This method describes how to dissect and assess mammary gland development and function from mice. Excised mammary glands are assessed for the degree of development using whole mount while milk ejection is evaluated using an oxytocin-based myoepithelial cell contraction assay.
Our protocol describes how to dissect the rat abdominal mammary gland and how to prepare mammary gland whole mounts. It also describes how to analyze mammary gland morphology using three end-points (number of terminal end buds, epithelial elongation and differentiation) and to use these results to predict mammary cancer risk in rats which were exposed to dietary modifications in utero or during prepuberty.
Intraductal Injection of LPS as a Mouse Model of Mastitis: Signaling Visualized via an NF-κB Reporter Transgenic
1Cancer Biology Department, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Hawaii at Hilo College of Pharmacy
Described here is a technique in which lipopolysaccharide is injected into the lactating mouse mammary gland via the nipple to simulate mastitis, a condition commonly caused by bacterial infection. Lipopolysaccharide injection results in increased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, visualized through bioluminescent imaging of an NF-κB luciferase reporter mouse.
Time-lapse Imaging of Primary Preneoplastic Mammary Epithelial Cells Derived from Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Breast Cancer
1Department of Oncology, Georgetown University, 2Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, 3Stem Cell Dynamics, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 4Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, 5Department of Nanobiomedical Science and WCU Research Center of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University
Time-lapse imaging is used to assess behavior of primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer risk to determine if there are correlations between specific behavioral parameters and distinct genetic lesions.
This article demonstrates the procedure developed by DeOme KB et al. (1959) and the sparing procedure developed by Brill B et al. (2008) for clearing the 4th inguinal mammary fat pad of a pubescent mouse in preparation for transplantation of mammary fragments, mammary epithelial cells, or mammary tumor cells.
Isolation of Normal and Cancer-associated Fibroblasts from Fresh Tissues by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)
Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) facilitate tumor initiation, growth and progression through signaling that promotes proliferation, angiogenesis, and inflammation. Here we describe a method to isolate pure populations of normal fibroblasts and CAFs from fresh mouse and human tissues by cell sorting, using PDGFRα as a surface marker.
In this report, we demonstrate a system to isolate and culture donor cells from the mouse mammary gland, and orthotopically transplant these cells in recipient mice to analyze stromal: epithelial interactions during mammary tumor development.
1Department of Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, 2London Regional Cancer Program, Children's Health Research Institute, and Department of Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario
Determining the cell cycle position of a population of cells, or understanding how signals affect proliferation, can be readily measured by flow cytometry using this protocol. We report a simple experimental approach to staining cells and quantifying their position in the cell cycle.
Herein we describe the methods to construct, visualize, and quantify the bioluminescent reactions of both firefly and renilla luciferase enzymes expressed in metastatic breast cancer cells during their growth and metastasis in vivo.
We describe a method for imaging response to anti-cancer treatment in vivo and at single cell resolution.
A method to process human mammary surgical discard material is described. Processed tissue, in the form of organoids, can be stored frozen indefinitely or placed in culture for long-term growth. This method enables experimental examination of normal human epithelial cell biology, and the effects of exogenous perturbations.
An optimized protocol for the isolation of stem cells from the mouse salivary gland is described. The method employs enzymatic and mechanical digestion, and permits isolation of salispheres containing cells with characteristics of stem cells.
1Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine - Yeshiva University, 2Gruss Lipper Biophotonics Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine - Yeshiva University, 3Hubrecht Institute-KNAW and University Medical Center Utrecht
Intravital photoswitching and tracking of Dendra2-labeled tumor cells through the Mammary Imaging Window is a technique which allows us to image the metastatic behavior of tumor cells in chosen tumor microenvironments over a timescale of days.
Ex vivo Expansion of Tumor-reactive T Cells by Means of Bryostatin 1/Ionomycin and the Common Gamma Chain Cytokines Formulation
1Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University- Massey Cancer Center, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University- Massey Cancer Center, 3Department of Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University- Massey Cancer Center
An efficient protocol for the ex vivo expansion of tumor-reactive T cells from tumor-draining lymph nodes or other secondary lymphoid tissues of tumor-bearing hosts is described. This protocol selectively expands tumor-specific T cells for use in adoptive immunotherapy of breast cancer.
Generation of an orthotopic mouse model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is described here. This technique employs surgical placement of human anaplastic thyroid cancer cells into the thyroid of immunodeficient mice, thus creating a more clinically relevant setting to study disease progression as well as screen innovative therapeutic interventions.
