1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Sheffield
Replication is one of the processing techniques used for the production of porous metal sponges. In this paper one implementation of the method for the production of open celled porous aluminum is shown in detail.
Published December 11, 2014. Keywords: Physics, Metal foam, NaCl, porosity, aluminum, infiltration, leaching
1Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of novel materials. Coupled with analysis by in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), soft landing provides unprecedented insights into the interactions of well-defined species with surfaces.
Published June 16, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, soft landing, mass selected ions, electrospray, secondary ion mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, organometallic, catalysis
1MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente
Procedures are outlined to prepare segmented and coaxial nanowires via templated electrodeposition in nanopores. As examples, segmented nanowires consisting of Ag and ZnO segments, and coaxial nanowires consisting of a TiO2 shell and a Ag core were made. The nanowires were used in photocatalytic hydrogen formation experiments.
Published May 2, 2014. Keywords: Physics, Multicomponent nanowires, electrochemistry, sol-gel processes, photocatalysis, photochemistry, H2 evolution
1Advanced Platform Technology Center, Rehabilitation Research and Development, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University
A method is discussed by which the in vivo mechanical behavior of stimuli-responsive materials is monitored as a function of time. Samples are tested ex vivo using a microtensile tester with environmental controls to simulate the physiological environment. This work further promotes understanding the in vivo behavior of our material.
Published August 20, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biophysics, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Electrical Engineering, Materials Science, Nanotechnology, Nanocomposites, Electrodes, Implanted, Neural Prostheses, Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems, Implants, Experimental, mechanical properties (composite materials), Dynamic materials, polymer nanocomposite, Young's modulus, modulus of elasticity, intracortical microelectrode, polymers, biomaterials
1Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 2Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 3Center of Functional Nano-Ceramics, National University of Science and Technology, "MISIS"
This protocol describes the preparation of gasless nanostructured energetic materials (Ni+Al, Ta+C, Ti+C) using the short-term high-energy ball milling (HEBM) technique. It also describes a high-speed thermal imaging method to study the reactivity of mechanically fabricated nanocomposites. These protocols can be extended to other reactive nanostructured energetic materials.
Published April 2, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Reactive composites, Energetic materials, High-Energy Ball Milling, Gasless Combustion, Ignition, Reactivity Enhancement
1Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, University of California Merced
A new computational system featuring GPU-accelerated molecular dynamics simulation and 3D/VR visualization, analysis and manipulation of nanostructures has been implemented, representing a novel approach to advance materials research and promote innovative investigation and alternative methods to learn about material structures with dimensions invisible to the human eye.
Published December 18, 2014. Keywords: Physics, Computational systems, visualization and immersive environments, interactive learning, graphical processing unit accelerated simulations, molecular dynamics simulations, nanostructures.
1Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 2Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 3MassThink LLC
White light microscope interferometry is an optical, noncontact and quick method for measuring the topography of surfaces. It is shown how the method can be applied toward mechanical wear analysis, where wear scars on tribological test samples are analyzed; and in materials science to determine ion beam sputtering or laser ablation volumes and depths.
Published February 27, 2013. Keywords: Materials Science, Physics, Ion Beams (nuclear interactions), Light Reflection, Optical Properties, Semiconductor Materials, White Light Interferometry, Ion Sputtering, Laser Ablation, Femtosecond Lasers, Depth Profiling, Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry, Tribology, Wear Analysis, Optical Profilometry, wear, friction, atomic force microscopy, AFM, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, imaging, visualization
1Hydrogen and Energy Laboratory, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology
Nitrogen is an effective supercritical fluid for extraction or drying processes due to its small molecular size, high density in the near-liquid supercritical regime, and chemical inertness. We present a supercritical nitrogen drying protocol for the purification treatment of reactive, porous materials.
Published May 15, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, supercritical, purification, drying, extraction, solvent, nitrogen, activation, microporous materials, surface area, reactive materials, complex hydrides, hydrogen storage
1Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington
The high-pressure and high-temperature experiments described here mimic planet interior differentiation processes. The processes are visualized and better understood by high-resolution 3D imaging and quantitative chemical analysis.
Published November 15, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Geophysics, Planetary Science, Geochemistry, Planetary interior, high-pressure, planet differentiation, 3D tomography
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 3School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 4Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology, Harvard University
Tin sulfide (SnS) is a candidate material for Earth-abundant, non-toxic solar cells. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication procedure of the SnS solar cells employing atomic layer deposition, which yields 4.36% certified power conversion efficiency, and thermal evaporation which yields 3.88%.
