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  JoVE Medicine

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  JoVE Engineering

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  JoVE Developmental Biology


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Microtechnology: Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or Mems. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
 JoVE Bioengineering

Microfabrication of Nanoporous Gold Patterns for Cell-material Interaction Studies

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis

JoVE 50678

We report on techniques to micropattern nanoporous gold thin films via stencil printing and photolithography, as well as methods to culture cells on the microfabricated patterns. In addition, we describe image analysis methods to characterize morphology of the material and the cultured cells using scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy techniques.

 JoVE Biology

Microfabrication of Chip-sized Scaffolds for Three-dimensional Cell cultivation

1Institute for Biological Interfaces, Karlsruhe Research Centre, 2Institute for BioMedical Technology, University of Twente, 3Department of Materials Research, Institute for Heavy Ion Research, 4Institute of Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Research Centre, 5Institute for Micro Process Engineering, Karlsruhe Research Centre

JoVE 699

We present two processes for the microfabrication of porous polymer chips for three-dimensional cell cultivation. The first one is hot embossing combined with a solvent vapour welding process. The second one uses a recently developed microthermoforming process combined with ion track technology leading to a significant simplification of manufacture.

 JoVE Engineering

Micro-masonry for 3D Additive Micromanufacturing

1Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JoVE 51974

This paper introduces a 3D additive micromanufacturing strategy (termed ‘micro-masonry’) for the flexible fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structures and devices. This approach involves transfer printing-based assembly of micro/nanoscale materials in conjunction with rapid thermal annealing-enabled material bonding techniques.

 JoVE Engineering

Silicon Metal-oxide-semiconductor Quantum Dots for Single-electron Pumping

1School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, 2QCD Labs, COMP Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University

JoVE 52852

The fabrication process and experimental characterization techniques relevant to single-electron pumps based on silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dots are discussed.

 JoVE Engineering

Fabrication, Densification, and Replica Molding of 3D Carbon Nanotube Microstructures

1Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2IMEC, Belgium

JoVE 3980

We present methods for fabrication of patterned microstructures of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and their use as master molds for production of polymer microstructures with organized nanoscale surface texture. The CNT forests are densified by condensation of solvent onto the substrate, which significantly increases their packing density and enables self-directed formation of 3D shapes.

 JoVE Engineering

Revealing Dynamic Processes of Materials in Liquids Using Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy

1Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

JoVE 50122

We have developed a self-contained liquid cell, which allows imaging through liquids using a transmission electron microscope. Dynamic processes of nanoparticles in liquids can be revealed in real time with sub-nanometer resolution.

 JoVE Bioengineering

High Throughput Microfluidic Rapid and Low Cost Prototyping Packaging Methods

1Electrical Engineering Department, Polytechnique Montreal

JoVE 50735

In this article we describe different techniques for microfluidic rapid prototyping platforms. The proposed techniques are based on ultraviolet (UV) sensitive and temperature curing epoxies, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based tubing, wire-bonding, and anisotropic adhesive films. The assembling procedures presented are developed for both one-time use devices as well as reusable microfluidic systems.

 JoVE Bioengineering

A Microfluidic-based Electrochemical Biochip for Label-free DNA Hybridization Analysis

1MEMS Sensors and Actuators Laboratory (MSAL), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, 2Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland

JoVE 51797

We present a microfluidic-based electrochemical biochip for DNA hybridization detection. Following ssDNA probe functionalization, the specificity, sensitivity, and detection limit are studied with complementary and non-complementary ssDNA targets. Results illustrate the influence of the DNA hybridization events on the electrochemical system, with a detection limit of 3.8 nM.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Cell Patterning on Photolithographically Defined Parylene-C: SiO2 Substrates

1Centre for Integrative Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, 2Edinburgh Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Western General Hospital, 3School of Engineering, Institute for Integrated Micro and Nano Systems, The University of Edinburgh

JoVE 50929

This protocol describes a microfabrication-compatible method for cell patterning on SiO2. A predefined parylene-C design is photolithographically printed on SiO2 wafers. Following incubation with serum (or other activation solution) cells adhere specifically to (and grow according to the conformity of) underlying parylene-C, whilst being repulsed by SiO2 regions.

