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JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

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Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Model Organisms I

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 JoVE Applied Physics

Casting Protocols for the Production of Open Cell Aluminum Foams by the Replication Technique and the Effect on Porosity

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Sheffield


JoVE 52268

Replication is one of the processing techniques used for the production of porous metal sponges. In this paper one implementation of the method for the production of open celled porous aluminum is shown in detail.

 JoVE Chemistry

In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions

1Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory


JoVE 51344

Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of novel materials. Coupled with analysis by in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), soft landing provides unprecedented insights into the interactions of well-defined species with surfaces.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Preparation and Use of Photocatalytically Active Segmented Ag|ZnO and Coaxial TiO2-Ag Nanowires Made by Templated Electrodeposition

1MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente


JoVE 51547

Procedures are outlined to prepare segmented and coaxial nanowires via templated electrodeposition in nanopores. As examples, segmented nanowires consisting of Ag and ZnO segments, and coaxial nanowires consisting of a TiO2 shell and a Ag core were made. The nanowires were used in photocatalytic hydrogen formation experiments.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Environmentally-controlled Microtensile Testing of Mechanically-adaptive Polymer Nanocomposites for ex vivo Characterization

1Advanced Platform Technology Center, Rehabilitation Research and Development, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University


JoVE 50078

A method is discussed by which the in vivo mechanical behavior of stimuli-responsive materials is monitored as a function of time. Samples are tested ex vivo using a microtensile tester with environmental controls to simulate the physiological environment. This work further promotes understanding the in vivo behavior of our material.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Novel 3D/VR Interactive Environment for MD Simulations, Visualization and Analysis

1Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, University of California Merced


JoVE 51384

A new computational system featuring GPU-accelerated molecular dynamics simulation and 3D/VR visualization, analysis and manipulation of nanostructures has been implemented, representing a novel approach to advance materials research and promote innovative investigation and alternative methods to learn about material structures with dimensions invisible to the human eye.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Characterization of Surface Modifications by White Light Interferometry: Applications in Ion Sputtering, Laser Ablation, and Tribology Experiments

1Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 2Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 3MassThink LLC


JoVE 50260

White light microscope interferometry is an optical, noncontact and quick method for measuring the topography of surfaces. It is shown how the method can be applied toward mechanical wear analysis, where wear scars on tribological test samples are analyzed; and in materials science to determine ion beam sputtering or laser ablation volumes and depths.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Simulation of the Planetary Interior Differentiation Processes in the Laboratory

1Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington


JoVE 50778

The high-pressure and high-temperature experiments described here mimic planet interior differentiation processes. The processes are visualized and better understood by high-resolution 3D imaging and quantitative chemical analysis.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Rapid and Low-cost Prototyping of Medical Devices Using 3D Printed Molds for Liquid Injection Molding

1Department of Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 2Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 3Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California


JoVE 51745

We have devised a method for low-cost and rapid prototyping of liquid elastomer rubber injection molded devices by using fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as a liquid injection system.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Concurrent Quantitative Conductivity and Mechanical Properties Measurements of Organic Photovoltaic Materials using AFM

1Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 2Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago


JoVE 50293

Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials are inherently inhomogeneous at the nanometer scale. Nanoscale inhomogeneity of OPV materials affects performance of photovoltaic devices. In this paper, we describe a protocol for quantitative measurements of electrical and mechanical properties of OPV materials with sub-100 nm resolution.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Scalable Nanohelices for Predictive Studies and Enhanced 3D Visualization

1Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, University of California Merced, 2Computer Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, University of California Merced


JoVE 51372

Accurate modeling of nanohelical structures is important for predictive simulation studies leading to novel nanotechnology applications.  Currently, software packages and codes are limited in creating atomistic helical models.  We present two procedures designed to create atomistic nanohelical models for simulations, and a graphical interface to enhance research through visualization.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Manufacturing Of Robust Natural Fiber Preforms Utilizing Bacterial Cellulose as Binder

1Polymer and Composite Engineering (PaCE) Group, Institute of Materials Chemistry and Research, University of Vienna, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, 3Polymer and Composite Engineering (PaCE) Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London


JoVE 51432

We present a novel method of manufacturing rigid and robust short natural fiber preforms using a papermaking process. Bacterial cellulose acts simultaneously as the binder for the loose fibers and provides rigidity to the fiber preforms. These preforms can be infused with a resin to produce truly green hierarchical composites.

