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Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (Cochlea; Vestibular labyrinth; and Semicircular canals) in the Temporal bone. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (Cochlear duct; Saccule and utricle; and Semicircular ducts) forming a continuous space enclosed by Epithelium and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with Labyrinthine fluids of various compositions.
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 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Rodent Identification I

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

A fundamental requirement of biomedical research is the proper identification of research animals. It is essential that the right animal is utilized for procedures and data collection. Laboratory mice and rats can be identified with the following permanent methods: ear tags, ear punch codes, microchip implantation, tail tattoos for adult mice, and toe tattoos for neonates. Temporary methods of dyes and marking pens can also be used for acute studies. This video covers the technical aspects of ear tagging and punching for mice and rats, as well as the benefits of each with respect to the type of research being conducted on the animals. Knowledge of the basic manual restraint techniques for each animal (covered in a separate video) is required for these identification methods to be properly accomplished.

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 JoVE In-Press

Inducing Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in the Mouse Ear Skin for Intravital Multiphoton Imaging of Immune Responses

1Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 3Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 4Centenary Institute for Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology, 5Discipline of Dermatology, University of Sydney, 6Department of Dermatology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, 7LSI Immunology Programme, National University of Singapore, 8School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University

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JoVE 54956

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 JoVE In-Press

A Comparative Study of Drug Delivery Methods Targeted to the Mouse Inner Ear: Bullostomy Versus Transtympanic Injection

1Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas (IIBm) Alberto Sols CSIC-UAM, 2Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 3Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Paz (IdiPAZ), 4Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 5Departmento de Otorrino laringología, Hospital Universitario La Paz

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JoVE 54951

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 JoVE Behavior

Neuro-rehabilitation Approach for Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

1Department of Integrative Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, 2Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences and Medical School, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kansai Rosai Hospital, 4Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis, University of Muenster, 5Institute for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Muenster, 6Sokendai Graduate University for Advanced Studies


JoVE 53264

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Ear Exam

JoVE Science Education

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA

This video describes the examination of the ear, beginning with a review of its surface and interior anatomy (Figure 1). The cartilaginous auricle consists of the helix, antihelix, earlobe, and tragus. The mastoid process is positioned just behind the earlobe. The slightly curving auditory canal ends at the tympanic membrane, which transmits sound waves collected by the external ear to the air-filled middle ear. The Eustachian tube connects to the middle ear with the nasopharynx. Vibrations of the tympanic membrane transmit to the three connected ossicles of the middle ear (the malleus, incus, and stapes). The vibrations are transformed into electrical signals in the inner ear, and then carried to the brain by the cochlear nerve. Hearing, therefore, comprises a conductive phase that involves the external and middle ear, and a sensorineural phase that involves the inner ear and cochlear nerve. The auditory canal and the tympanic membrane are examined with the otoscope, a handheld instrument with a light source, a magnifier, and a disposable cone-shaped speculum. It is important to be familiar with the tympanic membrane landmarks (

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 Science Education: Essentials of Cognitive Psychology

Dichotic Listening

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

It is a well-known fact that the human ability to process incoming stimuli is limited. Nonetheless, the world is complicated, and there are always many things going on at once. Selective attention is the mechanism that allows humans and other animals to control which stimuli get processed and which become ignored. Think of a cocktail party: a person couldn’t possibly attend to all of the conversations taking place at once. However, everyone has the ability to selectively listen to one conversation, leading all the rest to become unattended to and nothing more than background noise. In order to study how people do this, researchers simulate a more controlled cocktail party environment by playing sounds to participants dichotically, i.e., by playing different sounds simultaneously to each ear. This is called a dichotic listening paradigm. This experiment demonstrates standard procedures for investigating selective auditory attention with a paradigm called dichotic listening.

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 JoVE Bioengineering

From Voxels to Knowledge: A Practical Guide to the Segmentation of Complex Electron Microscopy 3D-Data

1Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2Joint Bioenergy Institute, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 3National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


JoVE 51673

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 JoVE Neuroscience

A Method for Systematic Electrochemical and Electrophysiological Evaluation of Neural Recording Electrodes

1School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, 2Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, 3ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, 4Health Innovations Research Institute, College of Science, Engineering, and Health, RMIT University


JoVE 51084

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI

1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, 2Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, 4Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario, 5Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, 6Cerebral Systems Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, 7National Centre for Audiology, University of Western Ontario


JoVE 50872

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 JoVE Biology

Direct Delivery of MIF Morpholinos Into the Zebrafish Otocyst by Injection and Electroporation Affects Inner Ear Development

1Department of Veterinary Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 2Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 3Present address: Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI


JoVE 2466

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 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Rodent Identification II

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Animal records must be accurately maintained to ensure that data collection is correct. Records range from maintaining information on cage cards to having a detailed database with all of the relevant information on each animal. The primary component of recordkeeping is the individual identification of research animals. There are a variety of methods suitable for identifying mice and rats. This video describes the procedural techniques for tattooing, microchip placement, and temporary identification methods, and also explores the benefits of each.

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