Nodular tumor-like lesions or mucoid flesh, arising from tendon sheaths, Ligaments
, or Joint capsule
, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. They are not true cysts as they lack epithelial wall. They are distinguished from Synovial cysts
by the lack of communication with a joint cavity or the Synovial membrane
1Discipline of Biomedical Science, School of Medical Sciences, Sydney Medical School and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, 2The MARCS Institute, University of Western Sydney, 3Discipline of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Sydney Medical School and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney
This video article illustrates the set-up, the procedures to patch cell bodies and how to implement dynamic clamp recordings from ganglion cells in whole-mount mouse retinae. This technique allows the investigation of the precise contribution of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs, and their relative magnitude and timing to neuronal spiking.
Published May 16, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Neurons, Retinal Neurons, Retinal Ganglion Cells, Eye, Retina, Neurosciences, retina, ganglion cells, synaptic conductance, artificial conductance, tetrodotoxin (TTX), patch clamp, dynamic clamp, conductance clamp, electrophysiology, mouse, animal model
1Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota
This article provides a description of how to dissect and record from the isolated retinal preparation in mouse. In particular, we describe how to record light responses from a fluorescently labeled ganglion cell population and subsequently identify and analyze its morphology.
Published January 26, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, isolated, retina, ganglion cell, electrophysiology, patch clamp, transgenic, mouse, fluorescent
1National Eye Institute, NIH, 2Ophthalmology Department, The Second Hospital of Harbin Medical University
This protocol shows how to retrogradely label retinal ganglion cells, and how to subsequently make an optic nerve crush injury in order to analyze retinal ganglion cell survival and apoptosis. It is an experimental disease model for different types of optic neuropathy, including glaucoma.
Published April 25, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, optic nerve crush injury, retinal ganglion cell, glaucoma, optic neuropathy, retrograde labeling
1Institute of Neurobiology, Ulm University, 2School of Computing Science & Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University
Here we present the methodology for fast and high resolution fluorescent voltage-sensitive dye imaging of detailed activity of neurons in the crab stomatogastric ganglion.
Published March 23, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, stomatogastric ganglion, voltage sensitive dye, neuron resolution imaging, central pattern generator
1Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University
We demonstrate how to dissect and culture chick E4 statoacoustic ganglion and E6 spinal cord explants. Explants are cultured under serum-free conditions in 3D collagen gels for 24 hours. Neurite responsiveness is tested with growth factor-supplemented medium and with protein-coated beads.
Published December 20, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, chicken, dissection, morphogen, NT-3, neurite outgrowth, spinal cord, statoacoustic ganglion, Wnt5a
1Departments of Pathology and Cell Biology, and Neuroscience, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons
Here we present two techniques for manipulating gene expression in murine retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by in utero and ex vivo electroporation. These techniques enable one to examine how alterations in gene expression affect RGC development, axon guidance, and functional properties.
Published September 24, 2009. Keywords: Neuroscience, Developmental Biology, retinal ganglion cells, electroporation, retinal explants, gene transfection, border assays, in utero, ex vivo
1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
An in vitro model for genetic study of axon regeneration using cultured adult mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons is described. The method includes a re-suspension/re-plating step to allow axon re-growth from neurons undergoing genetic manipulation. This approach is especially useful for loss-of-function studies of axon regeneration using RNAi-based protein knockdown.
Published August 17, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Physiology, Developmental Biology, cell culture, axon regeneration, axon growth, dorsal root ganglion, spinal cord injury
1Department of Neurobiology, Yale University, 2Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine
We demonstrate an in vivo electroporation protocol for transfecting single or small clusters of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and other retinal cell types in postnatal mice over a wide range of ages. The ability to label and genetically manipulate postnatal RGCs in vivo is a powerful tool for developmental studies.
Published April 17, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Retinotopy, Eye Segregation, Superior Colliculus, Lateral Geniculate Nucleus, Visual Development, Retinal Ganglion Cell, Retina, Electroporation
1The University of Hong Kong - HKU
This video describes the method of retrograde labeling of RGC by applying fluoro-gold (FG) on the surface of superior colliculus (SC). Technique involves drilling the skull, aspirating the cortex, and applying gelatin sponge over entire dorsal surface of SC.
Published June 17, 2008. Keywords: Neuroscience, Retrograde labeling, retinal ganglion cells, ophthalmology research, superior colliculus, experimental glaucoma
1Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University
In animals with large identified neurons (e.g. mollusks), analysis of motor pools is done using intracellular techniques1,2,3,4. Recently, we developed a technique to extracellularly stimulate and record individual neurons in Aplysia californica5. We now describe a protocol for using this technique to uniquely identify and characterize motor neurons within a motor pool.
Published March 25, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Behavior, Neurobiology, Animal, Neurosciences, Neurophysiology, Electrophysiology, Aplysia, Aplysia californica, California sea slug, invertebrate, feeding, buccal mass, ganglia, motor neurons, neurons, extracellular stimulation and recordings, extracellular electrodes, animal model