 JoVE Chemistry

Template Directed Synthesis of Plasmonic Gold Nanotubes with Tunable IR Absorbance

1Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto


JoVE 50420

Solution-suspendable gold nanotubes with controlled dimensions can be synthesized by electrochemical deposition in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes using a hydrophobic polymer core. Gold nanotubes and nanotube arrays hold promise for applications in plasmonic biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, photo-thermal heating, ionic and molecular transport, microfluidics, catalysis and electrochemical sensing.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Development of Amelogenin-chitosan Hydrogel for In Vitro Enamel Regrowth with a Dense Interface

1Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California


JoVE 51606

In this article, we describe a protocol for fabricating an amelogenin-chitosan hydrogel for superficial enamel reconstruction. Organized in situ growth of apatite crystals in the hydrogel formed a dense enamel-restoration interface, which will improve the effectiveness and durability of restorations.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Graphene Coatings for Biomedical Implants

1Department of Physics, Clemson University, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, East Carolina University, 3Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 4Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University


JoVE 50276

Graphene offers potential as a coating material for biomedical implants. In this study we demonstrate a method for coating nitinol alloys with nanometer thick layers of graphene and determine how graphene may influence implant response.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Probing and Mapping Electrode Surfaces in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

1Center for Innovative Fuel Cells and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology


JoVE 50161

We present a unique platform for characterizing electrode surfaces in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) that allows simultaneous performance of multiple characterization techniques (e.g. in situ Raman spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy alongside electrochemical measurements). Complementary information from these analyses may help to advance toward a more profound understanding of electrode reaction and degradation mechanisms, providing insights into rational design of better materials for SOFCs.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Revealing Dynamic Processes of Materials in Liquids Using Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy

1Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


JoVE 50122

We have developed a self-contained liquid cell, which allows imaging through liquids using a transmission electron microscope. Dynamic processes of nanoparticles in liquids can be revealed in real time with sub-nanometer resolution.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Fabrication of Nano-engineered Transparent Conducting Oxides by Pulsed Laser Deposition

1Department of Energy and NEMAS - Center for NanoEngineered Materials and Surfaces, Politecnico di Milano, 2Center for Nano Science and Technology, Instituto Italiano di Tecnologia


JoVE 50297

We describe the experimental method to deposit nanostructured oxide thin films by nanosecond Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) in the presence of a background gas. By using this method Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films, from compact to hierarchically structured as nano-tree forests, can be deposited.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Construction and Testing of Coin Cells of Lithium Ion Batteries

1School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, 2Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University


JoVE 4104

A protocol to construct and test coin cells of lithium ion batteries is described. The specific procedures of making a working electrode, preparing a counter electrode, assembling a cell inside a glovebox and testing the cell are presented.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Measuring the Mechanical Properties of Living Cells Using Atomic Force Microscopy

1Department of Physics, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute


JoVE 50497

This paper demonstrates a protocol to characterize the mechanical properties of living cells by means of microindentation using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).

 JoVE Biology

3D Printing of Preclinical X-ray Computed Tomographic Data Sets

1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 2Freimann Life Science Center, University of Notre Dame, 3Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 4Notre Dame Integrated Imaging Facility, University of Notre Dame, 5MakerBot Industries LLC, 6Departments of Biological Sciences, Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, and Anthropology, University of Notre Dame, 7Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame


JoVE 50250

Using modern plastic extrusion and printing technologies, it is now possible to quickly and inexpensively produce physical models of X-ray CT data taken in a laboratory. The three -dimensional printing of tomographic data is a powerful visualization, research, and educational tool that may now be accessed by the preclinical imaging community.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Multi-Scale Modification of Metallic Implants With Pore Gradients, Polyelectrolytes and Their Indirect Monitoring In vivo

1Biomatériaux et Bioingénieriee, INSERM, 2Service Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 3Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, Université de Strasbourg


JoVE 50533

In this video, we will demonstrate modification techniques for porous metallic implants to improve their functionality and to control cell migration. Techniques include development of pore gradients to control cell movement in 3D and production of basement membrane mimics to control cell movement in 2-D. Also, a HPLC-based method for monitoring implant integration in-vivo via analysis of blood proteins is described.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Simulation, Fabrication and Characterization of THz Metamaterial Absorbers

