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Confined Spaces: A space which has limited openings for entry and exit combined with unfavorable natural ventilation such as Caves, refrigerators, deep tunnels, pipelines, sewers, silos, tanks, vats, mines, deep trenches or pits, vaults, manholes, chimneys, etc.
 JoVE Medicine

Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize Dysphagia in Murine Disease Models

1Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Missouri, 2Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Missouri, 3Department of Medicine, University of Missouri


JoVE 52319

 JoVE Medicine

Extended Time-lapse Intravital Imaging of Real-time Multicellular Dynamics in the Tumor Microenvironment

1Department of Anatomy & Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 2Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 3Gruss-Lipper Biophotonics Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 4Integrated Imaging Program, Albert Einstein College of Medicine


JoVE 54042

 Science Education: Essentials of Behavioral Science

Anxiety Testing

JoVE Science Education

Anxiety is a commonly observed behavioral disorder that stems from fear. It is described as increased restlessness, or unpleasant feelings of fear over anticipated events. Experimenters often use rodent models to better understand anxiety disorders in humans. They use different paradigms, like exposing rodents to bright spaces or loud sounds, which are known to induce fear. These tests combined with other interventions such as surgery or drug-administration may assist researchers in pinpointing the neurobiological basis of anxiety disorders. This video begins by providing common principles behind variety of anxiety tests. Then, two specific protocols, the Successive Alleys Test and the Hyponeophagia Test are discussed in detail.  Lastly, variations of anxiety testing in rodents and humans will be explored.

 JoVE Biology

An Analytical Tool that Quantifies Cellular Morphology Changes from Three-dimensional Fluorescence Images

1Medications Development, Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, 2Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, 3Translational Research Institute and the Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia


JoVE 4233

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 JoVE Medicine

Percutaneous Hepatic Perfusion (PHP) with Melphalan as a Treatment for Unresectable Metastases Confined to the Liver

1Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Centre, 2Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, 4Department of Extracorporeal Circulation, Leiden University Medical Centre, 5Department of Medical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, 6Department of Surgery, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute


JoVE 53795

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 JoVE Medicine

Lesion Explorer: A Video-guided, Standardized Protocol for Accurate and Reliable MRI-derived Volumetrics in Alzheimer's Disease and Normal Elderly

1LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Research Unit, Heart & Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Brain Sciences Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2Department of Medicine (Neurology), Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto


JoVE 50887

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 JoVE Bioengineering

In situ Compressive Loading and Correlative Noninvasive Imaging of the Bone-periodontal Ligament-tooth Fibrous Joint

1Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 2Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 3Xradia Inc.


JoVE 51147

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Optical Frequency Domain Imaging of Ex vivo Pulmonary Resection Specimens: Obtaining One to One Image to Histopathology Correlation

1Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, 2Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, 5Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit, Harvard Medical School


JoVE 3855

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 Science Education: Essentials of Cognitive Psychology

Mental Rotation

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Visual mental imagery refers to the ability to conjure images in one’s mind’s eye. This allows people to process visual material above and beyond the constraints of a current point-of-view; for example, a person could imagine, using their mind’s eye, how something might look in a different color, or what it would look like if it were made from a different material or rotated and seen from a different perspective. Mental imagery seems to support important human behaviors in many contexts. For example, people report visualizing routes and maps when planning a route or giving directions. They report visualizing movements, such as swinging a bat, to prepare for an actual action. They also report the mental rotation of objects in order to consider how an object might fit into a receptacle or clear a barrier. This video demonstrates how to use the mental rotation procedure in order to investigate visual mental imagery.

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 Science Education: Essentials of Earth Science

Removal of Branched and Cyclic Compounds by Urea Adduction for Uk'37 Paleothermometry

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jeff Salacup - University of Massachusetts Amherst

As mentioned in previous videos, the product of an organic solvent extraction, a total lipid extract (TLE), is often a complex mixture of hundreds, if not thousands, of different compounds. The researcher is often only interested in a handful of compounds. In the case of our two organic paleothermometers (Uk'37 and MBT/CBT), the interest is in only 6 compounds (2 alkenones and 4 isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers). As discussed in the previous two videos in this series, purification techniques may be applied in order to pare down the number of compounds in an analyzed sample. These techniques may chemically alter the unwanted components (saponification), take advantage of the different compound chemistries (column chromatography), or use the different shapes and sizes of the molecules to include or exclude certain components from the analysis (urea adduction). The atomic structure of different chemicals leads some organic compounds to form long, narrow, straight chains (n-alkanes and alkenones), other organic compounds to form complex cyclic structures, others to form highly-branched structures, and yet others which form both cyclic and branched structures (GDGTs) (Figure 1). The different

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Rapid and Low-cost Prototyping of Medical Devices Using 3D Printed Molds for Liquid Injection Molding

1Department of Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 2Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 3Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California


JoVE 51745

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Preparation and Photoacoustic Analysis of Cellular Vehicles Containing Gold Nanorods

1Institute of Applied Physics, Italian National Research Council, 2Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Firenze, 3Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, 4Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna


JoVE 53328

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 Science Education: Essentials of Environmental Science

Using GIS to Investigate Urban Forestry

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

Urban forests broadly include urban parks, street trees, landscaped boulevards, public gardens, river and coastal promenades, greenways, river corridors, wetlands, nature preserves, natural areas, shelterbelts of trees, and working trees at industrial brownfield sites. The history of urban trees begins with trees as landscape embellishment. Today, urban trees are seen as essential components of city infrastructure and critical to human life as food, housing, and other public utilities. Urban trees are now valued for the ecosystem services they provide (e.g., preventing erosion, air pollutant removal, oxygen, shade, etc.). Yet, to efficiently make use of these benefits, trees must reach maturity, as leaf number and size directly affect a tree’s ability to provide ecosystem services. Urban forestry has had to develop its own forestry methods to address the needs and challenges unique to urban trees as compared to their woodland counterparts. The following excerpt from the USDA Forest Service illustrates the urban tree perspective and policies of federal government: Urban forests are dynamic ecosystems that provide needed environmental services by cleanin

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations I

Respiratory Exam II: Percussion and Auscultation

JoVE Science Education

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Learning the proper technique for percussion and auscultation of the respiratory system is vital and comes with practice on real patients. Percussion is a useful skill that is often skipped during everyday clinical practice, but if performed correctly, it can help the physician to identify underlying lung pathology. Auscultation can provide an almost immediate diagnosis for a number of acute pulmonary conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pneumonia, and pneumothorax. The areas for auscultating the lungs correspond to the lung zones. Each lung lobe can be pictured underneath the chest wall during percussion and auscultation (Figure 1). The right lung has three lobes: the superior, middle, and inferior lobes. The left lung has two lobes: the superior and inferior lobes. The superior lobe of the left lung also has a separate projection known as the lingual. Figure 1. Anatomy of lungs with respect to the chest wall. An approximate projection of lungs and their fissures and lobes

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