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Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the Nasal mucosa; the Pharynx; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Quantitative Analyses of all Influenza Type A Viral Hemagglutinins and Neuraminidases using Universal Antibodies in Simple Slot Blot Assays

1Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health canada, 2National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, The State Food and Drug Administration, Beijing, 3Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 4Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, 5National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada

JoVE 2784

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

High-throughput Detection Method for Influenza Virus

1Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Immunotherapy, Blood Research Institute, 2Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 3Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Blood Research Institute, 4City of Milwaukee Health Department Laboratory, 5Division of Hematology-Oncology/BMT, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Medical College of Wisconsin, 6Division of Hematology and Oncology, Dept Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 3623

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Multi-target Parallel Processing Approach for Gene-to-structure Determination of the Influenza Polymerase PB2 Subunit

1Protein Crystallization Lab, Emerald Bio, 2Molecular Biology Lab, Emerald Bio, 3Scientific Sales Representative, Emerald Bio, 4Group Leader II, Emerald Bio, 5Group Leader I, Emerald Bio, 6Chair of Advisory Board, Emerald Bio, 7Director of Multi-Target Services, Emerald Bio, 8Senior Project Leader, Emerald Bio, 9Project Leader II & SSGCID Site Manager, Emerald Bio

JoVE 4225

 JoVE Biology

Culturing of Human Nasal Epithelial Cells at the Air Liquid Interface

1Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2Department of Pediatrics, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 3Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 4Curriculum in Toxicology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

JoVE 50646

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Glass Wool Filters for Concentrating Waterborne Viruses and Agricultural Zoonotic Pathogens

1Wisconsin Water Science Center, United States Geological Survey, 2University of Wisconsin – Madison, 3Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 4Alaska Science Center, United States Geological Survey

JoVE 3930

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Flow Cytometric Isolation of Primary Murine Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells for Functional and Molecular Studies

1Research Group Immune Regulation, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, 2Research Group Infection Immunology, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Otto-von-Guericke University, 3Department of Experimental Immunology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research

JoVE 4322

 JoVE Medicine

A Mouse Tumor Model of Surgical Stress to Explore the Mechanisms of Postoperative Immunosuppression and Evaluate Novel Perioperative Immunotherapies

1Centre for Innovative Cancer Research, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, 3Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 4Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, 5Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, University of Tabuk, 6Department of Surgery, Ottawa General Hospital

JoVE 51253

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Early Viral Entry Assays for the Identification and Evaluation of Antiviral Compounds

1Department of Chinese Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 4Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, 5Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 6Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University

JoVE 53124

 JoVE Biology

Phenotyping Mouse Pulmonary Function In Vivo with the Lung Diffusing Capacity

1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 3Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 52216

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Generation of Two-color Antigen Microarrays for the Simultaneous Detection of IgG and IgM Autoantibodies

1Multi-Organ Transplant Program, University Health Network, 2Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, 3Divison of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, 4Division of Cardiac Surgery, University Health Network

JoVE 54543

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

High-throughput Screening for Broad-spectrum Chemical Inhibitors of RNA Viruses

1Unité de Génomique Virale et Vaccination, Virology Department, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3569, 2Unité de Chimie et Biocatalyse, Biochemistry and Structural Biology Department, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3523, 3Unité des Interactions Moléculaires Flavivirus-Hôtes, Virology Department, Institut Pasteur

JoVE 51222

 Science Education: Essentials of Environmental Microbiology

RNA Analysis of Environmental Samples Using RT-PCR

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Bradley Schmitz

Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) involves the same process as conventional PCR — cycling temperature to amplify nucleic acids. However, while conventional PCR only amplifies deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA), RT-PCR enables the amplification of ribonucleic acids (RNA) through the formation of complementary DNA (cDNA). This enables RNA-based organisms found within the environment to be analyzed utilizing methods and technologies that are designed for DNA. Many viruses found in the environment use RNA as their genetic material. Several RNA-based viral pathogens, such as Norovirus, and indicator organisms, such as pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), do not have culture-based detection methods for quantification. In order to detect for the presence of these RNA viruses in environmental samples from soil, water, agriculture, etc., molecular assays rely on RT-PCR to convert RNA into DNA. Without RT-PCR, microbiologists would not be able to assay and research numerous RNA-based viruses that pose risks to human and environmental health. RT-PCR can also be employed as a tool to measure microbial activity in the env

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