Published May 22, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Solar cells, thin films, thermal evaporation, atomic layer deposition, annealing, tin sulfide
1Department of Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 2Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 3Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California
We have devised a method for low-cost and rapid prototyping of liquid elastomer rubber injection molded devices by using fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as a liquid injection system.
Published June 27, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, liquid injection molding, reaction injection molding, molds, 3D printing, fused deposition modeling, rapid prototyping, medical devices, low cost, low volume, rapid turnaround time.
1Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, University of California Merced, 2Computer Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, University of California Merced
Accurate modeling of nanohelical structures is important for predictive simulation studies leading to novel nanotechnology applications. Currently, software packages and codes are limited in creating atomistic helical models. We present two procedures designed to create atomistic nanohelical models for simulations, and a graphical interface to enhance research through visualization.
Published November 12, 2014. Keywords: Physics, Helical atomistic models; open-source coding; graphical user interface; visualization software; molecular dynamics simulations; graphical processing unit accelerated simulations.
1Polymer and Composite Engineering (PaCE) Group, Institute of Materials Chemistry and Research, University of Vienna, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, 3Polymer and Composite Engineering (PaCE) Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London
We present a novel method of manufacturing rigid and robust short natural fiber preforms using a papermaking process. Bacterial cellulose acts simultaneously as the binder for the loose fibers and provides rigidity to the fiber preforms. These preforms can be infused with a resin to produce truly green hierarchical composites.
Published May 22, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, bacterial cellulose, natural fibers, preform, vacuum assisted resin infusion, hierarchical composites, binder
1Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 2Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago
Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials are inherently inhomogeneous at the nanometer scale. Nanoscale inhomogeneity of OPV materials affects performance of photovoltaic devices. In this paper, we describe a protocol for quantitative measurements of electrical and mechanical properties of OPV materials with sub-100 nm resolution.
Published January 23, 2013. Keywords: Materials Science, Nanotechnology, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Computer Science, Physics, electrical transport properties in solids, condensed matter physics, thin films (theory, deposition and growth), conductivity (solid state), AFM, atomic force microscopy, electrical properties, mechanical properties, organic photovoltaics, microengineering, photovoltaics
1Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California
In this article, we describe a protocol for fabricating an amelogenin-chitosan hydrogel for superficial enamel reconstruction. Organized in situ growth of apatite crystals in the hydrogel formed a dense enamel-restoration interface, which will improve the effectiveness and durability of restorations.
Published July 10, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Enamel, Amelogenin, Chitosan hydrogel, Apatite, Biomimetic, Erosion, Superficial enamel reconstruction, Dense interface
1Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto
Solution-suspendable gold nanotubes with controlled dimensions can be synthesized by electrochemical deposition in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes using a hydrophobic polymer core. Gold nanotubes and nanotube arrays hold promise for applications in plasmonic biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, photo-thermal heating, ionic and molecular transport, microfluidics, catalysis and electrochemical sensing.
Published April 1, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Materials Science, Physics, Nanotechnology, Chemistry and Materials (General), Composite Materials, Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry, Metals and Metallic Materials, Gold, nanotubes, anodic aluminum oxide templates, surface plasmon resonance, sensing, refractive index, template directed synthesis, nano
1Department of Physics, Clemson University, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, East Carolina University, 3Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 4Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University
Graphene offers potential as a coating material for biomedical implants. In this study we demonstrate a method for coating nitinol alloys with nanometer thick layers of graphene and determine how graphene may influence implant response.
Published March 1, 2013. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Medicine, Biophysics, Materials Science, Physics, Pharmacology, Toxicology, Surgery, Chemistry and Materials (General), graphene, biomedical implants, surface modification, chemical vapor deposition, protein expression, confocal microscopy, implants, stents, clinical
1Center for Innovative Fuel Cells and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology
We present a unique platform for characterizing electrode surfaces in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) that allows simultaneous performance of multiple characterization techniques (e.g. in situ Raman spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy alongside electrochemical measurements). Complementary information from these analyses may help to advance toward a more profound understanding of electrode reaction and degradation mechanisms, providing insights into rational design of better materials for SOFCs.
