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Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the Retina usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the Macula lutea) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
 JoVE Medicine

Use of Rabbit Eyes in Pharmacokinetic Studies of Intraocular Drugs

1Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hanyang University Hospital, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, 5Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seoul National University Hospital, 6Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital


JoVE 53878

 JoVE Medicine

A Step by Step Protocol for Subretinal Surgery in Rabbits

1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Bonn, 2Department of Ophthalmology, National University of Singapore, 3Geuder AG, 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Münster, 5Section on Epithelial and Retinal Physiology and Disease, National Eye Institute/National Institutes of Health, 6Surgical Retina Department, Singapore National Eye Centre


JoVE 53927

 JoVE Neuroscience

Limbal Approach-Subretinal Injection of Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy in Mice Retinal Pigment Epithelium

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 2FARB Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, 3College of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine


JoVE 53030

 JoVE Biology

Method for the Assessment of Effects of a Range of Wavelengths and Intensities of Red/near-infrared Light Therapy on Oxidative Stress In Vitro

1Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, School of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia, 2School of Animal Biology and The Oceans Institute, The University of Western Australia, 3Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia


JoVE 52221

 JoVE Medicine

Subretinal Injection of Gene Therapy Vectors and Stem Cells in the Perinatal Mouse Eye

1Bernard and Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University, 2Institute of Human Nutrition, College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University, 3Omics Laboratory, University of Iowa, 4Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa


JoVE 4286

 JoVE Medicine

Slow-release Drug Delivery through Elvax 40W to the Rat Retina: Implications for the Treatment of Chronic Conditions

1Biotechnology and Applied Clinical Sciences Department, University of L'Aquila, 2ARC Centre of Excellence in Vision Science, 3John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, 4ANU Medical School, Australian National University


JoVE 51563

 JoVE Neuroscience

Vibratome Sectioning Mouse Retina to Prepare Photoreceptor Cultures

1Department of Genetics, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 2Department of Visual Information, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 3Exploratory Team, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 4Sorbonne Universités, Paris 06, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 5INSERM, U968, Institut de la Vision, 6CNRS, UMR_7210, Institut de la Vision


JoVE 51954

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Ophthalmoscopic Examination

JoVE Science Education

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA

The simplest ophthalmoscopes consist of an aperture to look through, a diopter indicator, and a disc for selecting lenses. The ophthalmoscope is primarily used to examine the fundus, or the inner wall of the posterior eye, which consists of the choroid, retina, fovea, macula, optic disc, and retinal vessels (Figure 1). The spherical eyeball collects and focuses light on the neurosensory cells of the retina. Light is refracted as it passes sequentially through the cornea, the lens, and the vitreous body. The first landmark observed during the funduscopic exam is the optic disc, which is where the optic nerve and retinal vessels enter the back of the eye (Figure 2). The disc usually contains a central whitish physiologic cup where the vessels enter; it normally occupies less than half the diameter of the entire disc. Just lateral and slightly inferior is the fovea, a darkened circular area that demarcates the point of central vision. Around this is the macula. A blind spot approximately 15° temporal to the line of gaze results from a lack of photoreceptor cells at the optic disc.

 JoVE Medicine

Fundus Photography as a Convenient Tool to Study Microvascular Responses to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Epidemiological Studies

1Environmental Risk and Health, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), 2Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, 3Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, 4Department of Public Health, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Leuven University


JoVE 51904

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Imaging Ca2+ Dynamics in Cone Photoreceptor Axon Terminals of the Mouse Retina

1Institute for Ophthalmic Research, University of Tübingen, 2Graduate School of Cellular & Molecular Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, 3Bernstein Centre for Computational Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, 4Molecular Genetics Laboratory, University of Tübingen, 5Centre for Ophthalmology, University of Tübingen


JoVE 52588

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 JoVE Neuroscience

In vivo Imaging of Optic Nerve Fiber Integrity by Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Mice

1Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, 2Immunology, Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Fritz Lipmann Institute, Jena, 3Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Physics Group, Jena University Hospital


JoVE 51274

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Using Microfluidics Chips for Live Imaging and Study of Injury Responses in Drosophila Larvae

1Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 4Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 5Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan


JoVE 50998

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