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Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
 JoVE Bioengineering

Measurement of Maximum Isometric Force Generated by Permeabilized Skeletal Muscle Fibers

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, 2Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan Medical School, 4Department of Surgery, Section of Plastic Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School


JoVE 52695

 JoVE Biology

Isometric and Eccentric Force Generation Assessment of Skeletal Muscles Isolated from Murine Models of Muscular Dystrophies

1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Department of Physiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Dental Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania


JoVE 50036

 JoVE Behavior

A Structured Rehabilitation Protocol for Improved Multifunctional Prosthetic Control: A Case Study

1Christian Doppler Laboratory for Restoration of Extremity Function, 2Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, 3Department of Neurorehabilitation Engineering, Bernstein Focus Neurotechnology Göttingen, 4University Medical Center Göttingen, Georg-August University, 5University of Applied Sciences FH Campus Wien, 6Research & Development, Otto Bock Healthcare Products GmbH


JoVE 52968

 JoVE Medicine

Mesenteric Artery Contraction and Relaxation Studies Using Automated Wire Myography

1Julius L. Chambers Biomedical/Biotechnology Research Institute, North Carolina Central University, Durham, 2Department of Biology, North Carolina Central University, Durham, 3Department of Physiology & Pharmacology and Hypertension & Vascular Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine


JoVE 3119

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Motor Exam II

JoVE Science Education

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

There are two main types of reflexes that are tested on a neurological examination: stretch or deep tendon reflexes, and superficial reflexes. A deep tendon reflex (DTR) results from the stimulation of a stretch-sensitive afferent from a neuromuscular spindle, which, via a single synapse, stimulates a motor nerve leading to a muscle contraction. DTRs are increased in chronic upper motor neuron lesions (lesions of the pyramidal tract) and decreased in lower motor neuron lesions and nerve and muscle disorders. There is a wide variation of responses and reflexes graded from 0 to 4+ (Table 1). DTRs are commonly tested to help localize neurologic disorders. A common method of recording findings during the DTRs examination is using of a stick ure diagram. The DTR test can help distinguish upper and lower motor neuron problems and can assist in localizing nerve root compression as well. Although the DTR of nearly any skeletal muscle could be tested, the reflexes that are routinely tested are: brachioradialis, biceps, triceps, patellar, and Achilles (Table 2). Superficial reflexes are segmental reflex responses that result from stimulation of a specific s

 JoVE Medicine

Myo-mechanical Analysis of Isolated Skeletal Muscle

1Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, 3Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, 4Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 5Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine & Stem Cell Research, University of California San Francisco


JoVE 2582

 JoVE Behavior

Studying Food Reward and Motivation in Humans

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, 2Metabolic Research Laboratories, Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, 3Cambridgeshire & Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, University of Cambridge, 4West Anglia Comprehensive Local Research Network, Addenbrooke's Hospital


JoVE 51281

 JoVE Medicine

Human Dupuytren's Ex Vivo Culture for the Study of Myofibroblasts and Extracellular Matrix Interactions

1Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Cancer Genomics Centre and Centre for Biomedical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Academic Medical Center, 3Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, Academic Medical Center, 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 5Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, 6Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Center


JoVE 52534

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