The rapid development, small size and transparency of zebrafish are tremendous advantages for the study of innate immune control of infection1-4. Here we demonstrate techniques for infecting zebrafish larvae using the fungal pathogen Candida albicans by microinjection, methodology recently used to implicate phagocyte NADPH oxidase activity in control of fungal dimorphism5.
Reverse Genetic Morpholino Approach Using Cardiac Ventricular Injection to Transfect Multiple Difficult-to-target Tissues in the Zebrafish Larva
1DFG-Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden
An adaptable reverse genetic method for zebrafish to assess gene function during later stages of development and physiological homeostasis such as tissue regeneration using intraventricular injections of gene-specific morpholinos.
Fluorescence-microscopy Screening and Next-generation Sequencing: Useful Tools for the Identification of Genes Involved in Organelle Integrity
A fundamental quest in cell biology is to define the mechanisms that underlie the identity of the organelles that make eukaryotic cells. Here we propose a method to identify the genes responsible for the morphological and functional integrity of plant organelles using fluorescence microscopy and next-generation sequencing tools.
The frog Xenopus laevis provides an attractive alternative non-mammalian model for exploring the ability of heat shock protein such as gp96 to promote antigen-specific CD8 T cell responses. We present methods to study in vivo facilitation of cross-presentation of skin and tumor antigens by gp96.
Evaluation of Integrated Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrothermal Carbonization for Bioenergy Production
1APECS Group, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering
A novel Upflow Anaerobic Solid State (UASS) reactor was used for biogas production from fibrous feedstock. Digestate from UASS reactor was hydrothermally carbonized into HTC biochar in a pressurized batch reactor. The integration of the two bioenergy concepts was applied in this study to increase overall bioenergy production.
Continuously-stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into Biogas: System Setup and Basic Operation
Laboratory-scale anaerobic digesters allow scientists to research new ways of optimizing existing applications of anaerobic biotechnology and to evaluate the methane producing potential of various organic wastes. This article introduces a generalized model for the construction, inoculation, operation, and monitoring of a laboratory-scale continuously stirred anaerobic digester.
Polymalic Acid-based Nano Biopolymers for Targeting of Multiple Tumor Markers: An Opportunity for Personalized Medicine?
1Nanomedicine Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
An example of a nano drug based on polymalic acid is presented towards the rational design of personalized medicine that is applicable to cancer. It describes the synthesis of a nano drug to treat Her2-positive human breast cancer in a nude mouse.
1School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 3Institute for Advanced Study, 4Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, 5Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego
The Miller-Urey experiment was a pioneering study regarding the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds with possible relevance to the origins of life. Simple gases were introduced into a glass apparatus and subjected to an electric discharge, simulating the effects of lightning in the primordial Earth’s atmosphere-ocean system. The experiment was conducted for one week, after which, the samples collected from it were analyzed for the chemical building blocks of life.
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy Visualizes Pharmaceutical Tablets During Dissolution
1Optical Sciences Group, MESA+ Institute, University of Twente, 2Institute of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Heinrich-Heine University, 3Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is combined with an intrinsic flow-through dissolution setup to allow in situ and real-time visualization of the surface of pharmaceutical tablets undergoing dissolution. Using this custom-built setup, it is possible to correlate CARS videos with drug dissolution profiles recorded using inline UV absorption spectroscopy.
Synthesis of Antiviral Tetrahydrocarbazole Derivatives by Photochemical and Acid-catalyzed C-H Functionalization via Intermediate Peroxides (CHIPS)
1Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung
A two-step procedure for the synthesis of pharmaceutically active indole-derivatives by C-H functionalization with anilines is described, using photo- and Brønsted acid catalysis.