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Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
 JoVE Environment

Development of Sulfidogenic Sludge from Marine Sediments and Trichloroethylene Reduction in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor

1Bioprocesses Department, Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Biotecnología, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 2Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional


JoVE 52956

 Science Education: Essentials of Organic Chemistry

Performing 1D Thin Layer Chromatography

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Yuri Bolshan — University of Ontario Institute of Technology

Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatographic method used to separate mixtures of non-volatile compounds. A TLC plate consists of a thin layer of adsorbent material (the stationary phase) fixed to an appropriate solid support such as plastic, aluminum, or glass1. The sample(s) and reference compound(s) are dissolved in an appropriate solvent and applied near the bottom edge of the TLC plate in small spots. The TLC plate is developed by immersing the bottom edge in the developing solvent consisting of an appropriate mobile phase. Capillary action allows the mobile phase to move up the adsorbent layer. As the solvent moves up the TLC plate, it carries with it the components of each spot and separates them based on their physical interactions with the mobile and stationary phases.

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 JoVE Environment

Extraction and Analysis of Microbial Phospholipid Fatty Acids in Soils

1Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 2Department of Science, Augustana Faculty, University of Alberta, 3Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille, 4Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Mount Royal University, 5Forest Ecology & Production, Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada


JoVE 54360

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 JoVE Genetics

Genetic Engineering of an Unconventional Yeast for Renewable Biofuel and Biochemical Production

1Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 2NUS Synthetic Biology for Clinical and Technological Innovation (SynCTI), Life Sciences Institute, National University of Singapore, 3Food Science and Chemical Engineering, Singapore Institute of Technology


JoVE 54371

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 Science Education: Essentials of Earth Science

Conversion of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by Saponification for Uk'37 Paleothermometry

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jeff Salacup - University of Massachusetts Amherst

The product of an organic solvent extraction, a total lipid extract (TLE), is often a complex mixture of hundreds, if not thousands, of different compounds. The researcher is often only interested in a handful of compounds or, if interested in many, may need to remove unwanted constituents that are"in the way" or co-eluting. For example, the concentrations of individual compounds in a sample are often determined on a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame-ionizing detector (GC-FID), because the relationship between FID response (in pA) and the amount of compound in a sample (e.g., ng/µL) is both linear and sensitive. The GC portion of the instrument separates different compounds in a sample based on their boiling point, chemical structure, and affinity with a solid phase that can change according to application. The result is a chromatogram (Figure 1), showing the separation of different chemical constituents in time, as well as their relative concentration (calculated as the area under the curve). However, sometimes more than one compound elutes off the GC at a time (Figure 1). In this case, sample purification is required before compounds can be confidently quantified

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 Science Education: Essentials of Earth Science

An Overview of Alkenone Biomarker Analysis for Paleothermometry

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jeff Salacup - University of Massachusetts Amherst

Throughout this series of videos, natural samples were extracted and purified in search of organic compounds, called biomarkers, that can relate information on climates and environments of the past. One of the samples analyzed was sediment. Sediments accumulate over geologic time in basins, depressions in the Earth into which sediment flows through the action of fluid (water or air), movement, and gravity. Two main types of basins exist, marine (oceans and seas) and lacustrine (lakes). As one might guess, very different types of life live in these settings, driven in large part by the difference in salinity between them. Over the last few decades, organic geochemists discovered a toolbox of biomarker proxies, or compounds that can be used to describe climate or environment, some of which work in marine environments and some of which work in lacustrine. We turn our attention here to the marine realm and alkenone paleothermometry using the Uk'37 sea surface temperature proxy. The most well-established and widely applied open-ocean biomarker sea surface temperature (SST) proxy is Uk'37. Uk'37 = (C37:2) / (C37:2 + C37:

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