Published September 20, 2012. Keywords: Materials Science, Chemistry, Electrical Engineering, Physics, electrochemistry, catalysts (chemical), spectroscopic chemical analysis (application), microscopes, Fuel cell, Raman, AFM, SOFC, Surface, Electrode
1Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
We have developed a self-contained liquid cell, which allows imaging through liquids using a transmission electron microscope. Dynamic processes of nanoparticles in liquids can be revealed in real time with sub-nanometer resolution.
Published December 20, 2012. Keywords: Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Physics, Engineering, Life sciences, Liquid cell, Transmission Electron Microscopy, TEM, In situ TEM, Single nanoparticle trajectory, dynamic imaging, nanocrystals
1Department of Energy and NEMAS - Center for NanoEngineered Materials and Surfaces, Politecnico di Milano, 2Center for Nano Science and Technology, Instituto Italiano di Tecnologia
We describe the experimental method to deposit nanostructured oxide thin films by nanosecond Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) in the presence of a background gas. By using this method Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films, from compact to hierarchically structured as nano-tree forests, can be deposited.
Published February 27, 2013. Keywords: Materials Science, Physics, Nanotechnology, Nanoengineering, Oxides, thin films, thin film theory, deposition and growth, Pulsed laser Deposition (PLD), Transparent conducting oxides (TCO), Hierarchically organized Nanostructured oxides, Al doped ZnO (AZO) films, enhanced light scattering capability, gases, deposition, nanoporus, nanoparticles, Van der Pauw, scanning electron microscopy, SEM
1School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, 2Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University
A protocol to construct and test coin cells of lithium ion batteries is described. The specific procedures of making a working electrode, preparing a counter electrode, assembling a cell inside a glovebox and testing the cell are presented.
Published August 2, 2012. Keywords: Materials Science, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Physics, Battery, coin cells, CR2032, lithium, lithium ion
1Department of Physics, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute
This paper demonstrates a protocol to characterize the mechanical properties of living cells by means of microindentation using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).
Published June 27, 2013. Keywords: Biophysics, Bioengineering, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Physics, Chemical Engineering, Biomechanics, bioengineering (general), AFM, cell stiffness, microindentation, force spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, microscopy
1School of Engineering, University of Glasgow
This protocol outlines the simulation, fabrication and characterization of THz metamaterial absorbers. Such absorbers, when coupled with an appropriate sensor, have applications in THz imaging and spectroscopy.
Published December 27, 2012. Keywords: Materials Science, Physics, Engineering, Metamaterial, terahertz, sensing, fabrication, clean room, simulation, FTIR, spectroscopy
1Biomatériaux et Bioingénieriee, INSERM, 2Service Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 3Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, Université de Strasbourg
In this video, we will demonstrate modification techniques for porous metallic implants to improve their functionality and to control cell migration. Techniques include development of pore gradients to control cell movement in 3D and production of basement membrane mimics to control cell movement in 2-D. Also, a HPLC-based method for monitoring implant integration in-vivo via analysis of blood proteins is described.
Published July 1, 2013. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Biophysics, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Materials Science, Biomedical and Dental Materials, Composite Materials, Metals and Metallic Materials, Engineering (General), Titanium, pore gradient, implant, in vivo, blood analysis, freeze-extraction, foams, implants, transplantation, clinical applications
1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 2Freimann Life Science Center, University of Notre Dame, 3Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 4Notre Dame Integrated Imaging Facility, University of Notre Dame, 5MakerBot Industries LLC, 6Departments of Biological Sciences, Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, and Anthropology, University of Notre Dame, 7Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame
Using modern plastic extrusion and printing technologies, it is now possible to quickly and inexpensively produce physical models of X-ray CT data taken in a laboratory. The three -dimensional printing of tomographic data is a powerful visualization, research, and educational tool that may now be accessed by the preclinical imaging community.
Published March 22, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Materials Science, Engineering, Manufactured Materials, Technology, Animal Structures, Life Sciences (General), 3D printing, X-ray Computed Tomography, CT, CT scans, data extrusion, additive printing, in vivo imaging, clinical techniques, imaging
1The School of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, 3The Institute for Sustainable and Renewable Resources, The Institute for Advanced Learning and Research, 4Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University
A double stranded RNA interference (dsRNAi) technique is employed to down-regulate the maize cinnamoyl coenzyme A reductase (ZmCCR1) gene to lower plant lignin content. Lignin down-regulation from the cell wall is visualized by microscopic analyses and quantified by the Klason method. Compositional changes in hemicellulose and crystalline cellulose are analyzed.
