Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or Mems
. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis
We report on techniques to micropattern nanoporous gold thin films via stencil printing and photolithography, as well as methods to culture cells on the microfabricated patterns. In addition, we describe image analysis methods to characterize morphology of the material and the cultured cells using scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy techniques.
Published July 15, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Biophysics, Physics, Nanotechnology, Nanostructures, Biomedical Technology, Miniaturization, Gold, Staining and Labeling, Cell Culture Techniques, Microscopy, Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence, Nanotechnology, thin films (theory, deposition and growth), Nanoporous gold, cell culture, image analysis, microfabrication, nanotechnology, quantitative immunochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, fluorescence microscopy, stencil printing, photolithography, cell culture
1Institute for Biological Interfaces, Karlsruhe Research Centre, 2Institute for BioMedical Technology, University of Twente, 3Department of Materials Research, Institute for Heavy Ion Research, 4Institute of Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Research Centre, 5Institute for Micro Process Engineering, Karlsruhe Research Centre
We present two processes for the microfabrication of porous polymer chips for three-dimensional cell cultivation. The first one is hot embossing combined with a solvent vapour welding process. The second one uses a recently developed microthermoforming process combined with ion track technology leading to a significant simplification of manufacture.
Published May 12, 2008. Keywords: Cellular Biology, SMART, microthermoforming, microfabrication, scaffolds, polymer
JoVE Applied Physics
1Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
This paper introduces a 3D additive micromanufacturing strategy (termed ‘micro-masonry’) for the flexible fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structures and devices. This approach involves transfer printing-based assembly of micro/nanoscale materials in conjunction with rapid thermal annealing-enabled material bonding techniques.
Published August 1, 2014. Keywords: Physics, Micro-masonry, microassembly, transfer printing, dry adhesives, additive manufacturing, printed processes, microfabrication, inks, microelectromechanical system (MEMS)
JoVE Applied Physics
1Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2IMEC, Belgium
We present methods for fabrication of patterned microstructures of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and their use as master molds for production of polymer microstructures with organized nanoscale surface texture. The CNT forests are densified by condensation of solvent onto the substrate, which significantly increases their packing density and enables self-directed formation of 3D shapes.
Published July 2, 2012. Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, Physics, Carbon nanotube, microstructure, fabrication, molding, transfer, polymer
JoVE Applied Physics
1Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
We have developed a self-contained liquid cell, which allows imaging through liquids using a transmission electron microscope. Dynamic processes of nanoparticles in liquids can be revealed in real time with sub-nanometer resolution.
Published December 20, 2012. Keywords: Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Physics, Engineering, Life sciences, Liquid cell, Transmission Electron Microscopy, TEM, In situ TEM, Single nanoparticle trajectory, dynamic imaging, nanocrystals
1Electrical Engineering Department, Polytechnique Montreal
In this article we describe different techniques for microfluidic rapid prototyping platforms. The proposed techniques are based on ultraviolet (UV) sensitive and temperature curing epoxies, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based tubing, wire-bonding, and anisotropic adhesive films. The assembling procedures presented are developed for both one-time use devices as well as reusable microfluidic systems.
Published December 23, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Microfluidics, PDMS, Lab-on-chip, Rapid-Prototyping, Microfabrication
1MEMS Sensors and Actuators Laboratory (MSAL), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, 2Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland
We present a microfluidic-based electrochemical biochip for DNA hybridization detection. Following ssDNA probe functionalization, the specificity, sensitivity, and detection limit are studied with complementary and non-complementary ssDNA targets. Results illustrate the influence of the DNA hybridization events on the electrochemical system, with a detection limit of 3.8 nM.
Published September 10, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, DNA hybridization, biosensor, biochip, microfluidics, label-free detection, restricted diffusion, microfabrication
1Centre for Integrative Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, 2Edinburgh Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Western General Hospital, 3School of Engineering, Institute for Integrated Micro and Nano Systems, The University of Edinburgh
This protocol describes a microfabrication-compatible method for cell patterning on SiO2. A predefined parylene-C design is photolithographically printed on SiO2 wafers. Following incubation with serum (or other activation solution) cells adhere specifically to (and grow according to the conformity of) underlying parylene-C, whilst being repulsed by SiO2 regions.