1School of Engineering, University of Glasgow


JoVE 50114

This protocol outlines the simulation, fabrication and characterization of THz metamaterial absorbers. Such absorbers, when coupled with an appropriate sensor, have applications in THz imaging and spectroscopy.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Lignin Down-regulation of Zea mays via dsRNAi and Klason Lignin Analysis

1The School of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, 3The Institute for Sustainable and Renewable Resources, The Institute for Advanced Learning and Research, 4Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University


JoVE 51340

A double stranded RNA interference (dsRNAi) technique is employed to down-regulate the maize cinnamoyl coenzyme A reductase (ZmCCR1) gene to lower plant lignin content. Lignin down-regulation from the cell wall is visualized by microscopic analyses and quantified by the Klason method. Compositional changes in hemicellulose and crystalline cellulose are analyzed.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Printing Thermoresponsive Reverse Molds for the Creation of Patterned Two-component Hydrogels for 3D Cell Culture

1Department of Health Science & Technology, Cartilage Engineering & Regeneration, 2Biomaterials Department, Innovent e.V.


JoVE 50632

A bioprinter was used to create patterned hydrogels based on a sacrificial mold. The poloxamer mold was backfilled with a second hydrogel and then eluted, leaving voids which were filled with a third hydrogel. This method uses fast elution and good printability of poloxamer to generate complex architectures from biopolymers.

 JoVE Chemistry

Preparation of Silica Nanoparticles Through Microwave-assisted Acid-catalysis

1Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, 2Air Force Research Laboratory, Airbase Technology Division, 3School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University


JoVE 51022

Silica nanoparticles were prepared using acid-catalysis of a siloxane precursor and microwave-assisted synthetic techniques resulting in the controlled growth of nanomaterials ranging from 30-250 nm in diameter. The growth dynamics can be controlled by varying the initial silicic acid concentration, time of the reaction, and temperature of reaction.

 JoVE Chemistry

Gyroid Nickel Nanostructures from Diblock Copolymer Supramolecules

1Department of Polymer Chemistry, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, 2Materials Science, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, 3ICTM - Center for Catalysis and Chemical Engineering


JoVE 50673

This article describes the preparation of well-ordered nickel nanofoams via electroless metal deposition onto nanoporous templates obtained from self-assembled diblock copolymer based supramolecules.

 JoVE Bioengineering

ECM Protein Nanofibers and Nanostructures Engineered Using Surface-initiated Assembly

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University


JoVE 51176

A method to obtain nanofibers and complex nanostructures from single or multiple extracellular matrix proteins is described. This method uses protein-surface interactions to create free-standing protein-based materials with tunable composition and architecture for use in a variety of tissue engineering and biotechnology applications.

 JoVE Chemistry

Quantitative and Qualitative Examination of Particle-particle Interactions Using Colloidal Probe Nanoscopy

1Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, 2Department of Nanobiomedical Science & BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University


JoVE 51874

Colloidal probe nanoscopy can be used within a variety of fields to gain insight into the physical stability and coagulation kinetics of colloidal systems and aid in drug discovery and formulation sciences using biological systems. The method described within provides a quantitative and qualitative means to study such systems.

 JoVE Chemistry

Origami Inspired Self-assembly of Patterned and Reconfigurable Particles

1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University


JoVE 50022

We describe experimental details of the synthesis of patterned and reconfigurable particles from two dimensional (2D) precursors. This methodology can be used to create particles in a variety of shapes including polyhedra and grasping devices at length scales ranging from the micro to centimeter scale.

 JoVE Biology

Fundamental Technical Elements of Freeze-fracture/Freeze-etch in Biological Electron Microscopy

1Department of Pediatrics, Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


JoVE 51694

Basic techniques and refinements of freeze-fracture processing of biological specimens and nanomaterials for examination by transmission electron microscopy are described. This technique is a preferred method for revealing ultrastructural features and specializations of biological membranes and for obtaining ultrastructural level dimensional and spatial data in materials sciences and nanotechnology products.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Fabrication of VB2/Air Cells for Electrochemical Testing

