Nodular tumor-like lesions or mucoid flesh, arising from tendon sheaths, Ligaments
, or Joint capsule
, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. They are not true cysts as they lack epithelial wall. They are distinguished from Synovial cysts
by the lack of communication with a joint cavity or the Synovial membrane
1Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, 2Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Iraq, 3Department of Neurobiology and Cognitive Neuroscience, SISSA, Italy
This article describes three nervous system preparations using leeches: intracellular recording from neurons in ventral ganglia, culturing neurons from ventral ganglia, and recording from a patch of innervated skin to map sensory fields.
1Laboratory of Neurobiology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health
This paper describes the application of cryoanalytical electron microscopy to the quantitative measurement of total calcium content and distribution at subcellular resolution in physiologically defined biological specimens.
1Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, 2Department of Biology, University of Salahaddin, 3Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, University of Oregon
This article describes the cockroach ventral nerve cord dissection and extracellular recordings from the cercal nerve and connectives. Evoked responses are generated by electrical stimulation of the cercal nerve or direct mechanical stimulation of the cerci.
1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 2Department of Opthalmology, Wayne State University School of Medicine
Multiple light damage protocols have been described to damage photoreceptors and consequently induce a retinal regeneration response in adult zebrafish. This protocol describes an improved method that can be used in pigmented animals and that damages the vast majority of rod and cone photoreceptors across the entire retina.
1Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, 2Center of Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, 3Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, University of Oregon
Physiological and anatomical techniques are demonstrated to address function and structure for joint proprioceptors and muscle tension receptors in crustacean walking limbs.
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Department of Ophthalmology, Northwestern University, 2Department of Neurobiology, Northwestern University
Chronic ocular hypertension is induced using laser photocoagulation of the trabecular meshwork in mouse eyes. The intraocular pressure (IOP) is elevated for several months after laser treatment. The decrease of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of experimental animals are monitored using the optomotor test.
1Biotactical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Science, Swinburne University of Technology, 2Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Melbourne
Infrared nerve stimulation has been proposed as an alternative to electrical stimulation in a range of nerve types, including those associated with the auditory system. This protocol describes a patch clamp method for studying the mechanism of infrared nerve stimulation in a culture of primary auditory neurons.
1Division of Marine Biology and Fisheries, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami
We describe the dissection of the nervous system of the marine sea hare Aplysia after anesthesia, the isolation of neurons for short term-tissue culture, and recordings of single cell ion currents via the patch clamp technique.
1Discipline of Biomedical Science, School of Medical Sciences, Sydney Medical School and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, 2The MARCS Institute, University of Western Sydney, 3Discipline of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Sydney Medical School and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney
This video article illustrates the set-up, the procedures to patch cell bodies and how to implement dynamic clamp recordings from ganglion cells in whole-mount mouse retinae. This technique allows the investigation of the precise contribution of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs, and their relative magnitude and timing to neuronal spiking.
1Molecular Genetics of Development Laboratory, Biological Sciences, UQAM
We present an ex vivo cell migration assay that allows precise quantification of enteric neural crest cell migration potential in the presence of various growth factors.