Published March 7, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Receptors, Cell Surface, Polymers, Cell Adhesion, Biomedical and Dental Materials, parylene-C, silicon dioxide, photolithography, cell adhesion, Cell Patterning
1Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of novel materials. Coupled with analysis by in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), soft landing provides unprecedented insights into the interactions of well-defined species with surfaces.
Published June 16, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, soft landing, mass selected ions, electrospray, secondary ion mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, organometallic, catalysis
1Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, 3Aflac Cancer Center and Blood Disorders Service of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, 4Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University
A method to culture an endothelial cell monolayer throughout the entire inner 3D surface of a microfluidic device with microvascular-sized channels (<30 μm) is described. This in vitro microvasculature model enables the study of biophysical interactions between blood cells, endothelial cells, and soluble factors in hematologic diseases.
Published June 22, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, endothelial cells, HUVEC, microfabrication, microvasculature, SU-8, micromolding, soft lithography
1Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, West Virginia University, 2Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California at Riverside
A microchannels-on-a-chip platform was developed by the combination of photolithographic reflowable photoresist technique, soft lithography, and microfluidics. The endothelialized microchannels platform mimics the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of in vivo microvessels, runs under controlled continuous perfusion flow, allows for high-quality and real-time imaging and can be applied for microvascular research.
Published October 21, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Bioengineering, Tissue Engineering, Miniaturization, Microtechnology, Microfluidics, Reflow photoresist, PDMS, Perfusion flow, Primary endothelial cells
1Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 4Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 5Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan
Drosophila larvae are an attractive model system for live imaging due to their translucent cuticle and powerful genetics. This protocol describes how to utilize a single-layer PDMS device, called the 'larva chip' for live imaging of cellular processes within neurons of 3rd instar Drosophila larvae.
Published February 7, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Drosophila melanogaster, Live Imaging, Microfluidics, axonal injury, axonal degeneration, calcium imaging, photoconversion, laser microsurgery
1Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, IBG-1: Biotechnology, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH
In this protocol the fabrication, setup and basic operation of a microfluidic picoliter bioreactor (PLBR) for single-cell analysis of prokaryotic microorganisms is introduced. Industrially relevant microorganisms were analyzed as proof of principle allowing insights into growth rate, morphology, and phenotypic heterogeneity over certain time periods, hardly possible with conventional methods.
Published December 6, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Soft lithography, SU-8 lithography, Picoliter bioreactor, Single-cell analysis, Polydimethylsiloxane, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Escherichia coli, Microfluidics, Lab-on-a-chip
1Materials Engineering Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2UCSF Center for Integrative Neuroscience and the Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco
Insertion of flexible neural microelectrode probes is enabled by attaching probes to rigid stiffeners with polyethylene glycol (PEG). A unique assembly process ensures uniform and repeatable attachment. After insertion into tissue, the PEG dissolves and the stiffener is extracted. An in vitro test method evaluates the technique in agarose gel.
Published September 27, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Nervous System Diseases, Surgical Procedures, Operative, Investigative Techniques, Nonmetallic Materials, Engineering (General), neural interfaces, polymer neural probes, surgical insertion, polyethylene glycol, microelectrode arrays, chronic implantation
1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, 3L. V. Prasad Eye Institute
We report a technique for the fabrication of micropockets within electrospun membranes in which to study cell behavior. Specifically, we describe a combination of microstereolithography and electrospinning for the production of PLGA (Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) corneal biomaterial devices equipped with microfeatures.
Published September 12, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, electrospinning, microstereolithography, stem cell niche, storage, limbal explants
1Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota
We describe here a platform that allows comet assay detection of DNA damage with unprecedented throughput. The device patterns mammalian cells into a microarray and enables parallel processing of 96 samples. The approach facilitates analysis of base level DNA damage, exposure-induced DNA damage and DNA repair kinetics.
