The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, New York Medical College
Forward genetics is a powerful approach to identify genes in intracellular pathogens important for resistance to cell autonomous immunity. The current approach uses innate immune cells, specifically macrophages, to identify novel Toxoplasma gondii genes important for immune evasion.
Published March 12, 2015. Keywords: Immunology, Toxoplasma, macrophages, innate immunity, intracellular pathogen, immune evasion, infectious disease, forward genetics, parasite
1Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, 2Department of Psychology, Koç University, 3Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4Department of Mathematics & Computer Science, Fairfield University
Fully automated system for measuring physiologically meaningful properties of the mechanisms mediating spatial localization, temporal localization, duration, rate and probability estimation, risk assessment, impulsivity, and the accuracy and precision of memory, in order to assess the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on foundational mechanisms of cognition in mice.
Published February 26, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, genetics, cognitive mechanisms, behavioral screening, learning, memory, timing
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Plant Biology Division, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation
Virus-induced gene silencing is an useful tool for identifying genes involved in nonhost resistance of plants. We demonstrate the use of bacterial pathogens expressing GFPuv in identifying gene silenced plants susceptible to nonhost pathogens. This approach is easy, fast and facilitates large scale screening and similar protocol can be applied to studying various other plant-microbe interactions.
Published August 23, 2013. Keywords: Virology, Plant Biology, Infection, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Genomics, Pathology, plants, Nonhost Resistance, Virus-induced gene silencing, VIGS, disease resistance, gene silencing, Pseudomonas, GFPuv, sequencing, virus, Nicotiana benthamiana, plant model
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Section of Virology, Imperial College London
Noroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis yet molecular techniques for their characterisation are still relatively new. Here we report two different reverse genetics approaches for the efficient recovery of murine norovirus (MNV), the only member of this genus which can be propagated in cell culture.
Published June 24, 2012. Keywords: Virology, Immunology, Genetics, Infection, RNA virus, VPg, RNA capping, T7 RNA polymerase, calicivirus, norovirus
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch
The reverse genetics system for the Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 vaccine strain is a useful tool for creating additional MP-12 mutants with increased attenuation and immunogenicity. We describe the protocol to generate and characterize NSs mutant strains.
Published November 1, 2011. Keywords: Immunology, Rift Valley fever virus, reverse genetics, NSs, MP-12, vaccine development
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame
The zebrafish is an excellent experimental organism to study vertebrate developmental processes and model human disease. Here, we describe a protocol on how to perform a manual high-throughput chemical screen in zebrafish embryos with a whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) read-out.
Published November 8, 2014. Keywords: Developmental Biology, zebrafish, chemical genetics, chemical screen, in vivo small molecule screen, drug discovery, whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH), high-throughput screening (HTS), high-content screening (HCS)
1Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles
When working with media and reagents used to culture microorganisms, aseptic technique must be practiced to ensure contamination is minimized. A variety of plating methods are routinely used to isolate, propagate, or enumerate bacteria and phage, all of which incorporate procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials.
Published May 11, 2012. Keywords: Basic Protocols, Streak plates, pour plates, soft agar overlays, spread plates, replica plates, bacteria, colonies, phage, plaques, dilutions
1Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine
Differential sperm competitive ability among Drosophila males with distinct genotypes can be ascertained through double-mating experiments. Each of these experiments involves one of the males of interest and a reference male. Readily identifiable markers in the progeny allow inference of the fraction of individuals fathered by each male.
Published August 22, 2013. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Genetics, Biochemistry, Spermatozoa, Drosophila melanogaster, Biological Evolution, Phenotype, genetics (animal and plant), animal biology, double-mating experiment, sperm competitive ability, male fertility, Drosophila, fruit fly, animal model
1Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, 2Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland
C. elegans is usually grown on solid agar plates or in liquid cultures seeded with E. coli. To prevent bacterial byproducts from confounding toxicological and nutritional studies, we utilized an axenic liquid medium, CeHR, to grow and synchronize a large number of worms for a range of downstream applications.
