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Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. Gastric acid is the hydrochloric acid component of Gastric juice.
 Science Education: Essentials of General Chemistry

Determining the Solubility Rules of Ionic Compounds

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Neal Abrams — SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

An ionic compound's solubility can be determined via qualitative analysis. Qualitative analysis is a branch of analytical chemistry that uses chemical properties and reactions to identify the cation or anion present in a chemical compound. While the chemical reactions rely on known solubility rules, those same rules can be determined by identifying the products that form. Qualitative analysis is not typically done in modern industrial chemistry labs, but it can be used easily in the field without the need of sophisticated instrumentation. Qualitative analysis also focuses on understanding ionic and net ionic reactions as well as organizing data into a flow chart to explain observations and make definitive conclusions. Many cations have similar chemical properties, as do the anion counterparts. Correct identification requires careful separation and analysis to systematically identify the ions present in a solution. It is important to understand acid/base properties, ionic equilibria, redox reactions, and pH properties to identify ions successfully. While there is a qualitative test for virtually every elemental and polyatomic ion, the identification process typically begi

 JoVE Chemistry

Construction of Models for Nondestructive Prediction of Ingredient Contents in Blueberries by Near-infrared Spectroscopy Based on HPLC Measurements

1United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

JoVE 53981

 JoVE Bioengineering

Cell Labeling and Targeting with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

1Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, 2Division of Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 3School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health, Durham University, 4Regional Center for Applied Molecular Oncology, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, 5Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic

JoVE 53099

 JoVE Chemistry

Preparation of Mica and Silicon Substrates for DNA Origami Analysis and Experimentation

1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 2Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 3Department of Chemistry, Physics, and Engineering Studies, Chicago State University, 4Department of Technology, Ivy Tech Community College, South Bend, Indiana

JoVE 52972

 JoVE Medicine

Assessing Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Species Barriers with an In Vitro Prion Protein Conversion Assay

1USGS National Wildlife Health Center, 2Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 3Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4Merial Veterinary Scholars Program, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 5Department of Neurology, University of British Columbia

JoVE 52522

 JoVE Bioengineering

Polyelectrolyte Complex for Heparin Binding Domain Osteogenic Growth Factor Delivery

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 2Centre for Research in Medical Devices (CÚRAM), National University of Ireland Galway, 3Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4Tissue Engineering Program, National University of Singapore, 5Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles

JoVE 54202

 Science Education: Essentials of Earth Science

Conversion of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by Saponification for Uk'37 Paleothermometry

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jeff Salacup - University of Massachusetts Amherst

The product of an organic solvent extraction, a total lipid extract (TLE), is often a complex mixture of hundreds, if not thousands, of different compounds. The researcher is often only interested in a handful of compounds or, if interested in many, may need to remove unwanted constituents that are"in the way" or co-eluting. For example, the concentrations of individual compounds in a sample are often determined on a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame-ionizing detector (GC-FID), because the relationship between FID response (in pA) and the amount of compound in a sample (e.g., ng/µL) is both linear and sensitive. The GC portion of the instrument separates different compounds in a sample based on their boiling point, chemical structure, and affinity with a solid phase that can change according to application. The result is a chromatogram (Figure 1), showing the separation of different chemical constituents in time, as well as their relative concentration (calculated as the area under the curve). However, sometimes more than one compound elutes off the GC at a time (Figure 1). In this case, sample purification is required before compounds can be confidently quantified

 JoVE Biology

Scanning Electron Microscopy of Macerated Tissue to Visualize the Extracellular Matrix

1Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 3Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 4Cardiovascular Institute, Maine Medical Center

JoVE 54005

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