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Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-Ray diffraction techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
 Science Education: Essentials of Organic Chemistry

Growing Crystals for X-ray Diffraction Analysis

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Jimmy Franco - Merrimack College

X-ray crystallography is a method commonly used to determine the spatial arrangement of atoms in a crystalline solid, which allows for the determination of the three-dimensional shape of a molecule or complex. Determining the three-dimensional structure of a compound is of particular importance, since a compound's structure and function are intimately related. Information about a compound's structure is often used to explain its behavior or reactivity. This is one of the most useful techniques for solving the three-dimensional structure of a compound or complex, and in some cases it may be the only viable method for determining the structure. Growing X-ray quality crystals is the key component of X-ray crystallography. The size and quality of the crystal is often highly dependent on the composition of the compound being examined by X-ray crystallography. Typically compounds containing heavier atoms produce a greater diffraction pattern, thus require smaller crystals. Generally, single crystals with well-defined faces are optimal, and typically for organic compounds, the crystals need to be larger than those containing heavy atoms. Without viable crystals, X-ray crystallography is not feasible. Some molecules are inherently more crystalline than others, thu

 JoVE Chemistry

From Constructs to Crystals – Towards Structure Determination of β-barrel Outer Membrane Proteins

1Department of Biological Sciences, Markey Center for Structural Biology, Purdue University, 2National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health, 3National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National Institutes of Health


JoVE 53245

 Science Education: Essentials of Organic Chemistry

Purifying Compounds by Recrystallization

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Jimmy Franco - Merrimack College

Recrystallization is a technique used to purify solid compounds.1 Solids tend to be more soluble in hot liquids than in cold liquids. During recrystallization, an impure solid compound is dissolved in a hot liquid until the solution is saturated, and then the liquid is allowed to cool.2 The compound should then form relatively pure crystals. Ideally, any impurities that are present will remain in the solution and will not be incorporated into the growing crystals (Figure 1). The crystals can then be removed from the solution by filtration. Not all of the compound is recoverable — some will remain in the solution and will be lost. Recrystallization is not generally thought of as a separation technique; rather, it is a purification technique in which a small amount of an impurity is removed from a compound. However, if the solubility properties of two compounds are sufficiently different, recrystallization can be used to separate them, even if they are present in nearly equal amounts. Recrystallization works best when most impurities have already been removed by another method, such as extraction or column chromatography. Fi</span>…		</p>
		
	
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 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Multi-target Parallel Processing Approach for Gene-to-structure Determination of the Influenza Polymerase PB2 Subunit

1Protein Crystallization Lab, Emerald Bio, 2Molecular Biology Lab, Emerald Bio, 3Scientific Sales Representative, Emerald Bio, 4Group Leader II, Emerald Bio, 5Group Leader I, Emerald Bio, 6Chair of Advisory Board, Emerald Bio, 7Director of Multi-Target Services, Emerald Bio, 8Senior Project Leader, Emerald Bio, 9Project Leader II & SSGCID Site Manager, Emerald Bio


JoVE 4225

 JoVE Engineering

In Situ Neutron Powder Diffraction Using Custom-made Lithium-ion Batteries

1School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, 2Institute for Superconducting & Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, 3Australian Synchrotron, 4Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 5School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, 6School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales


JoVE 52284

 JoVE Engineering

Sputter Growth and Characterization of Metamagnetic B2-ordered FeRh Epilayers

1School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, 2Institute of Materials Research, University of Leeds, 3School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, 5Department of Physics, Northeastern University


JoVE 50603

 JoVE Biology

Efficient Mammalian Cell Expression and Single-step Purification of Extracellular Glycoproteins for Crystallization

1Molecular Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis Program, Washington University School of Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 3Drug Discovery Program in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 4Biochemistry Program, Washington University School of Medicine, 5Center for the Investigation of Membrane Excitability Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, 6Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, 7Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine


JoVE 53445

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Determination of Molecular Structures of HIV Envelope Glycoproteins using Cryo-Electron Tomography and Automated Sub-tomogram Averaging

1Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 2The Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, 3National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 4Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5William Fremd High School, 6University of Virginia, 7Duke University, 8Yale University, 9University of Notre Dame, 10Washington University in St. Louis, 11Bioinformatics and Computational Biosciences Branch, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 12Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology


JoVE 2770

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