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Edema, Cardiac: Abnormal fluid retention by the body due to impaired cardiac function or heart failure. It is usually characterized by increase in venous and capillary pressure, and swollen legs when standing. It is different from the generalized edema caused by renal dysfunction (Nephrotic syndrome).
 JoVE Medicine

Method of Isolated Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in a Rat Model: Lessons Learned from Developing a Rat EVLP Program

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 2Davis Heart & Lung Research Institute, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 3The Collaboration for Organ Perfusion, Protection, Engineering and Regeneration (COPPER) Laboratory, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 4Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 5Departments of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, Ohio State University, 6Advanced Lung Disease Program, Lung and Heart-Lung Transplant Programs, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 7Division of Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center


JoVE 52309

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations I

Cardiac Exam I: Inspection and Palpation

JoVE Science Education

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

The cardiac assessment is one of the core examinations performed by almost every physician whenever encountering a patient. Disorders of the cardiac system are among the most common reasons for hospital admission, with conditions ranging from myocardial infarction to congestive heart failure. Learning a complete and thorough cardiac examination is therefore crucial for any practicing physician. If there is pathology in the heart or circulatory system, the consequences can also be manifested in other bodily areas, including the lungs, abdomen, and legs. Many physicians instinctively reach straight for their stethoscopes when performing cardiac exams. However, a large amount of information is gained before auscultation by going through the correct sequence of examination, starting with inspection and palpation.

 JoVE Medicine

Heterotopic Cervical Heart Transplantation in Mice

1Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Division of Experimental Surgery, German Heart Center Munich, Technische Universität München, 2Institute of Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Division of Experimental Surgery, German Heart Center Munich, Technische Universität München, 4Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, General Hospital Linz


JoVE 52907

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations I

Cardiac Exam II: Auscultation

JoVE Science Education

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Proficiency in the use of a stethoscope to listen to heart sounds and the ability to differentiate between normal and abnormal heart sounds are essential skills for any physician. Correct placement of the stethoscope on the chest corresponds to the sound of cardiac valves closing. The heart has two main sounds: S1 and S2. The first heart sound (S1) occurs as the mitral and tricuspid valves (atrioventricular valves) close after blood enters the ventricles. This represents the start of systole. The second heart sound (S2) occurs when the aortic and pulmonary valves (semilunar valves) close after blood has left the ventricles to enter the systemic and pulmonary circulation systems at the end of systole. Traditionally, the sounds are known as a "lub-dub." Auscultation of the heart is performed using both diaphragm and bell parts of the stethoscope chest piece. The diaphragm is most commonly used and is best for high-frequency sounds (such as S1 and S2) and murmurs of mitral regurgitation and aortic stenosis. The diaphragm should be pressed firmly against the chest wall. The bell best transmits low-frequency sounds (such as S3 and S4) and the murmur of mitral stenosis. The bell should be applied

 JoVE Medicine

Normothermic Ex Vivo Kidney Perfusion for the Preservation of Kidney Grafts prior to Transplantation

1Multi Organ Transplant Program, Department of Surgery, Toronto General Hospital, 2Division of Nephrology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, 3Department of General, Visceral & Transplant Surgery, University Medical Center Mainz, 4Department of Abdominal, Vascular & Transplant Surgery, Merheim Medical Center Cologne, 5Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology, Toronto General Hospital, 6Departments of Surgery (Urology) & Physiology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, 7Developmental & Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto


JoVE 52909

 JoVE Medicine

Automated Measurement of Microcirculatory Blood Flow Velocity in Pulmonary Metastases of Rats

1Division of Plastic, Maxillofacial, and Oral Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, 3Department of Cardiology, University of Colorado Denver, 4Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Mainz


JoVE 51630

 JoVE Medicine

Fundus Photography as a Convenient Tool to Study Microvascular Responses to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Epidemiological Studies

1Environmental Risk and Health, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), 2Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, 3Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, 4Department of Public Health, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Leuven University


JoVE 51904

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations I

Peripheral Vascular Exam Using a Continuous Wave Doppler

JoVE Science Education

Source: Joseph Donroe, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a common condition affecting older adults and includes disease of the peripheral arteries and veins. While the history and physical exam offer clues to its diagnosis, Doppler ultrasound has become a routine part of the bedside vascular examination. The video titled "The Peripheral Vascular Exam" gave a detailed review of the physical examination of the peripheral arterial and venous systems. This video specifically reviews the bedside assessment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and chronic venous insufficiency using a handheld continuous wave Doppler. The handheld Doppler (HHD) is a simple instrument that utilizes continuous transmission and reception of ultrasound (also referred to as continuous wave Doppler) to detect changes in blood velocity as it courses through a vessel. The Doppler probe contains a transmitting element that emits ultrasound and a receiving element that detects ultrasound waves (Figure 1). The emitted ultrasound is reflected off of moving blood and back to the probe at a frequency directly related to the velocity of blood flow. The reflected signal is detected and transduced to an audible sound with a frequen

 JoVE Medicine

Multispectral Real-time Fluorescence Imaging for Intraoperative Detection of the Sentinel Lymph Node in Gynecologic Oncology

1Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, 2Helmholtz Zentrum, Technical University Munich, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Medical Center Groningen


JoVE 2225

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Construction of Defined Human Engineered Cardiac Tissues to Study Mechanisms of Cardiac Cell Therapy

1Cardiovascular Research Center, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2The Mindich Child Health and Development Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 3Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine Consortium, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong


JoVE 53447

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 JoVE Biology

High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, LKS Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong University, 5Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 6Cardiovascular Research Center, Biotechnology and Bioengineering Center, Medical College of Wisconsin


JoVE 52010

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