Published August 2, 2014. Keywords: Molecular Biology, C. elegans, axenic media, transgenics, microparticle bombardment, heme, nutrition
1Department of Neurology, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, 2Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, 3Genetics Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, 4McKnight Brain Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Genetics Institute, Center for Translational Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases, and Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration, University of Florida
We describe here the procedures for the extraction and purification of mRNA and metabolites from Drosophila heads. We are applying these techniques to better understand the cellular perturbations underlying neuronal degeneration. These methodologies can be easily scaled and adapted for other "omic" projects.
Published March 15, 2013. Keywords: Genetics, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Bioengineering, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Biological Assay, Drosophila, fruit fly, head separation, purification, mRNA, RNA, cDNA, DNA, transcripts, metabolites, replicates, SCA3, neurodegeneration, NMR, gene expression, animal model
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 2Departments of Immunology and Microbial Sciences, The Scripps Research Institute
Rescue of recombinant arenaviruses from cloned cDNAs, an approach referred to as reverse genetics, allows researchers to investigate the role of specific viral gene products, as well as the contribution of their different specific domains and residues, to many different aspects of the biology of arenavirus. Likewise, reverse genetics techniques in FDA-approved cell lines (Vero) for vaccine development provides novel possibilities for the generation of effective and safe vaccines to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses.
Published August 1, 2013. Keywords: Virology, Infection, Infectious Diseases, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Viruses, arenaviruses, plasmid transfection, recombinant virus, reverse genetics techniques, vaccine/vaccine vector seed development, clinical applications
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toledo
Imaging of centrosomal proteins during Drosophila spermatogenesis is a powerful method to identify new proteins critical for centrosome biology as well as to elucidate the particular function of known players in this process.
Published September 20, 2013. Keywords: Developmental Biology, biology (general), genetics (animal and plant), animal biology, animal models, Life Sciences (General), Centrosome, Spermatogenesis, Spermiogenesis, Drosophila, Centriole, Cilium, Mitosis, Meiosis
1Department of Biology, Ball State University, 2Division of Nephrology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital
This article describes a yeast growth-based assay for the determination of genetic requirements for protein degradation. It also demonstrates a method for rapid extraction of yeast proteins, suitable for western blotting to biochemically confirm degradation requirements. These techniques can be adapted to monitor degradation of a variety of proteins.
Published February 16, 2015. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Ubiquitin-proteasome system, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, budding yeast, growth assay, protein extracts, western blotting, yeast genetics, mutants, endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation, protein degradation
1Pacific Northwest Diabetes Research Institute
Barcode Enabled Sequencing of Tetrads (BEST) replaces the manual processes of isolating, disrupting and spacing tetrads. BEST isolates tetrads by fluorescence-activated cell sorting onto agar plates, separates the spores by agitation with glass beads, and determines which randomly arrayed colonies were derived from the same original tetrad using molecular barcodes.
Published May 1, 2014. Keywords: Genetics, Yeast, Tetrad, Genetics, DNA sequencing
1Division of Human Genetics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute, 2Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
The combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation and ultra-high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) can identify and map protein-DNA interactions in a given tissue or cell line. Outlined is how to generate a high quality ChIP template for subsequent sequencing, using experience with the transcription factor TCF7L2 as an example.
Published April 19, 2013. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Genetics, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Medicine, Proteins, DNA-Binding Proteins, Transcription Factors, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Genes, chromatin, immunoprecipitation, ChIP, DNA, PCR, sequencing, antibody, cross-link, cell culture, assay
1Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2VCU Alcohol Research Center, Virginia Commonwealth University
Straightforward assays for measuring ethanol sensitivity and rapid tolerance in Drosophila facilitate the use of this model organism for investigating these important ethanol-related behaviors. Here, a relatively simple, scalable assay for measuring ethanol sensitivity and rapid tolerance in flies is described.
