The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
1Department of Chemistry, Gottwald Center for the Sciences, University of Richmond, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gottwald Center for the Sciences, University of Richmond
Alkanethiolate stabilized gold colloids known as monolayer protected clusters (MPCs) are synthesized, characterized, and assembled into thin films as an adsorption interface for protein monolayer electrochemistry of simple redox protein like Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin (AZ) and cytochrome c (cyt c).
Published October 4, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Monolayer protected clusters, film assemblies, protein monolayer electrochemistry, azurin, self-assembled monolayers
1Department of Environmental Microbiology, UFZ - Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research
Chronoamperometric growth of anodic electroactive microbial biofilms in a fed-batch reactor using a three-electrode setup, controlled by a potentiostat, is demonstrated. The extracellular electron transfer is characterized using cyclic voltammetry in the presence of the electron donor and in the absence of the electron donor. Fundamental data analysis is demonstrated.
Published December 29, 2013. Keywords: Environmental Sciences, Electrochemistry, Microbial fuel cell, microbial bioelectrochemical system, cyclic voltammetry, electroactive bacteria, microbial bioelectrochemistry, bioelectrocatalysis
1Department of Chemistry, Virginia Military Institute
A procedure for performing reductive electropolymerization of vinyl-containing compounds onto glassy carbon and fluorine doped tin-oxide coated electrodes is presented. Recommendations on electrochemical cell configurations and troubleshooting procedures are included. Although not explicitly described here, oxidative electropolymerization of pyrrole-containing compounds follows similar procedures to vinyl-based reductive electropolymerization.
Published January 30, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, electrochemistry, electropolymerization, electrodeposition, fluorine doped tin oxide, glassy carbon, cyclic voltammetry, potentiostat, vinyl, pyrrole, ruthenium, controlled potential electrolysis, 3-compartment cell
1Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology
The goal of this protocol is to use electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) monitored redox titrations to identify different cofactors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nar1. Redox titrations offer a very robust way to obtain midpoint potentials of different redox active cofactors in enzymes and proteins.
Published November 26, 2014. Keywords: Biochemistry, Redox titration, electron paramagnetic resonance, Nar1, cofactor, iron-sulfur cluster, mononuclear iron, midpoint potential
1Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 3Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, 4Haldor Topsøe A/S, 5PolyPlus Battery Company
We describe the use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques to probe details of intercalation/deintercalation processes in electrode materials for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. Both in situ and ex situ experiments are used to understand structural behavior relevant to the operation of devices
Published November 11, 2013. Keywords: Physics, X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, inorganic chemistry, electric batteries (applications), energy storage, Electrode materials, Li-ion battery, Na-ion battery, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD)
1Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 4Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University
The electrode-tissue interface of neural recording electrodes can be characterized with electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Application of voltage biasing changes the electrochemical properties of the electrode-tissue interface and can improve recording capability. Voltage biasing, EIS, CV, and neural recordings are complementary.
Published February 24, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, neuroprosthesis, electrode-tissue interface, rejuvenation, neural engineering, neuroscience, neural implant, electrode, brain-computer interface, electrochemistry
1Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Ghent University, 2Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University
We demonstrate the extraction of ammonium from an ammonium-rich stream using an electrochemical and a bioelectrochemical system. The reactor setup, operation and data analysis are discussed.
Published January 22, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Electrochemical extraction, bioelectrochemical system, bioanode, ammonium recovery, microbial electrocatalysis, nutrient recovery, electrolysis cell
1Department of Sciences and Chemical Technologies, University of Rome, Tor Vergata
A protocol to detect trichothecenes (mycotoxins of concern for human health) using a newly developed screening method based on a competitive immunochemical method and a final electrochemical detection is demonstrated.
Published October 23, 2009. Keywords: Biochemistry, Immunosensors, assay, antibody, magnetic bead, electrochemical, screen printed electrodes, array, toxin, food
1School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, 2Institute for Superconducting & Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, 3Australian Synchrotron, 4Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 5School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, 6School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales
We describe the design and construction of an electrochemical cell for the examination of electrode materials using in situ neutron powder diffraction (NPD). We briefly comment on alternate in situ NPD cell designs and discuss methods for the analysis of the corresponding in situ NPD data produced using this cell.
Published November 10, 2014. Keywords: Physics, In operando, structure-property relationships, electrochemical cycling, electrochemical cells, crystallography, battery performance
1MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente
Procedures are outlined to prepare segmented and coaxial nanowires via templated electrodeposition in nanopores. As examples, segmented nanowires consisting of Ag and ZnO segments, and coaxial nanowires consisting of a TiO2 shell and a Ag core were made. The nanowires were used in photocatalytic hydrogen formation experiments.
Published May 2, 2014. Keywords: Physics, Multicomponent nanowires, electrochemistry, sol-gel processes, photocatalysis, photochemistry, H2 evolution
1MEMS Sensors and Actuators Laboratory (MSAL), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, 2Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland
We present a microfluidic-based electrochemical biochip for DNA hybridization detection. Following ssDNA probe functionalization, the specificity, sensitivity, and detection limit are studied with complementary and non-complementary ssDNA targets. Results illustrate the influence of the DNA hybridization events on the electrochemical system, with a detection limit of 3.8 nM.
Published September 10, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, DNA hybridization, biosensor, biochip, microfluidics, label-free detection, restricted diffusion, microfabrication
1Center for Innovative Fuel Cells and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology
We present a unique platform for characterizing electrode surfaces in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) that allows simultaneous performance of multiple characterization techniques (e.g. in situ Raman spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy alongside electrochemical measurements). Complementary information from these analyses may help to advance toward a more profound understanding of electrode reaction and degradation mechanisms, providing insights into rational design of better materials for SOFCs.
