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Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)
 JoVE Medicine

Technique and Considerations in the Use of 4x1 Ring High-definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS)

1Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, 3Charité University Medicine Berlin, 4The City College of The City University of New York, 5Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Materials Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan


JoVE 50309

 JoVE Bioengineering

A Step Beyond BRET: Fluorescence by Unbound Excitation from Luminescence (FUEL)

1Plate-Forme d'Imagerie Dynamique, Imagopole, Institut Pasteur, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford School of Medicine, 3Service Hospitalier Frédéric Joliot, Institut d'Imagerie Biomédicale, 4Vanderbilt School of Medicine, 5The Walter & Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 6Unité INSERM U786, Institut Pasteur, 7Unité de Pathogénie Microbienne Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur


JoVE 51549

 JoVE Biology

3D Printing of Preclinical X-ray Computed Tomographic Data Sets

1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 2Freimann Life Science Center, University of Notre Dame, 3Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 4Notre Dame Integrated Imaging Facility, University of Notre Dame, 5MakerBot Industries LLC, 6Departments of Biological Sciences, Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, and Anthropology, University of Notre Dame, 7Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame


JoVE 50250

 JoVE Medicine

Combined Near-infrared Fluorescent Imaging and Micro-computed Tomography for Directly Visualizing Cerebral Thromboemboli

1Molecular Imaging and Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Dongguk University College of Medicine, 2Biomedical Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 3Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 4Departments of Radiology and Cancer Systems Imaging, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center


JoVE 54294

 JoVE Environment

Mass Production of Genetically Modified Aedes aegypti for Field Releases in Brazil

1Oxitec Ltd, 2Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, 3Departamento de Epidemiologia, Universidade de São Paulo, 4Moscamed Brasil, 5Deptartment of Zoology, University of Oxford, 6Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Entomologia Molecular (INCT-EM)


JoVE 3579

 JoVE Medicine

Generation of Comprehensive Thoracic Oncology Database - Tool for Translational Research

1Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, 2Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 3Department of Medicine, Northshore University Health Systems, 4Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, 5Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, 6Department of Biostatistics, University of Chicago


JoVE 2414

 JoVE Medicine

Trabecular Meshwork Response to Pressure Elevation in the Living Human Eye

1Department of Ophthalmology, UPMC Eye Center, Eye and Ear Institute, Ophthalmology and Visual Science Research Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 2Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, 3The McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 4Deptartment of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh


JoVE 52611

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 Science Education: Essentials of Developmental Psychology

Piaget's Conservation Task and the Influence of Task Demands

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Judith Danovitch and Nicholaus Noles—University of Louisville

Jean Piaget was a pioneer in the field of developmental psychology, and his theory of cognitive development is one of the most well-known psychological theories. At the heart of Piaget’s theory is the idea that children’s ways of thinking change over the course of childhood. Piaget provided evidence for these changes by comparing how children of different ages responded to questions and problems that he designed. Piaget believed that at age 5, children lack mental operators or logical rules, which underlie the ability to reason about relationships between sets of properties. This characteristic defined what he called the preoperational stage of cognitive development. One of Piaget’s classic measures of children’s ability to use mental operations is his conservation task. In this task, children are shown two identical objects or sets of objects. Children are first shown that the objects are the same on one key property (number, size, volume, etc.). Then, one of the objects is modified so it appears different than the other one (e.g., it is now longer, wider, or taller), but the key property remains the same. Following this transformation, children are asked to judge

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 JoVE In-Press

A Novel Strategy Combining Array-CGH, Whole-exome Sequencing and in Utero Electroporation in Rodents to Identify Causative Genes for Brain Malformations

1Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology and Child Health, University of Florence, 2INSERM, INMED, 3Aix-Marseille University, 4Plateforme Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, INMED, 5Department of Neurology, Royal Children's Hospital, 6Murdoch Children's Research Institute, 7Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, 8Plateforme postgenomique INMED, 9Department Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, 10NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, 11Department of Clinical Genetics, Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, 12IRCCS Casimiro Mondino Foundation, 13Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, 14IRCCS Stella Maris, 15Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University

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JoVE 53570

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 JoVE Behavior

Conscious and Non-conscious Representations of Emotional Faces in Asperger's Syndrome

1Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, 2Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, 3Department of Psychology, Fo Guang University, 4Department of Electrical Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, 5State Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, 6Novosibirsk State University, 7Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University


JoVE 53962

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 Science Education: Essentials of Environmental Science

Tree Identification: How To Use a Dichotomous Key

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

A dichotomous key is a tool that identifies items in nature, such as leaves. This method is based on the idea of choosing between two characteristics. The word dichotomous comes from two Greek words that mean “to divide into two parts.” In a dichotomous key for leaf identification, each pair of phrases describes different features of the leaf. Only one of the phrases correctly applies to the leaf being keyed out. The correct phrase leads to the next pair of phrases, or states the name of the tree from which the leaf came. Using a field guide to trees and the iTree National Tree Benefits Calculator helps to identify trees in a field investigation, which shows the significance of trees in terms of their environmental benefits, such as storm water management, increasing property value, energy efficiency, air quality, and carbon sequestration.