Published July 23, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Zea mays, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), dsRNAi, Klason lignin measurement, cell wall carbohydrate analysis, gas chromatography (GC)
1Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, 2Air Force Research Laboratory, Airbase Technology Division, 3School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University
Silica nanoparticles were prepared using acid-catalysis of a siloxane precursor and microwave-assisted synthetic techniques resulting in the controlled growth of nanomaterials ranging from 30-250 nm in diameter. The growth dynamics can be controlled by varying the initial silicic acid concentration, time of the reaction, and temperature of reaction.
Published December 16, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Chemistry, chemical manufacturing, chemistry (general), materials (general), nanocomposites, catalysts (chemical), chemistry of compounds, Chemistry and Materials (General), Composite Materials, Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry, Engineering (General), Microwave, nanoparticle, silica, silicic acid, NP, SiO2, synthesis
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Health Science & Technology, Cartilage Engineering & Regeneration, 2Biomaterials Department, Innovent e.V.
A bioprinter was used to create patterned hydrogels based on a sacrificial mold. The poloxamer mold was backfilled with a second hydrogel and then eluted, leaving voids which were filled with a third hydrogel. This method uses fast elution and good printability of poloxamer to generate complex architectures from biopolymers.
Published July 10, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Immunology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Molecular Biology, Materials Science, Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials, Hydrogel, Biopolymers, Structured/Patterned Hydrogels, Bioprinter, Sacrificial Mold, Thermoresponsive Polymers, Poloxamer, tissue, polymer, matrix, cell, cell culture
1Department of Polymer Chemistry, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, 2Materials Science, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, 3ICTM - Center for Catalysis and Chemical Engineering
This article describes the preparation of well-ordered nickel nanofoams via electroless metal deposition onto nanoporous templates obtained from self-assembled diblock copolymer based supramolecules.
Published April 28, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, polymers, polymer matrix composites, foam materials, block copolymers, self-assembly, supramolecules, gyroid, nanoporous, electroless plating, metal nanofoams
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University
A method to obtain nanofibers and complex nanostructures from single or multiple extracellular matrix proteins is described. This method uses protein-surface interactions to create free-standing protein-based materials with tunable composition and architecture for use in a variety of tissue engineering and biotechnology applications.
Published April 17, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Nanofibers, Nanofabrics, Extracellular Matrix Proteins, Microcontact Printing, Fibronectin, Laminin, Tissue Engineering, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), Surface-Initiated Assembly
1Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, 2Department of Nanobiomedical Science & BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University
Colloidal probe nanoscopy can be used within a variety of fields to gain insight into the physical stability and coagulation kinetics of colloidal systems and aid in drug discovery and formulation sciences using biological systems. The method described within provides a quantitative and qualitative means to study such systems.
Published July 18, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Colloidal Probe, Nanoscopy, Suspension Stability, Adhesion Mapping, Force, Particle Interaction, Particle Kinetics
1Department of Pediatrics, Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Basic techniques and refinements of freeze-fracture processing of biological specimens and nanomaterials for examination by transmission electron microscopy are described. This technique is a preferred method for revealing ultrastructural features and specializations of biological membranes and for obtaining ultrastructural level dimensional and spatial data in materials sciences and nanotechnology products.
Published September 11, 2014. Keywords: Biophysics, Freeze-fracture; Freeze-etch; Membranes; Intercellular junctions; Materials science; Nanotechnology; Electron microscopy
1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University
We describe experimental details of the synthesis of patterned and reconfigurable particles from two dimensional (2D) precursors. This methodology can be used to create particles in a variety of shapes including polyhedra and grasping devices at length scales ranging from the micro to centimeter scale.
Published February 4, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Biomolecular Engineering, Materials Science, Physics, Nanotechnology, Molecular Self-assembly, Electrochemistry, Folding, three dimensional, lithography, colloid, patchy particles, particles, nanoparticles, robotics, drug delivery, microfabrication, nanofabrication, nano, assembly, synthesis, reaction, origami
1Department of Chemistry, The George Washington University, 2Lynntech
A protocol is presented to study multi-electron metal/air battery systems by using previous technology developed for the zinc/air cell. Electrochemical testing is then performed on fabricated batteries to evaluate performance.
