Creating Rigidly Stabilized Fractures for Assessing Intramembranous Ossification, Distraction Osteogenesis, or Healing of Critical Sized Defects
This article describes a method for stabilizing long bone fractures that is based on the application of modified Ilizarov external fixators 1-3. After application of the fixators and creation of the bone injury, healing can be assessed, distraction osteogenesis can be performed, or non-union or critical sized defect can be created and used to study therapeutic interventions.
Pseudofracture, a reproducible murine model of sterile musculoskeletal trauma, allows for evaluation of late term post-traumatic immune responses. This article describes the procedural execution of the model step by step, including the potential for experimental model combinations to permit study of multiple trauma.
Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is indicated for the treatment of conditions that cannot be treated with conventional arthroplasty or other procedures. These primarily include degenerative and incapacitating conditions with irreparable rotator cuff and loss of the normal biomechanical coupling of the shoulder.
This protocol describes the stimulation of cultured fibroblasts with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound, which drives focal adhesion formation and Rac1 activation by mimicking engagement of the transmembrane matrix receptor, syndecan-4. This approach allows investigation of a successful clinical technique at the cellular level, thereby providing opportunities for refinement of the therapy.
Longitudinal Evaluation of Mouse Hind Limb Bone Loss After Spinal Cord Injury using Novel, in vivo, Methodology
A longitudinal examination of bone loss in the femurs and tibiae of adult mice was performed following spinal cord injury using sequential low-dose X-ray scans. Tibia bone loss was detected throughout the study, while bone loss in the femur was not detected until 40 days post injury.
Do-It-Yourself Device for Recovery of Cryopreserved Samples Accidentally Dropped into Cryogenic Storage Tanks
1Molecular and Microbiology Department and Center for the Study of Genomics in Liver Diseases, George Mason University, 2Translational Research Institute, Inova Health System, 3Research Center for Medical Genetics RAMS
Here we present a low cost, durable cryotolerant device for sample retrieval from Dewar tanks filled with liquid nitrogen. The ease of construction and modular design of the device makes the process of sample retrieval from cryogenic tanks safe and easy.
The purpose of this article is to describe the use of an orthotopic glioblastoma model for chemoradiation studies. This article will go though cell processing, implanting, and radiotherapy of the mouse using an intracranial model.
A novel impulsive cell pressurization experiment has been developed using a Kolsky bar device to investigate the molecular/cellular mechanisms of blast-induced traumatic brain injury.
This article details the construction of a multiplexed microneedle-based sensor. The device is being developed for in situ sampling and electrochemical analysis of multiple analytes in a rapid and selective manner. We envision clinical medicine and biomedical research uses for these microneedle-based sensors.
Metamaterials at terahertz frequencies offer unique opportunities, but are challenging to fabricate in bulk. We adapt the fabrication procedure for microstructured polymer optical fibers to inexpensively fabricate metamaterials potentially on an industrial scale. We produce polymethylmethacrylate fibers containing ~10 μm diameter indium wires separated by ~100 μm, which exhibit a terahertz plasmonic response.
A method for developing cell culture substrates with the ability to change topography during culture is described. The method makes use of smart materials known as shape memory polymers that have the ability to memorize a permanent shape. This concept is adaptable to a wide range of materials and applications.
1Department of Veteran Affairs, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, 3Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute , University of Utah, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Utah, 5Department of Orthopaedics, University of Utah
There is a need to develop alternative prosthesis attachment due to limb loss attributed to vascular occlusive diseases and trauma. The goal of the work is to introduce an osseointegrated intelligent implant design system to increase skeletal fixation and reduce periprosthetic infection rates for patients needing osseointegrated technology.
This article demonstrates how to conduct electrophysiological recordings of synaptic responses on the extensor muscle in the walking leg of a crayfish and how the nerve terminals are visualized to show the gross morphological differences of high- and low-output nerve terminals.
A reliable and repeatable way to produce a cervical unilateral spinal cord injury using the Infinite Horizon impactor is described. The method takes advantage of a custom designed frame and clamp to stabilize the spine. The standardized procedure and biomechanical injury parameters result in sufficient and sustained injuries.
Preimplantation embryos may be cryopreserved after placement into a hypertonic cryoprotective solution to cause cellular dehydration. After equilibration, ice crystal formation is induced in the solution surrounding the embryo. Further dehydration occurs as the embryo is slowly cooled to subzero temperatures before plunging into liquid nitrogen for storage.
1Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 2Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Center, 3Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center
Lateral fluid percussion (LFP), an established model of traumatic brain injury in mice, is demonstrated. LFP fulfills three major criteria for animal models: validity, reliability and clinical relevance. The procedure, consisting of surgical craniotomy, fixation of hub followed by induction of injury, resulting in focal and diffuse injuries, is described.
Here we present an electrophysiological method based on solid supported membranes with focus on its applications for the characterization of electrogenic membrane transporters.
1Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2Virginia Commonwealth University Reanimation Engineering Science (VCURES) Center, 3Department of Computer Science, Virginia Commonwealth University, 4Department of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 5Department of Emergency Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University
An automated midline shift estimation and intracranial pressure (ICP) pre-screening system based on computed tomography (CT) images for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is proposed using image processing and machine learning techniques.
The accompanying video describes a procedure for percutaneous placement of the WATCHMAN Left Atrial Appendage (LAA) Device. The WATCHMAN is a nitinol device designed to be permanently implanted at, or slightly distal to, the opening of the left atrial appendage (LAA) to trap blood clots before they exit the LAA, preventing thromboembolic stroke.
This protocol outlines the simulation, fabrication and characterization of THz metamaterial absorbers. Such absorbers, when coupled with an appropriate sensor, have applications in THz imaging and spectroscopy.
PRP as a New Approach to Prevent Infection: Preparation and In vitro Antimicrobial Properties of PRP
1Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, 2Department of Orthopaedics, Stem Cell Research Center, University of Pittsburgh, 3WVNano Initiative, 4Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center
Implant-associated infection is a significant clinical complication. This study describes an approach using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to prevent implant-associated infections, presents the protocol for preparing PRP with constant platelet concentration, and reports the newly identified antimicrobial properties of PRP and related protocols for examining such antimicrobial properties in vitro.
The mouse inner ear is a placode-derived sensory organ whose developmental program is elaborated during gestation. We define an in utero gene transfer technique consisting of three steps: mouse ventral laparotomy, transuterine microinjection, and in vivo electroporation. We use digital video microscopy to demonstrate the critical experimental embryological techniques.