Parasitoid (parasitic) wasps constitute a major class of natural enemies of many insects including Drosophila melanogaster. We will introduce the techniques to propagate these parasites in Drosophila spp. and demonstrate how to analyze their effects on immune tissues of Drosophila larvae.
An experimental mouse model of bone metastasis was established following intracardiac delivery of luciferase expressing mammary tumor cells. Tumor development and resulted osteolytic lesion were monitored longitudinally with bioluminescence and micro CT imaging.
A technique to genetically manipulate epithelial cells within whole ex vivo cultured embryonic mouse submandibular glands (SMGs) using viral gene transfer is described. This method takes advantage of the innate ability of SMG epithelium and mesenchyme to spontaneously recombine after separation and infection of epithelial rudiments with adenoviral vectors.
An experimental lung metastasis and CTL immunotherapy mouse model for analysis of tumor cells-T cell interaction in vivo.
Pluripotent stem cells growing in suspension differentiate into embryoid bodies (EBs). Here we demonstrate how to obtain high quality EB cryosections useful for studying cellular and molecular aspects of embryogenesis, while preserving their organization as aggregates.
1Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, 2Vanderbilt Center for Bone Biology, Vanderbilt University, 3Department of Veterans Affairs, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System (VISN 9), 4Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, 5Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University
Animal models are frequently utilized to study cancer metastasis to bone. In this protocol we will describe two common methods of tumor inoculation for bone metastasis studies and briefly describe some of the analyses utilized to monitor and quantify these models.
Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) rich in myofibroblasts present within the tumour stroma, play a major role in driving tumour progression. We developed a coimplantation tumour xengraft model for experimentally generating CAFs from human mammary fibroblasts. The protocol describes how to establish CAF myofibroblasts that acquire an ability to promote tumourigenesis.
Human Neuroendocrine Tumor Cell Lines as a Three-Dimensional Model for the Study of Human Neuroendocrine Tumor Therapy
1Raymond and Beverly Sackler Foundation, 2The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 3School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey
We present a simple agarose overlay platform to grow 3D multicellular spheroids using neuroendocrine cancer cell lines. This method provides a very convenient way to examine the effect of therapeutic drugs on the neuroendocrine tumor cells. It could also help us establish human neuroendocrine tumor spheroids for cancer therapy.
1Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Technical University of Munich and Helmholtz Center Munich, 3Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School and Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Mesoscopic fluorescence tomography operates beyond the penetration limits of tissue-sectioning fluorescence microscopy. The technique is based on multi-projection illumination and a photon transport description. We demonstrate in-vivo whole-body 3D visualization of the morphogenesis of GFP-expressing wing imaginal discs in Drosophila melanogaster.
Here are some highlights from the February 2012 Issue of Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE).
Three-dimensional Cell Culture Model for Measuring the Effects of Interstitial Fluid Flow on Tumor Cell Invasion
Interstitial fluid flow is elevated in solid tumors and can modulate tumor cell invasion. Here we describe a technique to apply interstitial fluid flow to cells embedded in a matrix and then measure its effects on cell invasion. This technique can be easily adapted to study other systems.
Here we describe an efficient strategy to remove the silk-producing glands from the abdomen of female black widow spiders. This procedure allows the rapid isolation of the seven distinct silk-producing glands in a highly purified fashion, an important process for investigators studying spider silk production and fiber assembly.
A protocol for the cannulation of the mouse submandibular salivary gland via the Wharton's duct is described. For this experiment, the trypan blue solution is used as a dyer to demonstrate how this technique effectively delivers infusions into the targeted gland, and to suggest the reliability of this new approach as a potential clinical drug/cell therapy for the regeneration of salivary glands.
HC11 lactogenic differentiation can be characterized by the formation of domed structures referred to as mammospheres. The structures can be enumerated by phase contrast microscopy to aid in quantifying lactogenic differentiation.
Here we demonstrate our protocol for isolation of basal and submucosal gland duct cells from mouse tracheas. We also demonstrate the method of injecting stem cells into the dorsal mouse fat pad to create an in vivo model of submucosal gland regeneration.
A simple method is described for analyzing effects of tissue fibroblasts on associated epithelial cells. The combination of this method and three-dimensional tissue culture can facilitate analysis of cells after isolation from 3D. The technique is applicable to cells of varying malignant potential, allowing systematic study of effects of tumor-associated stroma on tumor cells.
1Microbiology and Pathogenesis Activity, Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2Tick-Borne Diseases Activity, Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
The collection of infected tick hemolymph, salivary glands, and saliva is important to study how tick-borne pathogens cause disease. In this protocol we demonstrate how to collect hemolymph and salivary glands from feeding Ixodes scapularis nymphs. We also demonstrate saliva collection from female I. scapularis adults.