Published October 18, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, comet assay, electrophoresis, microarray, DNA damage, DNA repair
1Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, 2Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland
This article describes a biofabrication approach: deposition of stimuli-responsive polysaccharides in the presence of biased electrodes to create biocompatible films which can be functionalized with cells or proteins. We demonstrate a bench-top strategy for the generation of the films as well as their basic uses for creating interactive biofunctionalized surfaces for lab-on-a-chip applications.
Published June 6, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, electrodeposition, biofabrication, chitosan, alginate, lab-on-a-chip, microfluidic, DTRA
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 3Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 4Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
Supported lipid bilayers and natural membrane particles are convenient systems that can approximate the properties of cell membranes and be incorporated in a variety of analytical strategies. Here we demonstrate a method for preparing microarrays composed of supported lipid bilayer-coated SiO2 beads, phospholipid vesicles or natural membrane particles.
Published May 8, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, supported lipid bilayer, beads, microarray, fluorescence, microfabrication, nanofabrication, atomic layer deposition, myelin, lipid rafts
JoVE Applied Physics
1Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 3XG Sciences, Inc.
A microdevice with high throughput potential is used to demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) dielectrophoresis (DEP) with novel materials. Graphene nanoplatelet paper and double sided tape were alternately stacked; a 700 μm micro-well was drilled transverse to the layers. DEP behavior of polystyrene beads was demonstrated in the micro-well.
Published June 22, 2014. Keywords: Physics, graphene paper, dielectrophoresis, graphene electrodes, 3D laminated microdevice, polystyrene beads, cell diagnostics
1Department of Chemistry, Duke University, 2Hajim School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Rochester, 3Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rochester
Here we describe a simple method for patterning oxide-free silicon and germanium with reactive organic monolayers and demonstrate functionalization of the patterned substrates with small molecules and proteins. The approach completely protects surfaces from chemical oxidation, provides precise control over feature morphology, and provides ready access to chemically discriminated patterns.
Published December 16, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Soft lithography, microcontact printing, protein arrays, catalytic printing, oxide-free silicon
1Department of Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis
Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed from long chain alkane thiols on gold provide well-defined substrates for the formation of protein patterns and cell confinement. Microcontact printing of hexadecanethiol using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp followed by backfilling with a glycol-terminated alkane thiol monomer produces a pattern where protein and cells adsorb only to the stamped hexadecanethiol region.
Published September 6, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Self-assembled monolayer (SAM), microcontact printing, protein patterning, patterned cell growth
1Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, University of Alberta, 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta
Protocols for the study of biofilm formation in a microfluidic device that mimics porous media are discussed. The microfluidic device consists of an array of micro-pillars and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas fluorescens in this device is investigated.
Published August 20, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, biofilm, streamers, microfluidics, bio-microfluidics, porous media, bacteria, micro-pillars
1Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University, 2Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University
Manipulating fluids and suspended particles in the micro- and nano-scale is becoming more of a reality as enabling technologies, like AC electrokinetics, continue to develop. Here, we discuss the physics behind AC electrokinetics, how to fabricate these devices and how to interpret the experimental observations.
Published July 28, 2008. Keywords: Bioengineering, AC Electrokinetics, AC Electroosmosis, Dielectrophoresis, Electrothermal Effect, Microelectrode, Microfluidics, Simulation, Microsphere, Microfabrication
JoVE Applied Physics
1Department of Physics, University of California, Irvine, 2Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine
The Vaporization of a Sacrificial Component (VaSC) process is used to fabricate microvascular structures. This procedure uses sacrificial poly(lactic) acid fibers to form hollow microchannels with precise 3D geometric positioning provided by laser micromachined guide plates.
Published November 2, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Silicone Elastomers, Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems, Biomimetic Materials, chemical processing (general), materials (general), heat exchangers (aerospace applications), mass transfer, Massive microfabrication, high surface area structures, 3-dimensional micro exchange devices, biomimetics
1Biomedical Engineering Department, Cornell University, 2Neurosurgical Laboratory for Translational Stem Cell Research, Weill Cornell Brain Tumor Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, 3Cell Morphology Department, Instituto de Investigacion Principe Felipe, 4Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University
We demonstrate that the over expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) enhances the motility of neural stem cells(NSCs) using a novel agarose gel based microfluidic device. This technology can be readily adaptable to other mammalian cell systems where cell sources are scarce, such as human neural stem cells, and the turn around time is critical.
