An increased tendency of the Genome
to acquire Mutations
when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Greehey Children's Cancer Research Institute, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 2Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 3Department of Pathology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 4Department of Microbiology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 5Cancer Therapy and Research Center, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio
Here we describe an in vivo mutagenesis assay for small numbers of purified hematopoietic cells using the LacI transgenic mouse model. The LacI gene can be isolated to determine the frequency, location, and type of DNA mutants spontaneously arisen or after exposure to genotoxins.
Published February 24, 2014. Keywords: Infection, In vivo mutagenesis, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, LacI mouse model, DNA mutations, E. coli
1Irell & Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center and Beckman Research Institute, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center
The HO-stimulated translocation assay monitors single-strand annealing following the creation of DNA double-strand breaks at multiple loci in diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This mechanism may model genome rearrangements in somatic cells of higher eukaryotes following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
Published September 23, 2011. Keywords: Genetics, translocation formation, HO-endonuclease, Genomic Southern blot, Chromosome blot, Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Homologous recombination, DNA double-strand breaks, Single-strand annealing
1Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford
Exonucleases play critical roles in ensuring genome stability. Loss of WRN exonuclease function results in premature aging. Studying substrates and other requirements of the nuclease in vitro can help elucidate its role in vivo. Here we demonstrate a rapid and reproducible fluorescence-based assay to measure its nuclease activity.
Published December 23, 2013. Keywords: Biochemistry, Aging, Premature, Exonucleases, Enzyme Assays, biochemistry, WRN, exonuclease, nuclease, RecQ, progeroid disease, aging, DmWRNexo
1Department of Genetics, Louisiana State University Health Science Center
Chromosomes can be isolated from live cells such as lymphocytes or skin fibroblasts, and from organisms including humans or mice. These chromosome preparations can be further utilized for routine G-banding and molecular cytogenetic procedures such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and spectral karyotyping (SKY).
Published January 28, 2014. Keywords: Basic Protocol, chromosome, cytogenetic, harvesting, karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization, FISH
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Joint Unit Hospices de Lyon-bioMérieux, 2Medical Diagnostic Discovery Department, BioMérieux, 3Department of Pathology and Cytology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 4Medical Faculty, Lyon 1 University, 5Data and Knowledge Laboratory, BioMérieux, 6Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 7Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV), which occupy 8% of the human genome, retain scarce coding capacities but a hundred thousand long terminal repeats (LTRs). A custom Affymetrix microarray was designed to identify individual HERV locus expression and was used on prostate cancer tissues as a proof of concept for future clinical studies.
Published November 2, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Cancer Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Prostate, Retroviridae, Biomarkers, Pharmacological, Tumor Markers, Biological, Prostatectomy, Microarray Analysis, Gene Expression, Diagnosis, Human Endogenous Retroviruses, HERV, microarray, Transcriptome, prostate cancer, Affymetrix
1Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles
PCR has emerged as a common technique in many molecular biology laboratories. Provided here is a quick guide to several conventional PCR protocols. Because each reaction is a unique experiment, optimal conditions required to generate a product vary. Understanding the variables in a reaction will greatly enhance troubleshooting efficiency, thereby increasing the chance to obtain the desired result.
Published May 22, 2012. Keywords: Basic Protocols, PCR, optimization, primer design, melting temperature, Tm, troubleshooting, additives, enhancers, template DNA quantification, thermal cycler, molecular biology, genetics
1Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, 2New York University Center for Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, 3NYU Cancer Institute, 4Department of Pathology and Yale Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine
Here we describe a protocol for simultaneous detection of histone modifications by immunofluorescence and DNA sequences by DNA FISH followed by 3D microscopy and analyses (3D immuno-DNA FISH).
Published February 3, 2013. Keywords: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Bioinformatics, Cancer Biology, Pathology, Biomedical Engineering, Immunology, Intranuclear Space, Nuclear Matrix, Fluorescence in situ Hybridization, FISH, 3D DNA FISH, DNA, immunofluorescence, immuno-FISH, 3D microscopy, Nuclear organization, interphase nuclei, chromatin modifications
1Department of Synthetic Biology and Bioenergy, J. Craig Venter Institute, 2Department of Microbial and Environmental Genomics, J. Craig Venter Institute, 3Donnelly Centre & Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, 4Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mt Sinai Hospital
The Green Monster method enables the rapid assembly of multiple deletions marked with a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein. This method is based on driving yeast strains through repeated cycles of sexual assortment of deletions and fluorescence-based enrichment of cells carrying more deletions.
Published December 15, 2012. Keywords: Microbiology, Genetics, Synthetic Biology, Environmental Genomics, Genomics, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Cellular Biology, Multi-site genomic engineering, genetic interaction, green fluorescent protein, GFP, flow cytometry, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yeast, Green Monster
1Department of Molecular Oncology, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, 2Institute of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw
DT40, a model vertebrate genetic system, provides a powerful tool to analyze protein function. Here we describe a simple method that allows qualitative analysis of parameters that influence DNA synthesis during the S-phase in DT40 cells at the single molecule level.
Published October 27, 2011. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Genetics, DNA fiber analysis, replication speed, fork stalling, origin firing, termination
1Department of Reproduction and Development, Erasmus MC - University Medical Center
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) allows the detection of nucleic acids in their native environment within cells. We here describe a protocol for the combined, simultaneous detection of RNA and DNA by means of FISH, which can be used to study X chromosome inactivation in mouse embryonic stem cells.
Published June 14, 2014. Keywords: Biochemistry, Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), combined DNA-RNA FISH, ES cell, cytogenetics, single cell analysis, X chromosome inactivation (XCI), Xist, Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), DNA-probe, Rnf12