1European Institute for Molecular Imaging, Westfälische Wilhelms-University Münster, 2British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Sciences Unit, Imperial College London, 3Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, 4Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology
The constricting cuff presented in this article is designed to induce atherosclerosis in the murine common carotid artery. Due to the conical shape of its inner lumen the implanted cuff generates well-defined regions of low, high and oscillatory shear stress triggering the development of atherosclerotic lesions of different inflammatory phenotypes.
We describe a simple, rapid method of generating 3D tissue-like spheroids and their potential application to quantify differences in cell-cell interactions.
Here, we describe a method for isolation, culture and manipulation of mouse embryonic pancreas. This represents an excellent ex vivo system for studying various aspects of pancreatic development, including morphogenesis, differentiation and growth. Pancreatic bud explants can be cultured for several days and used in a range of different applications, including whole-mount immunofluorescence and live imaging.
Temporal and spatial gene expression analyses have a crucial role in functional genomics. Whole-mount hybridization in situ is useful for determining the localization of transcripts within tissues and subcellular compartments. Here we outline a hybridization in situ protocol with modifications for specific target tissues in mosquitoes.
A Visual Description of the Dissection of the Cerebral Surface Vasculature and Associated Meninges and the Choroid Plexus from Rat Brain
1Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, 2Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, 3Office of Planning, Finance, and Information Technology, National Center for Toxicological Research
This video presentation shows a method of harvesting the two most important highly vascular structures that support forebrain function. They are the cerebral surface (superficial) vasculature along with associated meninges (MAV) and the choroid plexus which are necessary for cerebral blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis.
Autoimmune hypophysitis can be reproduced in mice by injecting an extract of mouse pituitary proteins.
1Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine (UCI), 2Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Irvine (UCI)
The mosquito midgut and salivary glands are key entry and exit points for vector pathogens like Plasmodium falciparum and the dengue virus. This video demonstrates the dissection techniques for removing the midgut and salivary glands from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
This video shows how to induce autoimmune hypophysitis in SJL mice and how to assess its severity by histopathology.
A tool and chemistries are described to sequentially isolate nucleic acids followed by proteins from a sample without the need for electricity. The tool consists of a sorbent held within a transfer pipette while the isolation chemistries are based on solid-phase extraction principles. The isolated macromolecules can be analyzed by immuno-based and PCR-based assays.
Large animal models have good translational values in the examination of physiology and pharmacology of neonatal asphyxia. Using newborn piglets, we develop an experimental protocol to simulate neonatal asphyxia which has advantages of studying the systemic and regional hemodynamics, oxygen transport with biochemical and pathologic pathways and correlations.
Flow cytometry is a powerful tool allowing for the isolation and study of specific cell populations. This protocol describes steps for isolating LacZ-expressing cells from cochlear tissues from neonatal transgenic mice. Dissociated cochlear cells were labeled using fluorescent-conjugated substrates of β-galactosidase prior to separation via flow cytometry.
Human Internal Mammary Artery (IMA) Transplantation and Stenting: A Human Model to Study the Development of In-Stent Restenosis
1University Heart Center Hamburg, TSI-Lab, Germany, 2Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Hamburg, 3Department of Medicine, Cardiology Division, Pulmonary Hypertension Program, University of Alberta, 4Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 5Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Biophysics, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, 6Translumina GmbH, Hechingen, 7Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine
This video shows a model to study the development of intimal hyperplasia after stent deployment using a human vessel (IMA) in an immunodeficient rat model.
Genetic crosses of rodent malaria parasites are performed by feeding two genetically distinct parasites to mosquitoes. Recombinant progeny are cloned from mouse blood after allowing mosquitoes to bite infected mice. This video shows how to produce genetic crosses of Plasmodium yoelii and is applicable to other rodent malaria parasites.
This video protocol illustrates the squash technique used in the Johansen laboratory to prepare Drosophila polytene chromosomes for antibody labeling.
1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine (UCI), 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, 3Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, 4Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine (UCI)
Adrenal medullary chromaffin cell culture systems are extremely useful for the study of excitation-secretion coupling in an in vitro setting. This protocol illustrates the method used to dissect the adrenals and then isolate the medullary region by stripping away the adrenal cortex. The digestion of the medulla into single chromaffin cells is then demonstrated.
A modified 3-D in vitro system is presented in which growth characteristics of several tumor cell lines in reconstituted basement membrane correlate with the dormant or proliferative behavior of the tumor cells at a metastatic secondary site in vivo.
This protocol demonstrates how to maintain healthy, undifferentiated human embryonic stem (ES) cells.