1Department of Chemistry, The George Washington University, 2Lynntech


JoVE 50593

A protocol is presented to study multi-electron metal/air battery systems by using previous technology developed for the zinc/air cell. Electrochemical testing is then performed on fabricated batteries to evaluate performance.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Nanomoulding of Functional Materials, a Versatile Complementary Pattern Replication Method to Nanoimprinting

1Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 2Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley


JoVE 50177

We describe a nanomoulding technique which allows low-cost nanoscale patterning of functional materials, materials stacks and full devices. Nanomoulding can be performed on any nanoimprinting setup and can be applied to a wide range of materials and deposition processes.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Dry Oxidation and Vacuum Annealing Treatments for Tuning the Wetting Properties of Carbon Nanotube Arrays

1Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories, California Institute of Technology


JoVE 50378

This article describes a simple method to fabricate vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays by CVD and to subsequently tune their wetting properties by exposing them to vacuum annealing or dry oxidation treatment.

 JoVE Chemistry

Seeded Synthesis of CdSe/CdS Rod and Tetrapod Nanocrystals

1Department of Chemical Engineering, UC Berkeley, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, UC Berkeley, 3Department of Chemistry, UC Berkeley, 4Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 5Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, 6Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory


JoVE 50731

A protocol for the seeded synthesis of rod-shaped and tetrapod-shaped multicomponent nanostructures consisting of CdS and CdSe is presented.

 JoVE Biology

Use of a Robot for High-throughput Crystallization of Membrane Proteins in Lipidic Mesophases

1Membrane Structural and Functional Biology Group, Schools of Medicine and Biochemistry & Immunology, Trinity College Dublin


JoVE 4000

Herein is described a robotic approach to high-throughput crystallization of membrane proteins in lipidic mesophases for use in structure determination using macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Three robots capable of handling the viscous and sticky protein-laden mesophase integral to the method are introduced.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Fabrication of Silica Ultra High Quality Factor Microresonators

1Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, 2Department of Electrical Engineering-Electrophysics, University of Southern California


JoVE 4164

We describe the use of a carbon dioxide laser reflow technique to fabricate silica resonant cavities, including free-standing microspheres and on-chip microtoroids. The reflow method removes surface imperfections, allowing long photon lifetimes within both devices. The resulting devices have ultra high quality factors, enabling applications ranging from telecommunications to biodetection.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Sputter Growth and Characterization of Metamagnetic B2-ordered FeRh Epilayers

1School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, 2Institute of Materials Research, University of Leeds, 3School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, 5Department of Physics, Northeastern University


JoVE 50603

A method to prepare epitaxial layers of ordered alloys by sputtering is described. The B2-ordered FeRh compound is used as an example, as it displays a metamagnetic transition that depends sensitively on the degree of chemical order and the exact composition of the alloy.

 JoVE Chemistry

Fabricating Nanogaps by Nanoskiving

1Stratingh Institute for Chemistry and Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen


JoVE 50406

The fabrication of electrically addressable, high-aspect-ratio (> 1000:1) metal nanowires separated by gaps of single nanometers using either sacrificial layers of aluminum and silver or self-assembled monolayers as templates is described. These nanogap structures are fabricated without a clean room or any photo- or electron-beam lithographic processes by a form of edge lithography known as nanoskiving.

 JoVE Biology

Harvesting and Cryo-cooling Crystals of Membrane Proteins Grown in Lipidic Mesophases for Structure Determination by Macromolecular Crystallography

1Membrane Structural and Functional Biology Group, Schools of Medicine and Biochemistry & Immunology, Trinity College Dublin


JoVE 4001

Herein is described procedures implemented in the Caffrey Membrane Structural and Functional Biology Group to harvest and cryo-cool membrane protein crystals grown in lipidic cubic and sponge phases for use in structure determination using macromolecular X-ray crystallography.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Planar and Three-Dimensional Printing of Conductive Inks

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 3Presently at the Interdisciplinary Center for Wide Band-gap Semiconductors, University Of California Santa Barbara


JoVE 3189

Planar and three-dimensional printing of conductive metallic inks is described. Our approach provides new avenues for fabricating printed electronic, optoelectronic, and biomedical devices in unusual layouts at the microscale.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Fabricating Metamaterials Using the Fiber Drawing Method

1Institute of Photonics and Optical Sciences (IPOS), School of Physics, University of Sydney