Published August 5, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Materials Science, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Inorganic Chemicals, Chemistry and Materials (General), Composite Materials, Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry, Metals and Metallic Materials, Nonmetallic Materials, Engineering (General), Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Physics (General), energy storage, metal/air battery, nanoscopic vanadium diboride, VB2, multi-electron oxidation, electrochemical testing, electrode, fabrication
1Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories, California Institute of Technology
This article describes a simple method to fabricate vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays by CVD and to subsequently tune their wetting properties by exposing them to vacuum annealing or dry oxidation treatment.
Published April 15, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Materials Science, Nanotechnology, Engineering, Nanotubes, Carbon, Oxidation-Reduction, Surface Properties, carbon nanotubes (synthesis and properties), Carbon nanotube, Wettability, Hydrophobic, Hydrophilic, UV/ozone, Oxygen Plasma, Vacuum Annealing
1Department of Chemical Engineering, UC Berkeley, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, UC Berkeley, 3Department of Chemistry, UC Berkeley, 4Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 5Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, 6Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory
A protocol for the seeded synthesis of rod-shaped and tetrapod-shaped multicomponent nanostructures consisting of CdS and CdSe is presented.
Published December 11, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, nanostructures, synthesis, nanocrystals, seeded rods, tetrapods, nanoheterostructures
1Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 2Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley
We describe a nanomoulding technique which allows low-cost nanoscale patterning of functional materials, materials stacks and full devices. Nanomoulding can be performed on any nanoimprinting setup and can be applied to a wide range of materials and deposition processes.
Published January 23, 2013. Keywords: Materials Science, Nanotechnology, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Computer Sciences, Physics, dielectrics (electronic application), light emitting diodes (LED), lithography (circuit fabrication), nanodevices (electronic), optoelectronics (applications), photoelectric devices, semiconductor devices, solar cells (electrical design), Surface patterning, nanoimprinting, nanomoulding, transfer moulding, functional materials, transparent conductive oxides, microengineering, photovoltaics
1Department of Chemistry, New York City College of Technology, City University of New York (CUNY)
Formulation of stable, functional inks is critical to expanding the applications of additive manufacturing. In turn, knowledge of the mechanisms of dispersant/particle bonding is required for effective ink formulation. Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is presented as a simple, inexpensive way to gain insight into these mechanisms.
Published May 8, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Additive manufacture, digital fabrication, inkjet printing, ceramic inks, ink dispersants, nanoparticle inks, ink dispersion, diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, centrifugation
1Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, 2Department of Electrical Engineering-Electrophysics, University of Southern California
We describe the use of a carbon dioxide laser reflow technique to fabricate silica resonant cavities, including free-standing microspheres and on-chip microtoroids. The reflow method removes surface imperfections, allowing long photon lifetimes within both devices. The resulting devices have ultra high quality factors, enabling applications ranging from telecommunications to biodetection.
Published July 2, 2012. Keywords: Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Physics, Electrophysics, Biosensor, device fabrication, microcavity, optical resonator
1Membrane Structural and Functional Biology Group, Schools of Medicine and Biochemistry & Immunology, Trinity College Dublin
Herein is described a robotic approach to high-throughput crystallization of membrane proteins in lipidic mesophases for use in structure determination using macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Three robots capable of handling the viscous and sticky protein-laden mesophase integral to the method are introduced.
Published September 1, 2012. Keywords: Materials Science, automation, crystallization, glass sandwich plates, high-throughput, in meso, lipidic cubic phase, lipidic mesophases, macromolecular X-ray crystallography, membrane protein, receptor, robot
1Stratingh Institute for Chemistry and Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen
The fabrication of electrically addressable, high-aspect-ratio (> 1000:1) metal nanowires separated by gaps of single nanometers using either sacrificial layers of aluminum and silver or self-assembled monolayers as templates is described. These nanogap structures are fabricated without a clean room or any photo- or electron-beam lithographic processes by a form of edge lithography known as nanoskiving.
Published May 13, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Physics, Nanotechnology, nanodevices (electronic), Nanoskiving, nanogaps, nanofabrication, molecular electronics, nanowires, fabrication, etching, ultramicrotome, scanning electron microscopy, SEM
1School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, 2Institute of Materials Research, University of Leeds, 3School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, 5Department of Physics, Northeastern University
A method to prepare epitaxial layers of ordered alloys by sputtering is described. The B2-ordered FeRh compound is used as an example, as it displays a metamagnetic transition that depends sensitively on the degree of chemical order and the exact composition of the alloy.
