Lentiviruses are a valuable research tool for exploring gene function; however, researchers may wish to avoid production of pantropic lentivirus encoding known or suspected oncogenes. As an alternative, we present a safer protocol for use of ecotropic lentivirus on human cells modified to express the ecotropic receptor mSlc7a1.
Repair of a Critical-sized Calvarial Defect Model Using Adipose-derived Stromal Cells Harvested from Lipoaspirate
1Department of Surgery, Stanford University, 2Department of Surgery, Duke University, 3Department of Surgery, Saint Joseph Mercy Hospital, 4School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 5School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles
This protocol describes the isolation of adipose-derived stromal cells from lipoaspirate and the creation of a 4 mm critical-sized calvarial defect to evaluate skeletal regeneration.
The ability of human embryonic stem cells to self-renew and differentiate into all cell types of the body suggests that they hold great promise for both medical applications and as a research tool for addressing fundamental questions in development and disease. Here, we provide a concise, step-by-step protocol for the derivation of human embryonic stem cells from embryos by immunosurgical isolation of the inner cell mass.
This article describes the procedures of an experimental metastasis assay that is used to determine the metastatic potential of human cancer cell lines.
This technique demonstrates an efficient way to prepare replication-defective retroviral stocks encoding a human oncogene, and subsequently used for induction of myeloproliferative disease in the mouse model.
Despite recent advancements in genetic modification, transfection of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) remains a capricious process. To our knowledge, systematic and efficient methods to transfect human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have not been reported. Here, we describe robust protocols to efficiently transfect and nucleofect human iPSCs.
Photobleaching Assays (FRAP & FLIP) to Measure Chromatin Protein Dynamics in Living Embryonic Stem Cells
We describe photobleaching methods including Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Loss In Photobleaching (FLIP) to monitor chromatin protein dynamics in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Chromatin protein dynamics, which is considered to be one of the means to study chromatin plasticity, is enhanced in pluripotent cells.
This article describes GFP-based fluorescence in vivo assays that separately quantify homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining in mammalian cells.
Here we describe a protocol for isolating subsets of precursor B-cells from umbilical cord blood. A sufficient quantity and quality of nucleic acids may be extracted from the cells and used in subsequent assays utilizing DNA or RNA.
Selecting and Isolating Colonies of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Reprogrammed from Adult Fibroblasts
1Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Center for Cancer Epigenetics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 2Department of Cell Biology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 3Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute
We present a protocol for efficient reprogramming of human somatic cells into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) using retroviral vectors encoding Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-myc (OSKM) and identification of correctly reprogrammed hiPSC by live staining with Tra-1-81 antibody.
Chromosomics: Detection of Numerical and Structural Alterations in All 24 Human Chromosomes Simultaneously Using a Novel OctoChrome FISH Assay
A novel fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method that simultaneously examines both numerical and structural chromosome alterations, particularly the specific chromosomal translocations associated with leukemia and lymphoma, of all 24 human chromosomes on a single device in one hybridization, is described.
Reprogramming Human Somatic Cells into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) Using Retroviral Vector with GFP
A method to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) via retrovirus-mediated ectopic expression of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and MYC is described. A practical way to identify human iPSC colonies based on GFP expression is also discussed.
1Program in Translational Biology and Molecular Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Baylor College of Medicine, 3Department of Immunology and Pathology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 4Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, 5Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, 6Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, 7Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, 8Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center
We describe a method to genetically modify primary human T cells with a transgene using the non-viral piggyBac transposon system. T cells modified to using the piggyBac transposon system exhibit stable transgene expression.
An ex vivo protocol to generate mature human red blood cells from hematopoietic stem/progenitors is described. Additionally we describe an efficient lentiviral-delivery method to knockdown the transcription factor TAL1 in primary erythroid cells. The efficiency of lentivirus mediated gene delivery is demonstrated using GFP expressing viruses.
Establishing Intracranial Brain Tumor Xenografts With Subsequent Analysis of Tumor Growth and Response to Therapy using Bioluminescence Imaging
Luciferase-modified human brain tumor xenografts can be established intracranially in athymic mice, with subsequent monitoring of tumor growth and response to therapy using bioluminescence imaging. In combination with survival analysis, bioluminescence monitoring is an essential research tool for pre-clinical testing of therapies being considered for treating brain tumors.
Measuring Intracellular Ca2+ Changes in Human Sperm using Four Techniques: Conventional Fluorometry, Stopped Flow Fluorometry, Flow Cytometry and Single Cell Imaging
1Departamento de Genética del Desarrollo y Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2Math and Sciences Department, Edison State College
Intracellular Ca2+ dynamics are very important in sperm physiology and Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes constitute a versatile tool to study them. Population experiments (fluorometry and stopped flow fluorometry) and single cell experiments (flow cytometry and single cell imaging) are used to track spatio-temporal [Ca2+] changes in human sperm cells.
