1Fachbereich Biologie, Entwicklungsbiologie, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 2Institut für Molekularbiologie und Tumorforschung, Philipps-Universität Marburg
This protocol describes the dissection and cultivation of intact testes and germ-line cysts from Drosophila melanogaster pupae. This method allows microscopic observation of spermatogenesis ex vivo. Furthermore, we describe a pharmacological assay of the effect of inhibitors on specific stages of germ-cell development in pupal testes.
Published September 11, 2014. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Ex vivo culture, testis, male germ-line cells, Drosophila, imaging, pharmacological assay
1Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University
The amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis is a promising model organism for studies of crustacean embryology and comparative arthropod development and evolution. This protocol describes a method for manual removal of single blastomeres from early cleavage stage embryos of Parhyale.
Published March 16, 2014. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Amphipod, experimental embryology, micromere, germ line, ablation, developmental potential, vasa
1School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, 2Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University
Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model to explore the functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids in development and physiology. This protocol describes an efficient method of supplementing the C. elegans diet with polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Published November 29, 2013. Keywords: Biochemistry, Caenorhabditis elegans, C. elegans, Nutrition Therapy, genetics (animal and plant), Polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-6, omega-3, dietary fat, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, germ cells
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy, The University of Reading, 2Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Reading
A progressive colonization procedure is described to further assess its impact on the host hepatic metabolism. Colonization is monitored non invasively by evaluating the urinary excretion of microbial co-metabolites by NMR-based metabolic profiling while hepatic metabolism is assessed by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR MAS) NMR profiling of intact biopsy.
Published December 15, 2011. Keywords: Immunology, Germ-free animal, colonization, NMR, HR MAS NMR, metabonomics
1Department of Craniofacial Development and Stem Cell Biology, and Department of Orthodontics, Dental Institute, Guy's Hospital, UK, King's College London, 2Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Here we detail a method to culture tooth germs in mandible slices using a tissue chopper. This method allows unique access to the tooth during development, providing excellent opportunity for manipulation and lineage tracing, not available using more traditional culture methods.
Published November 13, 2013. Keywords: Anatomy, Tooth, Culture Techniques, Embryo Culture Techniques, Organ Culture Techniques, Developmental Biology, animal biology, animal models, Tooth germ, live slice, development, tissue chopper, lineage tracing, molar, incisor, gland
1Department of Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College
A simple method to derive and maintain spermatogonial stem and progenitor cell lines from adult mice is presented here. The method utilizes feeder cells originating from the somatic cell compartment of the adult mouse testis. This technique is applicable to common mouse strains, including transgenic, knock-out, and knock-in mice.
Published February 25, 2013. Keywords: Stem Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Genetics, Developmental Biology, Anatomy, Surgery, Spermatogonial Stem cells, Stem cells, feeder cells, germ cells, testis, cell culture, microenvironment, stem cell niche, progenitor cells, mice, transgenic mice, animal model
1Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University
We provide a practical guide for delivering tracers in vivo and use the spinocerebellar pathway as a model system to demonstrate essential steps for successful neuronal circuit analysis in mice. We describe in detail our versatile tracing protocol that exploits wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) conjugated to Alexa fluorophores.
Published November 14, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, neuronal projections, topography, circuits, connectivity, fluorescent tracers, mice
1NIH Stem Cell Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 2Craniofacial and Skeletal Diseases Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health
Here, we present human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) culture protocols, based on non-colony type monolayer (NCM) growth of dissociated single cells. This new method, utilizing Rho-associated kinase inhibitors or the laminin isoform 521 (LN-521), is suitable for producing large amounts of homogeneous hPSCs, genetic manipulation, and drug discovery.
Published July 24, 2014. Keywords: Stem Cell Biology, Pluripotent stem cells, human embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, cell culture, non-colony type monolayer, single cell, plating efficiency, Rho-associated kinase, Y-27632, transfection, transduction
1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Program in Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition and Division of Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
A method is described for analyzing protein degradation using radiolabeled and luciferase-fusion proteins in Xenopus egg extract and its adaptation for high-throughput screening for small molecule modulators of protein degradation.
Published June 17, 2014. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Xenopus laevis, Xenopus egg extracts, protein degradation, radiolabel, luciferase, autoradiography, high-throughput screening
1Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 2Biosecurity and Public Health, Los Alamos National Laboratory
Unfixed frozen tissue samples embedded in Optimal Cutting Temperature medium (OCT) can be used to study natural distribution and glycosylation of secreted mucus. In this approach tissue processing is minimal and the natural presentation of glycolipids, mucins and glycan-epitopes is preserved. Tissue sections can be analyzed by immunohistochemistry using fluorescence or chromogenic detection.
Published September 21, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Immunology, Biomedical Engineering, mucus, lectins, OCT, imaging, sialic acids, glycosylation