Islets of Langerhans
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the Pancreas
among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete Insulin
. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete Glucagon
cells (10-35%) secrete Pancreatic polypeptide
. Delta cells (~5%) secrete Somatostatin
1Department of Nutrional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo
Assaying in vitro β-cell function using isolated mouse islets of Langerhans is an important component in the study of diabetes pathophysiology and therapeutics. While many downstream applications are available, this protocol specifically describes the measurement of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) as an essential parameter determining β-cell function.
Published June 25, 2014. Keywords: Physiology, islet, isolation, insulin secretion, β-cell, diabetes, cAMP production, mouse
1Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Center for Molecular Neurobiology, The Ohio State University, 2Integrated Biomedical Science Graduate Program, The Ohio State University, 3Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University
Transplantation of isolated islets has been proposed to be a potential treatment for type 1 diabetes. Here we describe a method to isolate islets from mouse pancreata and transplant them to the subcapsular space of the kidney.
Published April 13, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, islet isolation, islet transplantation, diabetes, murine, pancreas
1Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine, Umeå University, 2Cell Transplant Center, Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami,, 3EMBL-CRG Systems Biology Program, Centre for Genomic Regulation, Catalan Institute of Research and Advanced Studies, 4Dept. of Computing Science, Umeå University
We describe the adaptation of optical projection tomography (OPT)1 to imaging in the near infrared spectrum, and the implementation of a number of computational tools. These protocols enable assessments of pancreatic β-cell mass (BCM) in larger specimens, increase the multichannel capacity of the technique and increase the quality of OPT data.
Published January 12, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biophysics, Pancreas, Islets of Langerhans, Diabetes Mellitus, Imaging, Three-Dimensional, Optical Projection Tomography, Beta-cell Mass, Near Infrared, Computational Processing
1Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, 2Department of Cellular & Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine
This protocol allows one to identify factors that modulate functional beta cell mass to find potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diabetes. The protocol consists of a streamlined method to assess islet replication and beta cell function in isolated rat islets following manipulation of gene expression with adenoviruses.
Published June 25, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Physiology, beta cell, gene expression, islet, diabetes, insulin secretion, proliferation, adenovirus, rat
1Department of Pediatrics and the Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, 2VITACYTE, LLC, 3Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, 4Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine
A detailed description of mouse islet isolation is described using the technique of in situ pancreatic ductal cannulation and perfusion of a combination of purified collagenase and neutral protease.
Published September 7, 2012. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Islet, collagenase, mouse, insulin, fluorescence
1Department of GI-, Thorax- and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, University of Technology Dresden, 2Molecular Diabetology, Paul Langerhans Institute Dresden, 3Department of Pathology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, University of Technology Dresden
The supply of type 2 diabetic islets for research is insufficient. Here we share our protocol for isolating islets from patients undergoing partial pancreatectomy. This approach represents a unique venue for obtaining islets from type 2 diabetic and clinically matched non-diabetic subjects in adequate numbers for basic and clinical studies.
Published July 30, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, human islets, Diabetes mellitus, partial pancreatectomy, human islet isolation
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan-Dearborn, 2Department of Surgery/Transplant, University of Illinois at Chicago, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago
Microfluidic oxygen control confers more than just convenience and speed over hypoxic chambers for biological experiments. Especially when implemented via diffusion through a membrane, microfluidic oxygen can provide simultaneous liquid and gas phase modulations at the microscale-level. This technique enables dynamic multi-parametric experiments critical for studying islet pathophysiology.
Published November 17, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Islets of Langerhans, Microfluidics, Microfluidic Analytical Techniques, Microfluidic Analytical Techniques, oxygen, islet, hypoxia, intermittent hypoxia
1Pediatric Diabetes Research Center, University of California, San Diego, 2Janssen Research & Development, 3Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego
Transcellular protein interactions are important determinants of pancreatic beta-cell function. Detailed here is a method—adapted from a coculture model of synaptogenesis—for investigating how specific transmembrane proteins influence insulin secretion. Transfected HEK293 cells express proteins of interest; beta cells do not need to be transfected or otherwise directly perturbed.