We describe two methods for conditional trans-complementation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembly and the completion of the full viral life cycle, which rely on heterokaryon formation. These techniques are suitable to screen for cell lines that express dominant restriction factors, which preclude production of infectious HCV progeny.
DT40, a model vertebrate genetic system, provides a powerful tool to analyze protein function. Here we describe a simple method that allows qualitative analysis of parameters that influence DNA synthesis during the S-phase in DT40 cells at the single molecule level.
We present a protocol to produce antigen-specific mouse T-cells using retroviral transduction
Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) rich in myofibroblasts present within the tumour stroma, play a major role in driving tumour progression. We developed a coimplantation tumour xengraft model for experimentally generating CAFs from human mammary fibroblasts. The protocol describes how to establish CAF myofibroblasts that acquire an ability to promote tumourigenesis.
Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrate how the well-established chick CAM model can be used to quantitatively analyze the metastasis of human tumor cells to distant organs.
We aimed to develop a reproducible protocol for isolating and maintaining long-term cultures of human fungiform taste papillae cells. Cells from human fungiform papillae obtained by biopsy were successfully maintained in culture for more than eight passages (12 months) without loss of viability.
In this video we present the ex vivo generation and expansion of human CD40-activated B cells (CD40-B) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by stimulation with CD40 ligand and interleukin-4.
We describe a method for generating regulatory, memory and naïve T cells from a single human blood donor. Polarized Tregs can be then compared to other subsets in a variety of genetic and functional applications with genetic homogeneity, including a suppression assay also detailed here.
This report provides a visual depiction of parallel-plate flow chamber analysis for studying leukocyte endothelial interactions under physiologic shear stress. This method is particularly useful for investigating the role of endothelial (E)-selectin and leukocyte E-selectin ligands that trigger leukocyte rolling on endothelial cell surfaces.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in a number of malignancies. In this protocol we describe a flow cytometric method utilizing aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and CD44 and CD24 expression to isolate CSCs from human pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenografts. These viable cells can then be used in functional and analytical studies.
Tracking subtle changes in the progression and kinetics of cell cycle stages can be accomplished by use of a combination of metabolic labeling of nucleic acids with BrdU and total genomic DNA staining via Propidium Iodide. This method avoids the need of chemical synchronization of cycling cells, thereby preventing the introduction of non-specific DNA damage, which in turn affects cell cycle progression.
Here we describe a basic protocol to image and quantify the mitotic timing of live mammalian tissue culture cells after siRNA transfection.
This video shows techniques for labeling of human embryonic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells with fluorescent dyes. This technique can be used for an in vivo tracking of transplanted stem cells with optical imaging and for histopathological correlations with fluorescence microscopy.
In this video, we are showing how to label human embryonic stem cells (hESC) with manganese chloride (MnCl2) which can enter cells via voltage-gated calcium channels when the cells are biologically active. Additionally, we show the use of MnCl2 as cellular MRI contrast agent to determine the in vitro viability of hESC.
A rapid, robust way of isolating viable adult epithelial stem cells from human skin is described. The method utilizes enzymatic digestion of skin collagen matrix , followed by plucking of hair follicles and isolation of single cell suspensions or tissue fragments for cell culture.
Expanding Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes from Umbilical Cord Blood that Target Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr Virus, and Adenovirus
1Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Pathology and Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, 3Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 4Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 5Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine
Here we describe the first good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant method of producing virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) from umbilical cord blood, a source of predominantly naîve T cells.
Determining Optimal Cytotoxic Activity of Human Her2neu Specific CD8 T cells by Comparing the Cr51 Release Assay to the xCELLigence System
The chromium release assay, a common assay for detecting cytotoxic T cell activity, has several limitations. Using antigen-specific CD8 T cells and the human breast cancer tumor line, SKBR3, in the present article, an impedance-based approach was examined for the capability of detecting cell killing.
Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Reprogramming Human Fibroblasts with the Stemgent Human TF Lentivirus Set
We demonstrate the protocol for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human somatic cells using lentivirus-mediated delivery of the human factors Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28. Pluripotency was confirmed by morphology and the presence of embryonic stem (ES) cell-specific markers.
A High-throughput Automated Platform for the Development of Manufacturing Cell Lines for Protein Therapeutics
A high-throughput, automated platform of manufacturing cell line development for producing protein therapeutics is described. Implementation of BD FACS Aria Cell Sorter, CloneSelect Imager and TECAN Freedom EVO liquid handling system has demonstrated significantly increased processing capacity in cell line development with improved cell line quality and high reproducibility.
1Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 3Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 4Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital
A simple and reliable method on isolation and culture of neural stem cells from discarded human fetal cortical tissue is described. Cultures derived from known human neurological disorders can be used for characterization of pathological cellular and molecular processes, as well as provide a platform to assess pharmacological efficacy.