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 JoVE Engineering

In Situ Neutron Powder Diffraction Using Custom-made Lithium-ion Batteries

1School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, 2Institute for Superconducting & Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, 3Australian Synchrotron, 4Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 5School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, 6School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales


JoVE 52284

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 JoVE Immunology and Infection

A Simple Flow Cytometric Method to Measure Glucose Uptake and Glucose Transporter Expression for Monocyte Subpopulations in Whole Blood

1Centre for Biomedical Research, Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Monash University, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, 4Department of Microbiology, The University of the West Indies, 5Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 6Department of Medicine, Monash University


JoVE 54255

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 JoVE Chemistry

Synthesis of Non-uniformly Pr-doped SrTiO3 Ceramics and Their Thermoelectric Properties

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, 3Electron Microscope Facility, Clemson University, 4Materials Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology


JoVE 52869

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 Science Education: Essentials of Earth Science

Physical Properties Of Minerals II: Polymineralic Analysis

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Alan Lester - University of Colorado Boulder

The physical properties of minerals include various measurable and discernible attributes, including color, streak, magnetic properties, hardness, crystal growth form, and crystal cleavage. These properties are mineral-specific, and they are fundamentally related to a particular mineral’s chemical make-up and atomic structure. This video examines several physical properties that are useful in field and hand sample mineral identification— color, luster, streak, hardness, magnetism, and reaction with acid. Unlike crystal form and crystal cleavage, these properties are somewhat more closely linked to mineral chemical composition than to atomic structure, but both do play a role. It is important to recognize that rocks are aggregates of mineral grains. Most rocks are polymineralic (multiple kinds of mineral grains) but some are effectively monomineralic (composed of a single mineral). Unlike crystal form and cleavage, which are terms reserved for mineral specimens, geologists might on occasion refer to a rock as having a general sort of color, hardness, magnetism, or reaction with acid. In other words, the physical properties looked at here are potentially appropriate for use with rocks as well as with specific minerals.

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 Science Education: Essentials of General Chemistry

Determining the Density of a Solid and Liquid

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Michael Evans — Georgia Institute of Technology

The ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume is known as the mass density or, simply, the density of the substance. Density is expressed in units of mass per volume, such as g/mL or kg/m3. Because the density of a substance does not depend on the amount of substance present, density is an “intensive property”. To measure the density of a sample of material, both the mass and volume of the sample must be determined. For both solids and liquids, a balance can be used to measure mass; however, methods for determining volume are different for solids and liquids. As liquids can flow and take the shapes of their containers, glassware such as a graduated cylinder or volumetric flask can be used to measure the volume of a liquid. The volume of an irregularly-shaped solid can be measured by submersion in a liquid — the difference in volume caused by addition of the solid is equal to the volume of the solid. This demonstration illustrates the methods for measuring the density of solids and liquids. Using a volumetric flask and an analytical balance, the density of ethanol can be determined. Using a graduated cylinder, analytical balance, and water as the displaced

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 Science Education: Essentials of Environmental Science

Using GIS to Investigate Urban Forestry

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

Urban forests broadly include urban parks, street trees, landscaped boulevards, public gardens, river and coastal promenades, greenways, river corridors, wetlands, nature preserves, natural areas, shelterbelts of trees, and working trees at industrial brownfield sites. The history of urban trees begins with trees as landscape embellishment. Today, urban trees are seen as essential components of city infrastructure and critical to human life as food, housing, and other public utilities. Urban trees are now valued for the ecosystem services they provide (e.g., preventing erosion, air pollutant removal, oxygen, shade, etc.). Yet, to efficiently make use of these benefits, trees must reach maturity, as leaf number and size directly affect a tree’s ability to provide ecosystem services. Urban forestry has had to develop its own forestry methods to address the needs and challenges unique to urban trees as compared to their woodland counterparts. The following excerpt from the USDA Forest Service illustrates the urban tree perspective and policies of federal government: Urban forests are dynamic ecosystems that provide needed environmental services by cleanin

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 Science Education: Essentials of Organic Chemistry

Solid-Liquid Extraction

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Jay Deiner — City University of New York

Extraction is a crucial step in most chemical analyses. It entails removing the analyte from its sample matrix and passing it into the phase required for spectroscopic or chromatographic identification and quantification. When the sample is a solid and the required phase for analysis is a liquid, the process is called solid-liquid extraction. A simple and broadly applicable form of solid-liquid extraction entails combining the solid with a solvent in which the analyte is soluble. Through agitation, the analyte partitions into the liquid phase, which may then be separated from the solid through filtration. The choice of solvent must be made based on the solubility of the target analyte, and on the balance of cost, safety, and environmental concerns.

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Characterization Of Multi-layered Fish Scales (Atractosteus spatula) Using Nanoindentation, X-ray CT, FTIR, and SEM

1Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, 3Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center


JoVE 51535

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 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Promoting 3-D Aggregation of FACS Purified Thymic Epithelial Cells with EAK 16-II/EAKIIH6 Self-assembling Hydrogel

1Institute of Cellular Therapeutics, Allegheny Health Network, 2Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mylan School of Pharmacy, Duquesne University, 3Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University


JoVE 54062

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Rapid and Low-cost Prototyping of Medical Devices Using 3D Printed Molds for Liquid Injection Molding

1Department of Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 2Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 3Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California


JoVE 51745

123458
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