Published April 15, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, ethanol, alcohol, behavior, sensitivity, Drosophila, fruit fly, assay
1School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University
The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol, developed for the honey bee (Apis mellifera), provides an ecologically-relevant and easily quantifiable means for studying several different mechanisms of learning in many insect species.
Published September 8, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, PER, conditioning, honey bee, olfaction, olfactory processing, learning, memory, toxin assay
1Department of Biology, Concordia University
This protocol describes how to image dividing cells within a tissue in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. While several protocols describe how to image cell division in the early embryo, this protocol describes how to image cell division within a developing tissue during mid late embryogenesis.
Published March 12, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, C. elegans, morphogenesis, cytokinesis, neuroblasts, anillin, microscopy, cell division
JoVE Developmental Biology
1Institute for Society and Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, 2Environmental Health Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, 3California Nanosystems Institute, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California, Los Angeles
We describe the detailed steps of a high-throughput chemical assay in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans used to assess germline toxicity. In this assay, disruption of germline function following chemical exposure is monitored using a fluorescent reporter specific to aneuploid embryos.
Published February 22, 2015. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Caenorhabditis elegans, chemical screen, high throughput, aneuploidy, reproductive toxicity, GFP
1Center for Human Genetic Research and Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
We present robust biochemical and microscopic methods for studying Caenorhabditis elegans lipid stores. A rapid, simple, fixing-staining procedure for fluorescent lipid droplet imaging leverages the spectral properties of the lipophilic dye Nile red. We then present biochemical measurement of triglycerides and phospholipids using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Published March 30, 2013. Keywords: Genetics, Biochemistry, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Developmental Biology, Physiology, Anatomy, Caenorhabditis elegans, Obesity, Energy Metabolism, Lipid Metabolism, C. elegans, fluorescent lipid staining, lipids, Nile red, fat, high throughput screening, obesity, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, GC/MS, animal model
1Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 2Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 3Green Center for Systems Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
Homologous recombination techniques greatly advance Drosophila genetics by enabling the creation of molecularly precise mutations. The recent adoption of recombineering allows one to manipulate large pieces of DNA and transform them into Drosophila6. The methods presented here combine these techniques to rapidly generate large homologous recombination vectors.
Published July 13, 2013. Keywords: Genetics, Bioengineering, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Physiology, Drosophila melanogaster, genetics (animal and plant), Recombineering, Drosophila, Homologous Recombination, Knock-out, recombination, genetic engineering, gene targeting, gene, genes, DNA, PCR, Primers, sequencing, animal model
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 2Research Technology Branch, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health
Work with infectious Ebola viruses is restricted to biosafety level 4 laboratories. Tetracistronic minigenome-containing replication and transcription-competent virus like particles (trVLPs) represent a lifecycle modeling system that allows us to safely model multiple infectious cycles under biosafety level 2 conditions, relying exclusively on Ebola virus components.
Published September 27, 2014. Keywords: Infectious Diseases, hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral, Mononegavirales Infections, Ebola virus, filovirus, lifecycle modeling system, minigenome, reverse genetics, virus-like particles, replication, transcription, budding, morphogenesis, entry
1Vermont Genetics Network, The University of Vermont
In this protocol, gene expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is changed after exposure to oxidative stress induced by the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an oxidizing agent.
Published April 7, 2011. Keywords: Basic Protocols, cRNA, microarray, cDNA, pellet paint
1Department of Biological Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Here we describe a robust biological assay for quantifying the relative rate of proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The assay readout is yeast growth rate in liquid culture, which is dependent on the cellular levels of a reporter protein comprising a degradation signal fused to an essential metabolic marker.
Published November 6, 2014. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Protein Degradation, Ubiquitin, Proteasome, Baker's Yeast, Growth kinetics, Doubling time
1Department of Biological Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Mutation rates in young Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells measured through fluctuation tests are used to predict mutation frequencies for mother cells of different replicative ages. Magnetic sorting and flow cytometry are then used to measure actual mutation frequencies and age of mother cells to identify any deviations from predicted mutation frequencies.
