1Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University
A guided material screening approach to develop sol-gel derived protein doped microarrays using an emerging pin-printing method of fabrication is described. This methodology is demonstrated through the development of acetylcholinesterase and multikinase microarrays, which are used for cost-effective small-molecule screening.
Published August 26, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Chemical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Biology, Biocompatible Materials, Siloxanes, Enzymes, Immobilized, chemical analysis techniques, chemistry (general), materials (general), spectroscopic analysis (chemistry), polymer matrix composites, testing of materials (composite materials), Sol-gel, microarray, high-throughput screening, acetylcholinesterase, kinase, drug discovery, assay
JoVE Applied Physics
1Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 3Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, 4Haldor Topsøe A/S, 5PolyPlus Battery Company
We describe the use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques to probe details of intercalation/deintercalation processes in electrode materials for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. Both in situ and ex situ experiments are used to understand structural behavior relevant to the operation of devices
Published November 11, 2013. Keywords: Physics, X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, inorganic chemistry, electric batteries (applications), energy storage, Electrode materials, Li-ion battery, Na-ion battery, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD)
JoVE Applied Physics
1Center for Neutron Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, 2NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 3Institut Laue-Langevin
A shear cell is developed for small-angle neutron scattering measurements in the velocity-velocity gradient plane of shear and is used to characterize complex fluids. Spatially resolved measurements in the velocity gradient direction are possible for studying shear-banding materials. Applications include investigations of colloidal dispersions, polymer solutions, and self-assembled structures.
Published February 6, 2014. Keywords: Physics, Surfactants, Rheology, Shear Banding, Nanostructure, Neutron Scattering, Complex Fluids, Flow-induced Structure
1Advanced Platform Technology Center, Rehabilitation Research and Development, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University
A method is discussed by which the in vivo mechanical behavior of stimuli-responsive materials is monitored as a function of time. Samples are tested ex vivo using a microtensile tester with environmental controls to simulate the physiological environment. This work further promotes understanding the in vivo behavior of our material.
Published August 20, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biophysics, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Electrical Engineering, Materials Science, Nanotechnology, Nanocomposites, Electrodes, Implanted, Neural Prostheses, Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems, Implants, Experimental, mechanical properties (composite materials), Dynamic materials, polymer nanocomposite, Young's modulus, modulus of elasticity, intracortical microelectrode, polymers, biomaterials
JoVE Applied Physics
1Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 2Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 3MassThink LLC
White light microscope interferometry is an optical, noncontact and quick method for measuring the topography of surfaces. It is shown how the method can be applied toward mechanical wear analysis, where wear scars on tribological test samples are analyzed; and in materials science to determine ion beam sputtering or laser ablation volumes and depths.
Published February 27, 2013. Keywords: Materials Science, Physics, Ion Beams (nuclear interactions), Light Reflection, Optical Properties, Semiconductor Materials, White Light Interferometry, Ion Sputtering, Laser Ablation, Femtosecond Lasers, Depth Profiling, Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry, Tribology, Wear Analysis, Optical Profilometry, wear, friction, atomic force microscopy, AFM, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, imaging, visualization
1Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles
When working with media and reagents used to culture microorganisms, aseptic technique must be practiced to ensure contamination is minimized. A variety of plating methods are routinely used to isolate, propagate, or enumerate bacteria and phage, all of which incorporate procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials.
Published May 11, 2012. Keywords: Basic Protocols, Streak plates, pour plates, soft agar overlays, spread plates, replica plates, bacteria, colonies, phage, plaques, dilutions
JoVE Applied Physics
1Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta
We report a simple method for fabricating an ultrahigh density array of vertically ordered small-molecular organic nanowires. This method allows for synthesis of complex heterostructured hybrid nanowire geometries, which can be inexpensively grown on arbitrary substrates. These structures have potential applications in organic electronics, optoelectronics, chemical sensing, photovoltaics and spintronics.
Published June 18, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Electrical Engineering, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Nanotechnology, nanodevices (electronic), semiconductor devices, solid state devices, thin films (theory, deposition and growth), crystal growth (general), Organic semiconductors, small molecular organics, organic nanowires, nanorods and nanotubes, bottom-up nanofabrication, electrochemical self-assembly, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), template-assisted synthesis of nanostructures, Raman spectrum, field emission scanning electron microscopy, FESEM
JoVE Applied Physics
1Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington
The high-pressure and high-temperature experiments described here mimic planet interior differentiation processes. The processes are visualized and better understood by high-resolution 3D imaging and quantitative chemical analysis.
Published November 15, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Geophysics, Planetary Science, Geochemistry, Planetary interior, high-pressure, planet differentiation, 3D tomography
1School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, 2Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, 3ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, 4Health Innovations Research Institute, College of Science, Engineering, and Health, RMIT University
Different electrode coatings affect neural recording performance through changes to electrochemical, chemical and mechanical properties. Comparison of electrodes in vitro is relatively simple, however comparison of in vivo response is typically complicated by variations in electrode/neuron distance and between animals. This article provides a robust method to compare neural recording electrodes.
Published March 3, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Electrochemistry, Electrophysiology, Neural Recording, Neural Implant, Electrode Coating, Bionics
1Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Kansas School of Medicine, 2Department of Radiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
This paper describes in-house procedures of constructing a preclinical multimodality phantom made of tissue-mimicking (TM) materials for quality assurance (QA) of tumor size measurement in animal imaging modalities such as ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Published July 29, 2013. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cancer Biology, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Therapeutics, Chemistry and Materials (General), Composite Materials, Quality Assurance and Reliability, Physics (General), Tissue-mimicking materials, Preclinical, Multimodality, Quality assurance, Phantom, Tumor size measurement, Cancer, Imaging