Human In Vitro Suppression as Screening Tool for the Recognition of an Early State of Immune Imbalance
1Department of Pediatrics/Allergy, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Flow Cytometry Core Facility, Medical College of Wisconsin, 3Max McGee National Research Center for Juvenile Diabetes and Human Molecular Genetics Center, Medical College of Wisconsin
Tregs are potent suppressors of the immune system. There is a lack of unique surface markers to define them, hence, definitions of Tregs are primarily functional. Here we describe an optimized in vitro assay capable of identifying immune imbalance in subjects at risk to develop T1D.
Enhancement of Apoptotic and Autophagic Induction by a Novel Synthetic C-1 Analogue of 7-deoxypancratistatin in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma and Neuroblastoma Cells with Tamoxifen
We have synthesized a novel analogue of pancratistatin with comparable anti-cancer activity as native pancratistatin; interestingly, combinatory treatment with tamoxifen yielded a drastic enhancement in apoptotic and autophagic induction by mitochondrial targeting with minimal effect on noncancerous fibroblasts. Thus, JCTH-4 in combination with tamoxifen could provide a safe anti-cancer therapy.
The cholesterol assay is designed to quantitate the rate of cholesterol efflux from cultured cells and the capacity of plasma acceptors to accept cholesterol released from cells. The assay consists of labelling cells with cholesterol, equilibration of cholesterol among intracellular pools and release of cholesterol to an extracellular acceptor.
Visualizing Cell-to-cell Transfer of HIV using Fluorescent Clones of HIV and Live Confocal Microscopy
1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 2NSF Center for Biophotonics, University of California, Davis, 3Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory
This visualized experiment is a guide for utilizing a fluorescent molecular clone of HIV for live confocal imaging experiments.
Preparation and Use of HIV-1 Infected Primary CD4+ T-Cells as Target Cells in Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Assays
Cytotoxicity assays to measure natural killer cell lytic responses to HIV-infected cells is limited by the purity of the target cells. We demonstrate here the isolation of a highly purified population of HIV-1 infected primary T-cell blasts by taking advantage of HIV-1 s ability to down-modulate CD4.
Clinical Application of Sleeping Beauty and Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells to Genetically Modify T Cells from Peripheral and Umbilical Cord Blood
T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) are infused as investigational treatment of B-cell malignancies in our first-in-human gene therapy trials. We describe genetic modification of T cells using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) system to introduce CD19-specific CAR and selective propagation on designer CD19+ artificial antigen presenting cells.
Cell-mediated lymphocytotoxicity (CML) assays can be used to test autoreactive responses and study mechanisms of cell death in vitro. However, using live-cell confocal microscopic imaging techniques with fluorescent dyes, the type and kinetics of cell death as well as the pathways utilized can be studied in greater detail.
1NICN, Aix Marseille University, 2LNPM, Aix Marseille University, 3ENT Department, Aix Marseille University, 4Gene expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 5Laboratory of Speech and Language, Aix Marseille University, 6Centre d'Investigations Cliniques en Biothérapie, Aix Marseille University
We describe here a method for biopsying olfactory mucosa from rat and human nasal cavities. These biopsies can be used for either identifying molecular anomalies in brain diseases or isolating multipotent adult stem cells that can be utilized for cell transplantation in animal models of brain trauma/disease.
Knowledge of the exact number of viable cells is required for many tissue culture manipulations. This protocol describes how to differentiate between live and dead cells and quantify cells using a hemacytometer. Although it describes counting human neural stem/precursor cells (hNSPCs), it can be used for other cell types.
1Epigenomic Medicine, BakerIDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, The Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct, 2Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, 3Epigenetics in Human Health and Disease, BakerIDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, The Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct, 4Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, The University of Melbourne
The applicability of the clonogenic assay for evaluating reproductive viability has been established for more than 50 years. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cells.
Labeling hESCs and hMSCs with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Non-Invasive in vivo Tracking with MR Imaging
For the evaluation of new stem cell therapies it is important to non-invasively track the injected cells in vivo. This video will show you how to label human mesenchymal and embryonic stem cells with iron oxide based contrast agents in vivo for subsequent MR imaging in vivo.
Here we describe a detailed method for growing primary human bronchial epithelial cells from explants of human bronchial airway tissue including differentiated growth on an air-liquid interface. This method provides an abundant source of primary cells for investigating the role of the airway epithelium in human lung health and disease.
FSL Constructs: A Simple Method for Modifying Cell/Virion Surfaces with a Range of Biological Markers Without Affecting their Viability
1Biotechnology Research Institute, AUT University and KODE Biotech Ltd, 2Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry RAS, Moscow, Russia
Function-Spacer-Lipid (FSL) constructs allow the surface characteristics of living cells and virions to be modified without loss of vitality. The method requires only simple contact of an FSL construct solution with a cell/virion and spontaneous and stable surface incorporation occurs.
We demonstrate how to set up an in vitro ischemia/reperfusion model and how to evaluate the effect of stem cell therapy on postischemic cardiac cells.