Published February 11, 2008. Keywords: Cell Biology, Bioengineering, microfluidic device, motility, chemotaxis, EGFR, neural stem cell, brain tumor cell
1School of Engineering, University of California Merced - UC Merced
We show a simple and rapid method to load pre-defined numbers of cells into microfabricated wells and maintain them for embryoid body development.
Published March 5, 2008. Keywords: cellular biology, issue 13, embryoid bodies, embryonic stem cells, microfabrication, hanging drops
1Neurobiology, NCBS-TIFR, 2Department of Biological Sciences, TIFR
A simple microfluidic device has been developed to perform anesthetic free in vivo imaging of C. elegans, intact Drosophila larvae and zebrafish larvae. The device utilizes a deformable PDMS membrane to immobilize these model organisms in order to perform time lapse imaging of numerous processes such as heart beat, cell division and sub-cellular neuronal transport. We demonstrate the use of this device and show examples of different types of data collected from different model systems.
Published September 30, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Molecular Biology, Neuroscience, Microfluidics, C. elegans, Drosophila larvae, zebrafish larvae, anesthetic, pre-synaptic vesicle transport, dendritic transport of glutamate receptors, mitochondrial transport, synaptotagmin transport, heartbeat
JoVE Applied Physics
1Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington
A micropunching lithography approach is developed to generate micro- and submicron-patterns on top, sidewall and bottom surfaces of polymer substrates. It overcomes the obstacles of patterning conducting polymers and generating sidewall patterns. This method allows rapid fabrication of multiple features and is free of aggressive chemistry.
Published July 2, 2012. Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, Physics, micropunching lithography, conducting polymers, nanowires, sidewall patterns, microlines
1Laboratoire Interfaces et Fluides Complexes, Université de Mons
We present a new polyacrylamide hydrogel, called hydroxy-PAAm, that allows a direct binding of ECM proteins with minimal cost or expertise. The combination of hydroxy-PAAm hydrogels with microcontact printing facilitates independent control of many cues of the natural cell microenvironment for studying cellular mechanostransduction.
Published August 28, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, hydrogels, mechanotransduction, polyacrylamide, microcontact printing, cell shape, stiffness, durotaxis, cell-ligand density
1Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Center for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital
We describe a protocol for the microfabrication of the gradient-generating microfluidic device that can generate spatial and temporal gradients in well-defined microenvironment. In this approach, the gradient-generating microfluidic device can be used to study directed cell migration, embryogenesis, wound healing, and cancer metastasis.
Published August 30, 2007. Keywords: Cell Biology, tissue engineering, microfluidic, cell migration, gradient
1DNA Medicine Institute, 2Harvard Medical School, 3NASA Glenn Research Center, 4ZIN Technologies
Spaceflight blood diagnostics need innovation. Few demonstrations have been published illustrating in-flight, reduced-gravity health diagnostic technology. Here we present a method for construction and operation of a parabolic flight test rig for a prototype point-of-care flow-cytometry design, with components and preparation strategies adaptable to other setups.
Published November 13, 2014. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Point-of-care, prototype, diagnostics, spaceflight, reduced gravity, parabolic flight, flow cytometry, fluorescence, cell counting, micromixing, spiral-vortex, blood mixing
1Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 2Lyndhurst Centre, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, 3Department of Surgery, University of Toronto
In this protocol we demonstrate how to construct custom chambers that permit the application of a direct current electric field to enable time-lapse imaging of adult brain derived neural precursor cell translocation during galvanotaxis.
Published October 13, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Biomedical Engineering, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Molecular Biology, neural precursor cells, galvanotaxis, cell migration, time-lapse imaging, electric fields
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1London Centre for Nanotechnology and Departments of Medicine, University College London
Acquired resistance to antibiotics is a major public healthcare problem and is presently ranked by the WHO as one of the greatest threats to human life. Here we describe the use of cantilever technology to quantify antibacterial resistance, critical to the discovery of novel and powerful agents against multidrug resistant bacteria.