Published October 5, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Sputtering, epitaxial growth, magnetism, ordered alloys
1Membrane Structural and Functional Biology Group, Schools of Medicine and Biochemistry & Immunology, Trinity College Dublin
Herein is described procedures implemented in the Caffrey Membrane Structural and Functional Biology Group to harvest and cryo-cool membrane protein crystals grown in lipidic cubic and sponge phases for use in structure determination using macromolecular X-ray crystallography.
Published September 2, 2012. Keywords: Materials Science, crystallization, glass sandwich plates, GPCR, harvesting, in meso, LCP, lipidic mesophases, macromolecular X-ray crystallography, membrane protein
1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 3Presently at the Interdisciplinary Center for Wide Band-gap Semiconductors, University Of California Santa Barbara
Planar and three-dimensional printing of conductive metallic inks is described. Our approach provides new avenues for fabricating printed electronic, optoelectronic, and biomedical devices in unusual layouts at the microscale.
Published December 9, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Direct-write assembly, silver ink, 3D printing, planar, three-dimensional, microelectrodes, flexible electronics, printed electronics
1Institute of Photonics and Optical Sciences (IPOS), School of Physics, University of Sydney
Metamaterials at terahertz frequencies offer unique opportunities, but are challenging to fabricate in bulk. We adapt the fabrication procedure for microstructured polymer optical fibers to inexpensively fabricate metamaterials potentially on an industrial scale. We produce polymethylmethacrylate fibers containing ~10 μm diameter indium wires separated by ~100 μm, which exhibit a terahertz plasmonic response.
Published October 18, 2012. Keywords: Physics, Optics, Photonics, Materials Science, Fiber drawing, metamaterials, polymer optical fiber, microstructured fibers
1X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University
Here, we present a protocol on how to determine the quantity and distribution of metals in a sample using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence. We focus on adherent cells, and describe the chemical fixation method to prepare this sample. We then describe how to mount and image the sample using synchrotron X-rays.
Published March 12, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, X-ray, fluorescence, imaging, metals, chemical biology, microscopy, synchrotron
1Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, 2Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, 3Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield
Electrospun scaffolds can be processed post production for tissue engineering applications. Here we describe methods for spinning complex scaffolds (by consecutive spinning), for making thicker scaffolds (by multi-layering using heat or vapour annealing), for achieving sterility (aseptic production or sterilisation post production) and for achieving appropriate biomechanical properties.
Published August 9, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Materials Science, Biomedical Engineering, Tissue Engineering, Medicine, Chemistry, Electrospinning, bilayer, biaxial distension, heat and vapour annealing, mechanical testing, fibres
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis
We report on techniques to micropattern nanoporous gold thin films via stencil printing and photolithography, as well as methods to culture cells on the microfabricated patterns. In addition, we describe image analysis methods to characterize morphology of the material and the cultured cells using scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy techniques.
Published July 15, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Biophysics, Physics, Nanotechnology, Nanostructures, Biomedical Technology, Miniaturization, Gold, Staining and Labeling, Cell Culture Techniques, Microscopy, Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence, Nanotechnology, thin films (theory, deposition and growth), Nanoporous gold, cell culture, image analysis, microfabrication, nanotechnology, quantitative immunochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, fluorescence microscopy, stencil printing, photolithography, cell culture
1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, 3L. V. Prasad Eye Institute
We report a technique for the fabrication of micropockets within electrospun membranes in which to study cell behavior. Specifically, we describe a combination of microstereolithography and electrospinning for the production of PLGA (Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) corneal biomaterial devices equipped with microfeatures.
Published September 12, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, electrospinning, microstereolithography, stem cell niche, storage, limbal explants
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 2Vanderbilt Institute for Nanoscale Science & Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 3Interdisciplinary Materials Science Program, Vanderbilt University, 4Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 5Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 6Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University
A hemolysis assay can be used as a rapid, high-throughput screen of drug delivery systems' cytocompatibility and endosomolytic activity for intracellular cargo delivery. The assay measures the disruption of erythrocyte membranes as a function of environmental pH.
Published March 9, 2013. Keywords: Immunology, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Cancer Biology, Molecular Biology, Erythrocytes, Endosomes, Small Interfering RNA, Gene Therapy, Nanomedicine, Gene delivery, Nanoparticles, Endosome Escape, Intracellular Trafficking, Cytosolic Drug Delivery, red blood cells, assay