JoVE 4299

Metamaterials at terahertz frequencies offer unique opportunities, but are challenging to fabricate in bulk. We adapt the fabrication procedure for microstructured polymer optical fibers to inexpensively fabricate metamaterials potentially on an industrial scale. We produce polymethylmethacrylate fibers containing ~10 μm diameter indium wires separated by ~100 μm, which exhibit a terahertz plasmonic response.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Microfabrication of Nanoporous Gold Patterns for Cell-material Interaction Studies

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis


JoVE 50678

We report on techniques to micropattern nanoporous gold thin films via stencil printing and photolithography, as well as methods to culture cells on the microfabricated patterns. In addition, we describe image analysis methods to characterize morphology of the material and the cultured cells using scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy techniques.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Postproduction Processing of Electrospun Fibres for Tissue Engineering

1Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, 2Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, 3Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield


JoVE 4172

Electrospun scaffolds can be processed post production for tissue engineering applications. Here we describe methods for spinning complex scaffolds (by consecutive spinning), for making thicker scaffolds (by multi-layering using heat or vapour annealing), for achieving sterility (aseptic production or sterilisation post production) and for achieving appropriate biomechanical properties.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Ex Vivo Red Blood Cell Hemolysis Assay for the Evaluation of pH-responsive Endosomolytic Agents for Cytosolic Delivery of Biomacromolecular Drugs

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 2Vanderbilt Institute for Nanoscale Science & Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 3Interdisciplinary Materials Science Program, Vanderbilt University, 4Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 5Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 6Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University


JoVE 50166

A hemolysis assay can be used as a rapid, high-throughput screen of drug delivery systems' cytocompatibility and endosomolytic activity for intracellular cargo delivery. The assay measures the disruption of erythrocyte membranes as a function of environmental pH.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Combination of Microstereolithography and Electrospinning to Produce Membranes Equipped with Niches for Corneal Regeneration

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, 3L. V. Prasad Eye Institute


JoVE 51826

We report a technique for the fabrication of micropockets within electrospun membranes in which to study cell behavior. Specifically, we describe a combination of microstereolithography and electrospinning for the production of PLGA (Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) corneal biomaterial devices equipped with microfeatures.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Solid-state Graft Copolymer Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications

1Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Materials Processing Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


JoVE 50067

Lithium ion batteries employ flammable and volatile organic electrolytes that are suitable for ambient temperature applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes are solid polymer batteries. Solid polymer batteries operate safely at high temperatures (>120 °C), thus making them applicable to high temperature applications such as deep oil drilling and hybrid electric vehicles. This paper will discuss (a) the polymer synthesis, (b) the polymer conduction mechanism, and (c) provide temperature cycling for both solid polymer and organic electrolytes.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Preparation of Light-responsive Membranes by a Combined Surface Grafting and Postmodification Process

1Laboratory for Protection and Physiology, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, 2Laboratory of Advanced Fibers, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, 3Division of Neonatology, University Hospital Zurich


JoVE 51680

A plasma-induced polymerization procedure is described for the surface-initiated polymerization on polymer membranes. Further postmodification of the grafted polymer with photochromic substances is presented with a protocol of conducting permeability measurements of light-responsive membranes.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Fabrication of Spatially Confined Complex Oxides

1Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville


JoVE 50573

We describe the use of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), photolithography and wire-bonding techniques to create micrometer scale complex oxides devices. The PLD is utilized to grow epitaxial thin films. Photolithography and wire-bonding techniques are introduced to create practical devices for measurement purposes.

 JoVE Chemistry

Preparation and Use of Carbonyl-decorated Carbenes in the Activation of White Phosphorus

1Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University


JoVE 52149

Here, we present a protocol for the synthesis of two carbonyl-decorated carbenes. The protocol makes these interesting compounds readily available to chemists of all skill levels. In addition to the synthesis of these two carbenes, their use in the activation of white phosphorus is also described.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Fabrication, Densification, and Replica Molding of 3D Carbon Nanotube Microstructures

1Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2IMEC, Belgium


JoVE 3980

We present methods for fabrication of patterned microstructures of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and their use as master molds for production of polymer microstructures with organized nanoscale surface texture. The CNT forests are densified by condensation of solvent onto the substrate, which significantly increases their packing density and enables self-directed formation of 3D shapes.

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