Highly specialized Epithelial cells
that line the Heart
; Blood vessels
; and lymph vessels, forming the Endothelium
. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by Tight junctions
. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
1Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Signaling, KU Leuven
Intercellular Ca2+-waves are driven by gap junction channels and hemichannels. Here, we describe a method to measure intercellular Ca2+-waves in cell monolayers in response to a local single-cell mechanical stimulus and its application to investigate the properties and regulation of gap junction channels and hemichannels.
Published July 16, 2013. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Gap Junctions, Connexins, Connexin 43, Calcium Signaling, Ca2+, Cell Communication, Paracrine Communication, Intercellular communication, calcium wave propagation, gap junctions, hemichannels, endothelial cells, cell signaling, cell, isolation, cell culture
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, AMC at University of Amsterdam
Leukocytes cross the endothelial monolayer using the paracellular or the transcellular route. We developed a simple assay to follow the distribution of endogenous junctional VE-cadherin and PECAM-1 during leukocyte transendothelial migration under physiological flow to discriminate between the two transmigration routes.
Published August 14, 2014. Keywords: Immunology, Leukocytes, Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs), transmigration, VE-cadherin, PECAM-1, endothelium, transcellular, paracellular
1Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Institute for Cardiovascular Research, VU University Medical Center, 2Department of Physiology, Institute for Cardiovascular Research, VU University Medical Center
This protocol reviews Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing, a method to record and analyze the impedance spectrum of adherent cells for the quantification of cell attachment, proliferation, motility, and cellular responses to pharmacological and toxic stimuli. Detection of endothelial permeability and assessment of cell-cell and cell-substrate contacts are emphasized.
Published March 28, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, ECIS, Impedance Spectroscopy, Resistance, TEER, Endothelial Barrier, Cell Adhesions, Focal Adhesions, Proliferation, Migration, Motility, Wound Healing
1Department of Biology, American University, 2Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH
The tube formation assay is a fast, quantifiable method for measuring in vitro angiogenesis. Endothelial cells are combined with conditioned media and plated on basement membrane extract. Tube formation occurs within hours and newly formed tubules easily quantified.
Published September 1, 2014. Keywords: Cancer Biology, Angiogenesis, tube formation, fibroblast, endothelial cell, matrix, 3B-11, basement membrane extract, tubulogenesis
1Klinik und Poliklinik für Anästhesiologie, University of Wurzburg
This method describes how to isolate and immortalize microvascular endothelial cells from mouse brain. We describe a step-by-step protocol starting from the homogenization of brain tissue, digestion steps, seeding and immortalization of the cells. Usually, it takes about five weeks to obtain a homogenous, immortalized microvascular endothelial cell line.
Published August 29, 2012. Keywords: Immunology, Neuroscience, Blood-brain barrier, in vitro cell culture models, brain, microvascular endothelial cells, immortalization, cEND
1Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh
The current study describes a directed differentiation approach in inducing pancreatic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. Of great significance is the finding that endothelial cell co-culture mediates maturation of human embryonic stem cell derived pancreatic progenitors into insulin expressing cells.
Published March 27, 2012. Keywords: Stem Cell Biology, Human embryonic stem cells, Endothelial cells, Pancreatic differentiation, Co-culture
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University
This article describes an in vitro technique for monitoring cancer cells invading through a monolayer of endothelial cells. The data is acquired in real-time as a function of changes in impedance on the surface of electrodes at the well bottom.
Published April 1, 2011. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Invasion, HUVEC, xCELLigence, impedance, real-time, cell-index
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 2School of Medicine, Duke University, 3Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, 4School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
A method for seeding titanium blood-contacting biomaterials with autologous cells and testing biocompatibility is described. This method uses endothelial progenitor cells and titanium tubes, seeded within minutes of surgical implantation into porcine venae cavae. This technique is adaptable to many other implantable biomedical devices.
Published September 9, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Stent, Titanium, Thrombosis, Endothelial Progenitor Cell, Endothelium, Biomaterial, Biocompatibility, Bioengineering, Translational Medicine, Vascular Surgery, Porcine
1Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University, 2Department of Radiology, Stanford University
The surgical procedure for delivery of embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells to the ischemic hindlimb is demonstrated, with non-invasive tracking by bioluminescence imaging.
Published January 23, 2009. Keywords: Medicine, hindlimb ischemia, peripheral arterial disease, embryonic stem cell, cell transplantation, bioluminescence imaging, non-invasive tracking, mouse model
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1VECT-HORUS SAS, 2Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259
The aim of the present study was to validate the reproducibility of an in vitro BBB model involving a rat syngeneic co-culture of endothelial cells and astrocytes. The endothelial cell monolayer presented high TEER and low LY permeability. Expression of specific TJ proteins, functional responses to inflammation and functionality of transporters and receptors were assessed.
Published June 28, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),