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Diagnostic Services: Organized services for the purpose of providing diagnosis to promote and maintain health.
 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Pelvic Exam II: Speculum Exam

JoVE Science Education


Alexandra Duncan, GTA, Praxis Clinical, New Haven, CT

Tiffany Cook, GTA, Praxis Clinical, New Haven, CT

Jaideep S. Talwalkar, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Providing comfortable speculum placement is an important skill for providers to develop, since the speculum is a necessary tool in many gynecological procedures. Patients and providers are often anxious about the speculum exam, but it is entirely possible to place a speculum without patient discomfort. It's important for the clinician to be aware of the role language plays in creating a comfortable environment; for instance, a provider should refer to the speculum "bills" rather than "blades" to avoid upsetting the patient. There are two types of speculums: metal and plastic (Figure 1). This demonstration utilizes plastic, as plastic speculums are most commonly used in clinics for routine testing. When using a metal speculum, it's recommended to use a Graves speculum if the patient has given birth vaginally, and a Pederson speculum if the patient has not. Pederson and Graves speculums are different shapes, and both come in many different sizes (me

 JoVE Biology

Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing for Assessment of DNA Methylation at Base Pair Resolution

1Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 2Institute for Computational Biomedicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 3Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College, 4Department of Pathology, University of Michigan

JoVE 52246

 JoVE Medicine

High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic Imaging of Human Tissue Sections towards Improving Pathology

1Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 3Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, 4Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 5Department of Nephrology, University of Illinois at Chicago

JoVE 52332

 JoVE Behavior

Vision Training Methods for Sports Concussion Mitigation and Management

1Neurology and Rehabilitative Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 2Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Cincinnati, 3Department of Athletics, University of Cincinnati, 4Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cincinnati, 5College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, 6Division of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

JoVE 52648

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 4. Medical Imaging Procedures

1Integrated Research Facility at Frederick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH)

JoVE 53601

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations I

General Approach to the Physical Exam

JoVE Science Education

Source: Jaideep S. Talwalkar, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

The examination of the body is fundamental to the practice of medicine. Since the Roman Empire, physicians have described the connection between alterations in function of specific parts of the body and specific disease states and have sought to further scientific understanding to improve bedside diagnosis. However, in this modern age of increasing technology within medical diagnostics, it is important to consider the role that physical examination plays today. It is misguided to believe that physical examination holds all the answers, and much has been written about the questionable utility of certain maneuvers previously held in high regard. It is equally misguided to suggest that physical examination plays little role in the modern patient encounter. Physical examination remains a valuable diagnostic tool; there are many diagnoses that can only be made by physical examination. A diagnosis made by labs or imaging is rarely done in the absence of findings detectable at the bedside. As the provider conducts a history and physical, they are actively generating and testing hypotheses to explain the patient's condition. The information one gathers may not replace the need

 JoVE Genetics

The Use of Induced Somatic Sector Analysis (ISSA) for Studying Genes and Promoters Involved in Wood Formation and Secondary Stem Development

1School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Melbourne, 2Victorian AgriBiosciences Centre, La Trobe University R&D Park, 3College of Biological Sciences, Department of Plant Biology, University of California, Davis, 4Department of Genetics, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria

JoVE 54553

 JoVE Medicine

MRI-guided dmPFC-rTMS as a Treatment for Treatment-resistant Major Depressive Disorder

1Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, 2MRI-Guided rTMS Clinic, University Health Network, 3Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, 4Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 6Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Toronto, 7Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

JoVE 53129

 JoVE Behavior

A Novel Experimental and Analytical Approach to the Multimodal Neural Decoding of Intent During Social Interaction in Freely-behaving Human Infants

1Laboratory for Noninvasive Brain-Machine Interface Systems, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston, 3Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston

JoVE 53406

 JoVE Biology

Quantitation of Protein Expression and Co-localization Using Multiplexed Immuno-histochemical Staining and Multispectral Imaging

1Division of Urologic Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, 2Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 3Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 4O’Brien Urology Research Center, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health

JoVE 53837

 JoVE Medicine

Assessing Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Species Barriers with an In Vitro Prion Protein Conversion Assay

1USGS National Wildlife Health Center, 2Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 3Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4Merial Veterinary Scholars Program, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 5Department of Neurology, University of British Columbia

JoVE 52522

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Radial Mobility and Cytotoxic Function of Retroviral Replicating Vector Transduced, Non-adherent Alloresponsive T Lymphocytes

1Department of Neurosurgery, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, 2Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, 4Brain Research Institute, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, 5Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine

JoVE 52416

 JoVE Medicine

The Multiple Sclerosis Performance Test (MSPT): An iPad-Based Disability Assessment Tool

1Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2Center for Brain Health, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 3Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation

JoVE 51318

 JoVE Medicine

Working with Human Tissues for Translational Cancer Research

1Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 2Department of Genomic Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 3Department of Pathology and Institutional Tissue Bank, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

JoVE 53189

 JoVE Medicine

Manual Muscle Testing: A Method of Measuring Extremity Muscle Strength Applied to Critically Ill Patients

1Outcomes After Critical Illness and Surgery (OACIS) Group, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 2Critical Care Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Program, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University, 4Department of Rehabilitation Services, University of Maryland Medical System

JoVE 2632

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 JoVE Behavior

The 4 Mountains Test: A Short Test of Spatial Memory with High Sensitivity for the Diagnosis of Pre-dementia Alzheimer's Disease

1Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, 2Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, 3U.O. Direzione Scientifica, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, 4Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, 5Department of Psychology, University of York

JoVE 54454

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