We introduce an approach to evaluate the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in isolated lymphatics to study Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-sensitizing mechanisms of lymphatic smooth muscle contraction.
Rat Mesentery Exteriorization: A Model for Investigating the Cellular Dynamics Involved in Angiogenesis
This article describes a simple model for stimulating angiogenesis in the rat mesentery. The model produces dramatic increases in capillary sprouting, vascular area and vascular density over a relatively short time course in a tissue that allows en face visualization of entire microvascular networks down to the single cell level.
We present a preparation for visualizing and manipulating calcium signaling in native, intact microvascular endothelium. Endothelial tubes freshly isolated from mouse resistance arteries supplying skeletal muscle retain in vivo morphology and dynamic signaling within and between neighboring cells. Endothelial tubes can be prepared from microvessels of other tissues and organs.
1School of Immunity and Infection, IBR-MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, 2Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Edinburgh
Generation of lymph node/fat pad chimeras for the study of lymph node stromal cell origin is described. The method involves the isolation of lymph nodes from newborn mice and embryonic fat pads, the generation of chimeric lymph node-fat pads, and their transfer under the kidney capsule of a host mouse.
Published December 16, 2013. Keywords: Immunology, Adipose Tissue, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells, Immune System, Lymphoid Tissue, Lymph Nodes, Lymph node development, lymph node stromal cells, lymph node transplantation, immune responses, adipose tissue, adipose tissue stromal cells, stem cells
Recently developed imaging techniques using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) may help elucidate the role the lymphatic system plays in cancer metastasis, immune response, wound repair, and other lymphatic-associated diseases.
Published March 8, 2013. Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Cancer Biology, Optical imaging, lymphatic imaging, mouse imaging, non-invasive imaging, near-infrared fluorescence, vasculature, circulatory system, lymphatic system, lymph, dermis, injection, imaging, mouse, animal model
Exploring Arterial Smooth Muscle Kv7 Potassium Channel Function using Patch Clamp Electrophysiology and Pressure Myography
Measurements of Kv7 (KCNQ) potassium channel activity in isolated arterial myocytes (using patch clamp electrophysiological techniques) in parallel with measurements of constrictor/dilator responses (using pressure myography) can reveal important information about the roles of Kv7 channels in vascular smooth muscle physiology and pharmacology.
1Julius L. Chambers Biomedical/Biotechnology Research Institute, North Carolina Central University, Durham, 2Department of Biology, North Carolina Central University, Durham, 3Department of Physiology & Pharmacology and Hypertension & Vascular Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine
An automated myography method for force measurements in isolated mesenteric arteries is described. It employs a Mulvany-Halpern Auto Dual Wire Myograph 510A to determine responses to phenylephrine and extracellular calcium. The method allows consistent determination of isometric responses to agonists in small vessels of diameters of 60 - 300 μm, independently.
Whole-mount Immunohistochemical Analysis for Embryonic Limb Skin Vasculature: a Model System to Study Vascular Branching Morphogenesis in Embryo
We introduce a whole-mount immunohistochemistry and laser scanning confocal microscopy with multiple labelling for analyzing intricate vascular network formation in mouse embryonic limb skin.
Published May 20, 2011. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Confocal microscopy, whole-mount immunohistochemistry, mouse embryo, blood vessel, lymphatic vessel, vascular patterning, arterial differentiation
In pressure myography, an intact small segment of a vessel is mounted onto two small cannulas and pressurized to a suitable luminal pressure. Here, we describe the method to measure vasorelaxation response of the mouse 3rd order mesenteric arteries in c57 and sGCα1-/- mice using pressure myography.
Published June 7, 2013. Keywords: Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Biophysics, Bioengineering, Anatomy, Cardiology, Hematology, Vascular Diseases, Cardiovascular System, mice, resistance arteries, pressure myography, myography, myograph, NO-cGMP signaling, signaling, animal model
Flexible Colonoscopy in Mice to Evaluate the Severity of Colitis and Colorectal Tumors Using a Validated Endoscopic Scoring System
1Division of Gastroenterology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, 2Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, 3Digestive Health Research Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland
Over the past few years, new generation endoscopes have emerged as important diagnostic research aids for evaluating murine colitis and colorectal tumors. We present herein a detailed protocol for endoscopic assessment of inflammation and colorectal tumors in mice, as well as a novel scoring system that uses decimal identifiers to document the endoscopic severity of colitis and colorectal tumors.