Keywords: Empty Value, awake, in vivo two-photon microscopy, blood vessels, dendrites, dendritic spines, Ca2+ imaging, intrinsic optical imaging, patch-clamp
1Department of Psychology, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 2Neuronal Networks Section, Integrative Neuroscience Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse
Implanting organized arrays of microwires for use in single-unit electrophysiological recordings presents a number of technical challenges. Methods for performing this technique and the equipment necessary are described. Also, the beneficial use of organized microwire arrays to record from distinct neural subregions with high spatial selectivity is discussed.
Published February 14, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Single-unit Recordings, Electrophysiology, Microwire, Neurophysiology, Neural signaling
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Centre for Neurobiology of Stress, Dept Biological Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough
A protocol for performing unilateral 6-OHDA lesions of the medial forebrain bundle in mice is described. This method has a low mortality rate (13.3 %) with 89% of the surviving animals showing >95% loss of striatal dopamine and 90.63±-4.02 % ipsiversive rotational bias towards the side of the lesion.
Published February 14, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, mouse, 6-OHDA, Parkinson’s disease, medial forebrain bundle, unilateral
1Department of Engineering and Neuroscience Program, Trinity College
Transgenic and knockout mouse models of neurological diseases are useful for studying the role of genes in normal and abnormal neurophysiology. This article describes methodologies which can be used to study long-term potentiation, a cellular mechanism which may underlie learning and memory, in transgenic and knockout freely behaving mouse models of neuropathology.
Published November 29, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, freely behaving animal, mouse, dentate gyrus, hippocampus, long term potentiation, electrophysical research technique
JoVE Applied Physics
1Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University
Disordered structures offer new mechanisms for forming photonic bandgaps and unprecedented freedom in functional-defect designs. To circumvent the computational challenges of disordered systems, we construct modular macroscopic samples of the new class of PBG materials and use microwaves to characterize their scale-invariant photonic properties, in an easy and inexpensive manner.
Published September 26, 2014. Keywords: Physics, optics and photonics, photonic crystals, photonic bandgap, hyperuniform, disordered media, waveguides