Published October 16, 2014. Keywords: Microbiology, Aging, mutations, genome instability, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fluctuation test, magnetic sorting, mother cell, replicative aging
1Department of Biological and Allied Health Sciences, Fairleigh Dickinson University
An egg-in-worm (EIW) assay is a useful method to quantify egg-laying behavior. Alterations in egg laying can be a behavioral response of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to potentially harmful environmental substances such as those produced by pathogenic bacteria.
Published October 22, 2013. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Microbiology, C. elegans, Behavior, Animal, Microbiology, Caenorhabditis elegans, Enterococcus faecalis, egg-laying behavior, animal model
1Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
Following exposure to specific environmental stressors, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans undergoes extensive phenotypic plasticity to enter into a stress-resistant ‘dauer’ juvenile stage. We present methods for the controlled induction and imaging of neuroplasticity during dauer.
Published September 4, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, C. elegans, dauer, dendrite, arborization, phenotypic plasticity, stress, imaging, pheromone
1Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, University of Zurich, 2Department of Genetics, Cell Biology & Development and Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota
Designer nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) can be used to modify the genome of mouse preimplantation embryos by triggering both the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) pathways. These advances enable the rapid generation of mice with precise genetic modifications.
Published April 2, 2014. Keywords: Genetics, Oocyte microinjection, Designer nucleases, ZFN, TALEN, Genome Engineering
1Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, 2Wellcome Trust - Medical Research Council Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge
This protocol explains primary Lgr5-positve organoid culture and the subsequent performance of retroviral transduction. This enables Cre-inducible overexpression or knockdown of the delivered transgene and allows functional studies to be carried out in the novel in vitro organotypic model system.
Published August 11, 2014. Keywords: Genetics, Retrovirus, Lentivirus, Organoid culture, Lgr5, Intestine, 3Rs
1Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Applied Chemical Biology, Youngstown State University
Enterobacter sp. YSU grows in glucose minimal salts medium. Auxotrophs are generated by transforming it with a transposome which randomly inserts itself into the host genome. Mutants are found by replica plating from complex medium to minimal medium. Interrupted genes are identified by gene rescue and sequencing.
Published October 31, 2014. Keywords: Microbiology, Auxotroph, transposome, transposon, mutagenesis, replica plating, glucose minimal medium, complex medium, Enterobacter
1Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, 2New York University Center for Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, 3NYU Cancer Institute, 4Department of Pathology and Yale Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine
Here we describe a protocol for simultaneous detection of histone modifications by immunofluorescence and DNA sequences by DNA FISH followed by 3D microscopy and analyses (3D immuno-DNA FISH).
Published February 3, 2013. Keywords: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Bioinformatics, Cancer Biology, Pathology, Biomedical Engineering, Immunology, Intranuclear Space, Nuclear Matrix, Fluorescence in situ Hybridization, FISH, 3D DNA FISH, DNA, immunofluorescence, immuno-FISH, 3D microscopy, Nuclear organization, interphase nuclei, chromatin modifications
1Harvard Medical School, 2Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children's Hospital, 3Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 4Howard Hughes Medical Institute
CRISPR/Cas9 is a robust system to produce disruption of genes and genetic elements. Here we describe a protocol for the efficient creation of genomic deletions in mammalian cell lines using CRISPR/Cas9.
Published January 3, 2015. Keywords: Molecular Biology, CRISPR, Cas9, Genome Engineering, Gene Knockout, Genomic Deletion, Gene Regulation
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 3Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been extensively studied in the last few years in order to develop new vectors for vaccination and therapy, among others. These studies have been possible due to techniques to rescue recombinant virus from cDNA, such as those we describe here.
Published October 11, 2013. Keywords: Immunology, Paramyxoviridae, Vaccines, Oncolytic Virotherapy, Immunity, Innate, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), MVA-T7, reverse genetics techniques, plasmid transfection, recombinant virus, HA assay
1Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 2Institute for Computational Biomedicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 3Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College, 4Department of Pathology, University of Michigan
Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing is a method for the preparation of sequencing libraries for DNA methylation analysis based on restriction enzyme digestion combined with cytosine bisulfite conversion. This protocol requires 50 ng of starting material and yields base pair resolution data at GC-rich genomic regions.