Published June 15, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Immunology, Hepatology, Islets of Langerhans, islet, Insulin, Coculture, pancreatic beta cells, INS-1 cells, extracellular contact, transmembrane protein, transcellular interactions, insulin secretion, diabetes, cell culture
1Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, School of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, 2DanStem, University of Copenhagen
The three-dimensional culture method described in this protocol recapitulates pancreas development from dispersed embryonic mouse pancreas progenitors, including their substantial expansion, differentiation and morphogenesis into a branched organ. This method is amenable to imaging, functional interference and manipulation of the niche.
Published July 19, 2014. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Pancreas, Progenitors, Branching Epithelium, Development, Organ Culture, 3D Culture, Diabetes, Differentiation, Morphogenesis, Cell organization, Beta Cell.
1Department of Biotechnology & Bioinformatics, California State University Channel Islands, 2Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 3The Irell & Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope
A three-dimensional clonogenic assay that allows pancreatic-like progenitors to differentiate into insulin-expressing colonies is described. This method takes advantage of semi-solid media containing methylcellulose, Matrigel and growth factors, in which single progenitors proliferate and differentiate in vitro, permitting quantification of the number of functional progenitors in a population.
Published November 28, 2011. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Pancreas, insulin-expressing cells, embryonic stem cells, colony assay, progenitor cells, 3-dimensional culture, semi-solid media, Matrigel, methylcellulose
1Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida
This video demonstrates a dissection procedure for processing human pancreas into multiple storage formats. Anatomical orientation is maintained throughout the pancreatic regions to allow definition of regional islet composition and density.
Published May 23, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Physiology, pancreas, organ donor, endocrine cells, insulin, beta-cells, islet, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes
1Montreal Diabetes Research Center, CRCHUM, 2Department of Medicine, University of Montreal
A protocol for chronic infusions of glucose and Intralipid in rats is described. This model can be used to study the impact of nutrient excess on organ function and physiological parameters.
Published August 14, 2013. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Basic Protocols, Surgery, Metabolic Diseases, Infusions, Intravenous, Infusion Pumps, Glucolipotoxicity, Rat, Infusion, Glucose, Intralipid, Catheter, canulation, canula, diabetes, animal model
1Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh
The current study describes a directed differentiation approach in inducing pancreatic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. Of great significance is the finding that endothelial cell co-culture mediates maturation of human embryonic stem cell derived pancreatic progenitors into insulin expressing cells.
Published March 27, 2012. Keywords: Stem Cell Biology, Human embryonic stem cells, Endothelial cells, Pancreatic differentiation, Co-culture
1Biomedical Engineering Program, University of South Carolina, 2Chemical Engineering Department, University of South Carolina
A method for photo-encapsulation of cells in a crosslinked PEG hydrogel is described. Hypoxic signaling within encapsulated murine insulinoma (MIN6) aggregates is tracked using a fluorescent marker system. This system allows serial examination of cells within a hydrogel scaffold and correlation of hypoxic signaling with changes in cell phenotype.
Published December 16, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Cell encapsulation, PEG, cell aggregation, hypoxia, insulin secretion, fluorescent imaging
1Department of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, University Hospital rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 2Institute for Signal Processing, University of Lübeck, 3Department of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, University Hospital Zürich, 4FONDAP Center for Genome Regulation, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile
Vascularization is key to approaches in successful tissue engineering. Therefore, reliable technologies are required to evaluate the development of vascular networks in tissue-constructs. Here we present a simple and cost-effective method to visualize and quantify vascularization in vivo.
Published August 28, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomaterials, vascularization, tissue engineering, transillumination, digital segmentation, skin defect, scaffold, matrix, in vivo model
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine
We provide a reproducible method to induce type 1 diabetes (T1D) in mice within two weeks by the adoptive transfer of islet antigen-specific, primary CD4+ T cells.
Published May 6, 2013. Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Genetics, Surgery, Type 1 diabetes, CD4+ T cells, diabetogenic T cells, T cell transfer, diabetes induction method, diabetes, T cells, isolation, cell sorting, FACS, transgenic mice, animal model