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Dry Ice: A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.
 Science Education: Essentials of Organic Chemistry

Conducting Reactions Below Room Temperature

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Dana Lashley - College of William and Mary

Demonstration by: Matt Smith

When new bonds are formed in the course of a chemical reaction, it requires that the involved species (atoms or molecules) come in very close proximity and collide into one another. The collisions between these species are more frequent and effective the higher the speed at which these molecules are moving. A widely used rule of thumb, which has its roots in the Arrhenius equation1, states that raising the temperature by 10 K will approximately double the rate of a reaction, and raising the temperature by 20 K will quadruple the rate: (1) Equation (1) is often found in its logarithmic form: (2) where k is the rate of the chemical reaction, A is the frequency factor (relating to frequency of molecular collisions), Ea is the activation energy required for the reaction, R is the ideal gas constant, and T is the temperature at which the r

 JoVE Biology

Removal of Exogenous Materials from the Outer Portion of Frozen Cores to Investigate the Ancient Biological Communities Harbored Inside

1Biogeochemical Sciences Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Hanover, NH, 2Environmental Processes Branch, Environmental Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, 3Terrestrial and Cryospheric Scienes Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Hanover, NH, 4Biogeochemical Sciences Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Fairbanks, AK


JoVE 54091

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Antibody Binding Specificity for Kappa (Vκ) Light Chain-containing Human (IgM) Antibodies: Polysialic Acid (PSA) Attached to NCAM as a Case Study

1Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 2Mayo Clinic Center for Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmune Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 3Center for Regenerative Medicine, Neuroregeneration, Mayo Clinic, 4Division of Neonatal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 5Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic


JoVE 54139

 JoVE Biology

Tissue Triage and Freezing for Models of Skeletal Muscle Disease

1Division of Pediatric Pathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University, 3Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, Virginia Tech, 4Division of Biomedical Informatics, Department of Biostatistics, Department of Computer Science, University of Kentucky, 5Division of Genetics and Genomics, The Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 6Cure Congenital Muscular Dystrophy, 7Joshua Frase Foundation, 8Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, 9Department of Physiology, University of Arizona


JoVE 51586

 JoVE Biology

High-Throughput, Multi-Image Cryohistology of Mineralized Tissues

1Department of Reconstructive Sciences, University of Connecticut Health Center, 2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, 4Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester


JoVE 54468

 JoVE Developmental Biology

In Vitro Colony Assays for Characterizing Tri-potent Progenitor Cells Isolated from the Adult Murine Pancreas

1Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 2Irell & Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 3Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology


JoVE 54016

 JoVE Cancer Research

Next Generation Sequencing for the Detection of Actionable Mutations in Solid and Liquid Tumors

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Abramson Cancer Center


JoVE 52758

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Identifying DNA Mutations in Purified Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells

1Greehey Children's Cancer Research Institute, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 2Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 3Department of Pathology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 4Department of Microbiology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 5Cancer Therapy and Research Center, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio


JoVE 50752

 JoVE Biology

Purification of Transcripts and Metabolites from Drosophila Heads

1Department of Neurology, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, 2Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, 3Genetics Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, 4McKnight Brain Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Genetics Institute, Center for Translational Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases, and Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration, University of Florida


JoVE 50245

 Science Education: Essentials of General Chemistry

Freezing-Point Depression to Determine an Unknown Compound

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Lynne O' Connell — Boston College

When a solid compound is dissolved in a solvent, the freezing point of the resulting solution is lower than that of the pure solvent. This phenomenon is known as freezing-point depression, and the change in temperature is directly related to the molecular weight of the solute. This experiment is designed to find the identity of an unknown compound by using the phenomenon of freezing-point depression to determine its molecular weight. The compound will be dissolved in cyclohexane, and the freezing point of this solution, as well as that of pure cyclohexane, will be measured. The difference between these two temperatures allows for the calculation of the molecular weight of the unknown substance.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 4Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 5Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, 7Department of Neurology, Neurosciences Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine


JoVE 51763

 JoVE Medicine

Microarray-based Identification of Individual HERV Loci Expression: Application to Biomarker Discovery in Prostate Cancer

1Joint Unit Hospices de Lyon-bioMérieux, 2Medical Diagnostic Discovery Department, BioMérieux, 3Department of Pathology and Cytology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 4Medical Faculty, Lyon 1 University, 5Data and Knowledge Laboratory, BioMérieux, 6Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 7Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon


JoVE 50713

 JoVE Neuroscience

Preparation of Primary Neurons for Visualizing Neurites in a Frozen-hydrated State Using Cryo-Electron Tomography

1Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, 3Department of Neuroscience, University of California at San Diego, 4National Center for Macromolecular Imaging, Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine


JoVE 50783

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