Published October 25, 2013. Keywords: Immunology, Engineering, Technology, Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Early Diagnosis, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Lipids, Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, Chemical Actions and Uses, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, Surface stress, vancomycin, mucopeptides, cantilever sensor
1Center for Bio/Molecular Science & Engineering, US Naval Research Laboratory, 2Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Two adjacent fluids passing through a grooved microfluidic channel can be directed to form a sheath around a prepolymer core; thereby determining both shape and cross-section. Photoinitiated polymerization, such as thiol click chemistry, is well suited for rapidly solidifying the core fluid into a microfiber with predetermined size and shape.
Published January 8, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, hydrodynamic focusing, polymer fiber, biohybrid, microfabrication, sheath flow, click chemistry
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University
Combining monodisperse drop generation with inertial ordering of cells and particles, we describe a method to encapsulate a desired number of cells or particles in a single drop at kHz rates. We demonstrate efficiencies twice exceeding those of unordered encapsulation for single- and double-particle drops.
Published June 15, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Drop-based microfluidics, inertial microfluidics, ordering, focusing, cell encapsulation, single-cell biology, cell signaling
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Health Science & Technology, Cartilage Engineering & Regeneration, 2Biomaterials Department, Innovent e.V.
A bioprinter was used to create patterned hydrogels based on a sacrificial mold. The poloxamer mold was backfilled with a second hydrogel and then eluted, leaving voids which were filled with a third hydrogel. This method uses fast elution and good printability of poloxamer to generate complex architectures from biopolymers.
Published July 10, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Immunology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Molecular Biology, Materials Science, Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials, Hydrogel, Biopolymers, Structured/Patterned Hydrogels, Bioprinter, Sacrificial Mold, Thermoresponsive Polymers, Poloxamer, tissue, polymer, matrix, cell, cell culture
1Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, 2Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 3Molecular Imaging Center, University of Southern California
We demonstrate a microfluidics-based assay to measure the timescale for cells to transit through a sequence of micron-scale constrictions.
Published September 3, 2014. Keywords: Cellular Biology, cell mechanics, microfluidics, pressure-driven flow, image processing, high-throughput diagnostics, microfabrication
1Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften, ISAS, 2Department of Biochemical Engineering, University College London, 3Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton
Protocols for single neuron microfluidic arraying and water masking for the in-chip plasma patterning of biomaterial coatings are described. Highly interconnected co-cultures can be prepared using minimal cell inputs.
Published May 20, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, microfluidic arraying, single cell, biomaterial patterning, co-culture, compartmentalization, Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases, neurite outgrowth, high throughput screening
JoVE Applied Physics
1NEST Center for Nanotechnology Innovation, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 2NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR
In this video we first describe fabrication and operation procedures of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) acoustic counterflow device. We then demonstrate an experimental setup that allows for both qualitative flow visualization and quantitative analysis of complex flows within the SAW pumping device.
Published August 27, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Microfluidics, Acoustics, Engineering, flow characteristics, flow measurement, flow visualization (general applications), fluidics, surface acoustic wave, flow visualization, acoustofluidics, MEMS, STICS, PIV, microfabrication, acoustics, particle dynamics, fluids, flow, imaging, visualization
1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University
We describe experimental details of the synthesis of patterned and reconfigurable particles from two dimensional (2D) precursors. This methodology can be used to create particles in a variety of shapes including polyhedra and grasping devices at length scales ranging from the micro to centimeter scale.
Published February 4, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Biomolecular Engineering, Materials Science, Physics, Nanotechnology, Molecular Self-assembly, Electrochemistry, Folding, three dimensional, lithography, colloid, patchy particles, particles, nanoparticles, robotics, drug delivery, microfabrication, nanofabrication, nano, assembly, synthesis, reaction, origami
1Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Micro and Nanotechnology Lab, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 3Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 4Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an effective method to manipulate cells. Printed circuit boards (PCB) can provide inexpensive, reusable and effective electrodes for contact-free cell manipulation within microfluidic devices. By combining PDMS-based microfluidic channels with coverslips on PCBs, we demonstrate bead and cell manipulation and separation within multichannel microfluidic devices.