Published September 20, 2012. Keywords: Materials Science, Chemistry, Electrical Engineering, Physics, electrochemistry, catalysts (chemical), spectroscopic chemical analysis (application), microscopes, Fuel cell, Raman, AFM, SOFC, Surface, Electrode
1Department of Polymer Chemistry, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, 2Materials Science, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, 3ICTM - Center for Catalysis and Chemical Engineering
This article describes the preparation of well-ordered nickel nanofoams via electroless metal deposition onto nanoporous templates obtained from self-assembled diblock copolymer based supramolecules.
Published April 28, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, polymers, polymer matrix composites, foam materials, block copolymers, self-assembly, supramolecules, gyroid, nanoporous, electroless plating, metal nanofoams
1Department of Chemistry, The George Washington University, 2Lynntech
A protocol is presented to study multi-electron metal/air battery systems by using previous technology developed for the zinc/air cell. Electrochemical testing is then performed on fabricated batteries to evaluate performance.
Published August 5, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Materials Science, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Inorganic Chemicals, Chemistry and Materials (General), Composite Materials, Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry, Metals and Metallic Materials, Nonmetallic Materials, Engineering (General), Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Physics (General), energy storage, metal/air battery, nanoscopic vanadium diboride, VB2, multi-electron oxidation, electrochemical testing, electrode, fabrication
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis
Non-fouling PEG silane monolayer was desorbed from individually addressable ITO electrodes on glass by application of a reductive potential. Electrochemical stripping of PEG-silane layer from ITO microelectrodes allowed for cell adhesion to take place in a spatially defined fashion, with cellular patterns corresponding closely to electrode patterns.
Published August 20, 2007. Keywords: Cellular Biology, indium tin oxide, surface modification, electrochemistry, cell patterning
1School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, 2Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, 3ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, 4Health Innovations Research Institute, College of Science, Engineering, and Health, RMIT University
Different electrode coatings affect neural recording performance through changes to electrochemical, chemical and mechanical properties. Comparison of electrodes in vitro is relatively simple, however comparison of in vivo response is typically complicated by variations in electrode/neuron distance and between animals. This article provides a robust method to compare neural recording electrodes.
Published March 3, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Electrochemistry, Electrophysiology, Neural Recording, Neural Implant, Electrode Coating, Bionics
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 3Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 4Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
Supported lipid bilayers and natural membrane particles are convenient systems that can approximate the properties of cell membranes and be incorporated in a variety of analytical strategies. Here we demonstrate a method for preparing microarrays composed of supported lipid bilayer-coated SiO2 beads, phospholipid vesicles or natural membrane particles.
Published May 8, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, supported lipid bilayer, beads, microarray, fluorescence, microfabrication, nanofabrication, atomic layer deposition, myelin, lipid rafts
1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University
We describe experimental details of the synthesis of patterned and reconfigurable particles from two dimensional (2D) precursors. This methodology can be used to create particles in a variety of shapes including polyhedra and grasping devices at length scales ranging from the micro to centimeter scale.
Published February 4, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Biomolecular Engineering, Materials Science, Physics, Nanotechnology, Molecular Self-assembly, Electrochemistry, Folding, three dimensional, lithography, colloid, patchy particles, particles, nanoparticles, robotics, drug delivery, microfabrication, nanofabrication, nano, assembly, synthesis, reaction, origami
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Utah, 2Department of Chemistry, The University of Wisconsin-Madison
We report that the diffraction limit of conventional optical lithography can be overcome by exploiting the transitions of organic photochromic derivatives induced by their photoisomerization at low light intensities.1-3 This paper outlines our fabrication technique and two locking mechanisms, namely: dissolution of one photoisomer and electrochemical oxidation.
Published December 11, 2014. Keywords: Physics, Optics, nanomaterials, fabrication, nanolithography, optical nanolithography, sub-wavelength diffraction
1Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University,
Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure electrically evoked presynaptic dopamine dynamics in striatal brain slices.
Published January 12, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, microelectrodes, dopamine transporter, dopamine release
1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University Of California Santa Barbara, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Program in BioMolecular Science and Engineering, University Of California Santa Barbara
"E-DNA" sensors, reagentless, electrochemical biosensors that perform well even when challenged directly in blood and other complex matrices, have been adapted to the detection of a wide range of nucleic acid, protein and small molecule analytes. Here we present a general procedure for the fabrication and use of such sensors.
Published June 1, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, biosensor, chemistry, detection, electrochemistry, point of care, theranostics, diagnostics, antibody, instrument, electronic
1Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, 2Department of Biosensors and Nanomaterials, Sandia National Laboratories
This article details the construction of a multiplexed microneedle-based sensor. The device is being developed for in situ sampling and electrochemical analysis of multiple analytes in a rapid and selective manner. We envision clinical medicine and biomedical research uses for these microneedle-based sensors.
Published June 1, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Microneedle, Microneedle sensors, multiplexed detection, electrochemistry, stereolithography
1School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, 2Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University
A protocol to construct and test coin cells of lithium ion batteries is described. The specific procedures of making a working electrode, preparing a counter electrode, assembling a cell inside a glovebox and testing the cell are presented.
Published August 2, 2012. Keywords: Materials Science, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Physics, Battery, coin cells, CR2032, lithium, lithium ion