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Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
 JoVE Behavior

Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents

1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki


JoVE 51869

 JoVE In-Press

Ultrasound Images of the Tongue: A Tutorial for Assessment and Remediation of Speech Sound Errors

1Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Syracuse University, 2Haskins Laboratories, 3Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders, New York University, 4Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Cincinnati, 5Program in Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences, City University of New York Graduate Center, 6Department of Linguistics, Yale University

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JoVE 55123

 JoVE Medicine

Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize Dysphagia in Murine Disease Models

1Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Missouri, 2Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Missouri, 3Department of Medicine, University of Missouri


JoVE 52319

 JoVE Bioengineering

Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, 3Interdisciplinary Program for Bioengineering, Seoul National University Graduate School, 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, 5Seoul National University College of Medicine, 6Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University


JoVE 54521

 JoVE Behavior

Using Fiberless, Wearable fNIRS to Monitor Brain Activity in Real-world Cognitive Tasks

1Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, 2Infrared Imaging Lab, Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technology (ITAB), Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, 3Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Alexandra House, University College London


JoVE 53336

 JoVE Behavior

A Novel Experimental and Analytical Approach to the Multimodal Neural Decoding of Intent During Social Interaction in Freely-behaving Human Infants

1Laboratory for Noninvasive Brain-Machine Interface Systems, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston, 3Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston


JoVE 53406

 JoVE Medicine

Interictal High Frequency Oscillations Detected with Simultaneous Magnetoencephalography and Electroencephalography as Biomarker of Pediatric Epilepsy

1Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Division of Epilepsy Surgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School


JoVE 54883

 JoVE Behavior

Visualization Method for Proprioceptive Drift on a 2D Plane Using Support Vector Machine

1Applied Brain Science Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2Department of Informatics, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, 3Department of Media and Image Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University


JoVE 53970

 Science Education: Essentials of Neuropsychology

Using TMS to Measure Motor Excitability During Action Observation

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that involves passing current through an insulated coil placed against the scalp. A brief magnetic field is created by current in the coil, and because of the physical process of induction, this leads to a current in the nearby neural tissue. Depending on the duration, frequency, and magnitude of these magnetic pulses, the underlying neural circuitry can be affected in many different ways. Here, we demonstrate the technique of single-pulse TMS, in which one brief magnetic pulse is used to stimulate the neocortex. One observable effect of TMS is that it can produce muscle twitches when applied over the motor cortex. Due to the somatotopic organization of the motor cortex, different muscles can be targeted depending on the precise placement of the coil. The electrical signals that cause these muscle twitches, called motor evoked potentials, or MEPs, can be recorded and quantified by electrodes placed on the skin over the targeted muscle. The amplitude of MEPs can be interpreted to reflect the underlying excitability of the motor cortex; for example, when the motor cortex is activated, observed MEPs are larger.

 JoVE Medicine

MRI-guided dmPFC-rTMS as a Treatment for Treatment-resistant Major Depressive Disorder

1Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, 2MRI-Guided rTMS Clinic, University Health Network, 3Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, 4Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 6Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Toronto, 7Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health


JoVE 53129

 JoVE Behavior

Combined Invasive Subcortical and Non-invasive Surface Neurophysiological Recordings for the Assessment of Cognitive and Emotional Functions in Humans

1Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 2Department of Neurology, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Functional Neurosurgery and Stereotaxy, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf


JoVE 53466

 JoVE Medicine

A Novel Surgical Approach for Intratracheal Administration of Bioactive Agents in a Fetal Mouse Model

1Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy, KU Leuven, 2Department of Woman and Child, KU Leuven, 3Neurobiology and Gene Therapy, KU Leuven, 4Division of Nuclear Medicine, KU Leuven, 5Biomedical NMR Unit/ MoSAIC, KU Leuven


JoVE 4219

 Science Education: Essentials of Neuropsychology

Motor Maps

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

One principle of brain organization is the topographic mapping of information. Especially in sensory and motor cortices, adjacent regions of the brain tend to represent information from adjacent parts of the body, resulting in maps of the body expressed on the surface of the brain. The primary sensory and motor maps in the brain surround a prominent sulcus known as the central sulcus. The cortex anterior to the central sulcus is known as the precentral gyrus and contains the primary motor cortex, while the cortex posterior to the central sulcus is known as the postcentral gyrus and contains the primary sensory cortex (Figure 1). Figure 1: Sensory and motor maps around the central sulcus. The primary motor cortex, which contains a motor map of the body's effectors, is anterior to the central sulcus, in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe. The primary somesthetic (sensory) cortex, which receives touch, pain, and temperature information from the external parts of the body, is located posterior to the central sulcus, in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Proprioception and Tension Receptors in Crab Limbs: Student Laboratory Exercises

1Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, 2Center of Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, 3Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, University of Oregon


JoVE 51050

 JoVE Neuroscience

Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI

1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, 2Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, 4Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario, 5Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, 6Cerebral Systems Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, 7National Centre for Audiology, University of Western Ontario


JoVE 50872

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