Published February 4, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Dielectrophoresis, microfluidic, laminar flow, cell sorting, Human colon adenocarcinoma
JoVE Applied Physics
1Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, Unversity of California, San Francisco
We have developed a technique for picoinjecting microfluidic drops that does not require metal electrodes. As such, devices incorporating our technique are simpler to fabricate and to use.
Published April 18, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Droplet microfluidics, picoinjection, lab on a chip, electrodes, microfabrication
1Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University
A description of the methods used to convert an HP DeskJet 500 printer into a bioprinter. The printer is capable of processing living cells, which causes transient pores in the membrane. These pores can be utilized to incorporate small molecules, including fluorescent G-actin, into the printed cells.
Published March 16, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, bioprinting, inkjet, cell, actin, fluorescence, transfection
1Wasatch Microfluidics, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah
This 3D microfluidic printing technology prints arrays of cells onto submerged surfaces. We describe how arrays of cells are delivered microfluidically in 3D flow cells onto submerged surfaces. By printing onto submerged surfaces, cell microarrays were produced that allow for drug screening and cytotoxicity assessment in a multitude of areas.
Published April 22, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, submerged printing, cell based assay, cell printing, cell microarray, continuous flow microspotter, microfluidics, high-throughput cellular assays, in vitro cytotoxicity, cellular drug screening
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 2Stemorgan Inc., 3Institute of Advanced Study, Technical University of Munich, 4Institute of Virology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, 5Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 6Research Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science
The methods described in this paper show how to convert a commercial inkjet printer into a bioprinter with simultaneous UV polymerization. The printer is capable of constructing 3D tissue structure with cells and biomaterials. The study demonstrated here constructed a 3D neocartilage.
Published June 10, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, cartilage, inkjet printing, chondrocytes, hydrogel, photopolymerization, tissue engineering
1Biomedical Technology, CFD Research Corporation
Flow chambers used in adhesion experiments typically consist of linear flow paths and require multiple experiments at different flow rates to generate a shear adhesion map. SynVivo-SMN enables the generation of shear adhesion map using a single experiment utilizing microliter volumes resulting in significant savings in time and consumables.
Published May 25, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, particle, adhesion, shear, microfluidics, vasculature, networks
1Biomedical Engineering, Tulane University
Simple techniques are described for the rapid production of microfabricated neural culture systems using a digital micromirror device for dynamic mask projection lithography on regular cell culture substrates. These culture systems may be more representative of natural biological architecture, and the techniques described could be adapted for numerous applications.
Published February 11, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Micropatterning, Photopolymerization, Hydrogels, Cell Culture, Tissue Engineering, Neural Engineering
1Center for Engineering in Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Shriners Hospitals for Children
Perfusion decellularization is a novel technique to produce whole liver scaffolds that retains the organ's extracellular matrix composition and microarchitecture. Herein, the method of preparing whole organ scaffolds using perfusion decellularization and subsequent repopulation with hepatocytes is described. Functional and transplantable liver grafts can be generated using this technique.
Published February 4, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Liver extracellular matrix, decellularization, recellularization, hepatocytes, bioreactor
1McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University
This protocol describes a microfluidic co-culture model for simultaneous and localized culture of epithelial cells and bacteria. This model can be used for investigating the role of different soluble molecular signals on pathogenesis as well as screen the effectiveness of putative probiotic bacterial strains.
Published April 20, 2010. Keywords: Microbiology, Host pathogen interactions, probiotics, inter-kingdom signaling
1Department of Physics, Texas A&M University (TAMU), 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University (TAMU)
We present a procedure for forming a poly(ethylene glycol) self-assembled monolayer (PEG-SAM) on a silicon substrate with gold microelectrodes. The PEG-SAM is formed in a single step and prevents biofouling on silicon and gold surfaces. Electrophoresis is then used for patterning biomolecules down to the nanoscale.
Published August 25, 2009. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, protein patterning, self-assembly, tubulin, kinesin, biofouling, bioNEMS, biosensor