Published February 24, 2015. Keywords: Genetics, Epigenetics, bisulfite sequencing, DNA methylation, genomic DNA, 5-methylcytosine, high-throughput
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame
The zebrafish is a powerful model system for developmental biology and human disease research due to their genetic similarity with higher vertebrates. This protocol describes a methodology to create haploid zebrafish embryos that can be utilized for forward screen strategies to identify recessive mutations in genes essential for early embryogenesis.
Published July 14, 2014. Keywords: Developmental Biology, zebrafish, haploid, in vitro fertilization, forward genetic screen, saturation, recessive mutation, mutagenesis
1Battelle Center for Mathematical Medicine, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, 2The Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Biophysics, The Ohio State University, 3Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University
DNA extraction from saliva can provide a readily available source of high molecular weight DNA, with little to no degradation/fragmentation. This protocol provides optimized parameters for saliva collection/storage and DNA extraction to be of sufficient quality and quantity for downstream DNA assays with high quality requirements.
Published August 27, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, DNA collection, saliva, DNA extraction, Next generation sequencing, DNA purification, DNA
1Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah
Here, we present a method for light microscopy analysis of tracheal terminal cells in Drosophila larvae. This method allows for quick examination of branch and lumen morphology in whole animals and would be useful for analysis of individual mutants or screens for mutations affecting terminal cell development.
Published July 9, 2013. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Bioengineering, Cellular Structures, Epithelial Cells, Drosophila melanogaster, Microscopy, Phase-Contrast Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy, genetics (animal and plant), animal biology, animal models, Respiratory System, trachea, terminal cell, intact animal, larvae, cell morphology, Drosophila, fluorescence, branching, lumen, fruit fly, animal model
1Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, 2Boyce Thompson Institute
We have developed a methodology for performing crosses in Setaria viridis (S. viridis). The method involves pruning the panicle prior to a hot water treatment to kill viable pollen. Crosses are performed following a well-controlled growth regime and typically result in the recovery of 1 to 7 cross-pollinated seed/s per panicle.
Published October 1, 2013. Keywords: Environmental Sciences, Hybridization, Genetics, plants, Setaria viridis, crosses, emasculation, flowering, seed propagation, seed dormancy
1MRC/ARUK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, University of Nottingham
Skeletal muscle is essential for locomotion and is the bodies’ main protein store. Muscle health measurements within C. elegans are described. Prospective changes to muscle structure and function are assessed using localized GFP and cationic dyes.
Published November 13, 2014. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Physiology, C. elegans, muscle, mitochondria, sarcomeres, ageing
1Department of Biology, Syracuse University, 2Department of Science Teaching, Syracuse University
Whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) was used in an upper level undergraduate Comparative Vertebrate Biology course in addition to vertebrate dissections. This gave students the opportunity to study gene expression patterns as well as gross anatomy, linking the study of molecular and organismal biology within one course.
Published March 31, 2011. Keywords: Developmental Biology, in situ hybridization, genetics, development, anatomy, vertebrate, undergraduate, education, interdisciplinary
1Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania
Stable isotopic profiling by gas chromatography mass spectrometric analysis of intermediary metabolic flux is described in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Methods are detailed for assessing isotopic enrichment in carbon dioxide, organic acids, and amino acids following isotope exposure either during development on agar plates or during adulthood in liquid culture.
Published February 27, 2011. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Stable isotope, amino acid quantitation, organic acid quantitation, nematodes, metabolism
1School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, 2Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University
Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model to explore the functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids in development and physiology. This protocol describes an efficient method of supplementing the C. elegans diet with polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Published November 29, 2013. Keywords: Biochemistry, Caenorhabditis elegans, C. elegans, Nutrition Therapy, genetics (animal and plant), Polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-6, omega-3, dietary fat, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, germ cells
1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 4Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 5Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, 7Department of Neurology, Neurosciences Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Phenotypically wild-type astrocytes and neural stem cells harvested from mice engineered with floxed, conditional oncogenic alleles and transformed via viral Cre-mediated recombination can be used to model astrocytoma pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo by orthotopic injection of transformed cells into brains of syngeneic, immune-competent littermates.
Published August 12, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, astrocytoma, cortical astrocytes, genetically engineered mice, glioblastoma, neural stem cells, orthotopic allograft
1Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center
We describe a sensitized method to identify postembryonic regulators of protein expression and localization in C. elegans using an RNAi-based genomic screen and an integrated transgene that expresses a functional, fluorescently tagged protein.
Published February 13, 2012. Keywords: Developmental Biology, RNAi, library screen, C. elegans, postembryonic development
1Fraunhofer USA Center for Molecular Biotechnology
Transient protein production in Nicotiana plants based on vacuum infiltration with Agrobacteria carrying launch vectors (Tobacco mosaic virus-based) is a rapid and economic approach to produce vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins. We simplified the procedure and improved target accumulation by optimizing conditions of bacteria cultivation, selecting host species, and co-introducing RNA silencing suppressors.
Published April 19, 2014. Keywords: Plant Biology, Agroinfiltration, Nicotiana benthamiana, transient protein production, plant-based expression, viral vector, Agrobacteria
1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2VCU Alcohol Research Center, Virginia Commonwealth University
C. elegans is a useful model for studying the effects of ethanol on behavior. We present a behavioral assay that quantifies the effects of ethanol on the locomotion speed of crawling worms; both initial sensitivity and the development of acute functional tolerance to ethanol can be measured with this assay.
Published April 9, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, ethanol, alcohol, behavior, sensitivity, acute functional tolerance, Caenorhabditis elegans, worm, locomotion, computer tracking, assay
1Department of Synthetic Biology and Bioenergy, J. Craig Venter Institute, 2Department of Microbial and Environmental Genomics, J. Craig Venter Institute, 3Donnelly Centre & Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, 4Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mt Sinai Hospital
The Green Monster method enables the rapid assembly of multiple deletions marked with a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein. This method is based on driving yeast strains through repeated cycles of sexual assortment of deletions and fluorescence-based enrichment of cells carrying more deletions.
Published December 15, 2012. Keywords: Microbiology, Genetics, Synthetic Biology, Environmental Genomics, Genomics, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Cellular Biology, Multi-site genomic engineering, genetic interaction, green fluorescent protein, GFP, flow cytometry, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yeast, Green Monster
1Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry, and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, 2CHU de Quebec Research Center
Here, we describe a method to analyze changes in the initiation of mRNA translation of eukaryotic cells in response to stress conditions. This method is based on the velocity separation on sucrose gradients of translating ribosomes from non-translating ribosomes.
Published May 19, 2014. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Translation initiation, polysome profile, sucrose gradient, protein and RNA isolation, stress conditions
1Irell & Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center and Beckman Research Institute, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center
The HO-stimulated translocation assay monitors single-strand annealing following the creation of DNA double-strand breaks at multiple loci in diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This mechanism may model genome rearrangements in somatic cells of higher eukaryotes following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
Published September 23, 2011. Keywords: Genetics, translocation formation, HO-endonuclease, Genomic Southern blot, Chromosome blot, Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Homologous recombination, DNA double-strand breaks, Single-strand annealing
1Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University
Cooperation between an activated oncogene like RASV12 and mutations in cell polarity genes like scribbled, result in tumor growth in Drosophila where tumor cells also display invasive behaviors. Here a simple protocol for the induction and observation of the benign and invasive tumors is presented.
Published September 11, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Imaginal Discs, Drosophila melanogaster, Neoplasm Metastasis, Drosophila, Invasive Tumors, Benign Tumors, Cephalic Complex, Mosaic Analysis with a Repressible Cell Marker technique