 JoVE Chemistry

In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions

1Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

JoVE 51344

Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of novel materials. Coupled with analysis by in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), soft landing provides unprecedented insights into the interactions of well-defined species with surfaces.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Endothelialized Microfluidics for Studying Microvascular Interactions in Hematologic Diseases

1Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, 3Aflac Cancer Center and Blood Disorders Service of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, 4Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University

JoVE 3958

A method to culture an endothelial cell monolayer throughout the entire inner 3D surface of a microfluidic device with microvascular-sized channels (<30 μm) is described. This in vitro microvasculature model enables the study of biophysical interactions between blood cells, endothelial cells, and soluble factors in hematologic diseases.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Procedure for the Development of Multi-depth Circular Cross-sectional Endothelialized Microchannels-on-a-chip

1Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, West Virginia University, 2Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California at Riverside

JoVE 50771

A microchannels-on-a-chip platform was developed by the combination of photolithographic reflowable photoresist technique, soft lithography, and microfluidics. The endothelialized microchannels platform mimics the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of in vivo microvessels, runs under controlled continuous perfusion flow, allows for high-quality and real-time imaging and can be applied for microvascular research.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Using Microfluidics Chips for Live Imaging and Study of Injury Responses in Drosophila Larvae

1Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 4Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 5Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan

JoVE 50998

Drosophila larvae are an attractive model system for live imaging due to their translucent cuticle and powerful genetics. This protocol describes how to utilize a single-layer PDMS device, called the 'larva chip' for live imaging of cellular processes within neurons of 3rd instar Drosophila larvae.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Microfluidic Picoliter Bioreactor for Microbial Single-cell Analysis: Fabrication, System Setup, and Operation

1Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, IBG-1: Biotechnology, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH

JoVE 50560

In this protocol the fabrication, setup and basic operation of a microfluidic picoliter bioreactor (PLBR) for single-cell analysis of prokaryotic microorganisms is introduced. Industrially relevant microorganisms were analyzed as proof of principle allowing insights into growth rate, morphology, and phenotypic heterogeneity over certain time periods, hardly possible with conventional methods.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Insertion of Flexible Neural Probes Using Rigid Stiffeners Attached with Biodissolvable Adhesive

1Materials Engineering Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2UCSF Center for Integrative Neuroscience and the Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco

JoVE 50609

Insertion of flexible neural microelectrode probes is enabled by attaching probes to rigid stiffeners with polyethylene glycol (PEG). A unique assembly process ensures uniform and repeatable attachment. After insertion into tissue, the PEG dissolves and the stiffener is extracted. An in vitro test method evaluates the technique in agarose gel.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Combination of Microstereolithography and Electrospinning to Produce Membranes Equipped with Niches for Corneal Regeneration

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, 3L. V. Prasad Eye Institute

JoVE 51826

We report a technique for the fabrication of micropockets within electrospun membranes in which to study cell behavior. Specifically, we describe a combination of microstereolithography and electrospinning for the production of PLGA (Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) corneal biomaterial devices equipped with microfeatures.

 JoVE Bioengineering

CometChip: A High-throughput 96-Well Platform for Measuring DNA Damage in Microarrayed Human Cells

1Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota

JoVE 50607

We describe here a platform that allows comet assay detection of DNA damage with unprecedented throughput. The device patterns mammalian cells into a microarray and enables parallel processing of 96 samples. The approach facilitates analysis of base level DNA damage, exposure-induced DNA damage and DNA repair kinetics.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Sealable Femtoliter Chamber Arrays for Cell-free Biology

1Bredesen Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 2Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

JoVE 52616

A microfabricated device with sealable femtoliter-volume reaction chambers is described. This report includes a protocol for sealing cell-free protein synthesis reactants inside these chambers for the purpose of understanding the role of crowding and confinement in gene expression.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Bridging the Bio-Electronic Interface with Biofabrication

1Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, 2Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland

JoVE 4231

This article describes a biofabrication approach: deposition of stimuli-responsive polysaccharides in the presence of biased electrodes to create biocompatible films which can be functionalized with cells or proteins. We demonstrate a bench-top strategy for the generation of the films as well as their basic uses for creating interactive biofunctionalized surfaces for lab-on-a-chip applications.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Formation of Biomembrane Microarrays with a Squeegee-based Assembly Method

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 3Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 4Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine

JoVE 51501

Supported lipid bilayers and natural membrane particles are convenient systems that can approximate the properties of cell membranes and be incorporated in a variety of analytical strategies. Here we demonstrate a method for preparing microarrays composed of supported lipid bilayer-coated SiO2 beads, phospholipid vesicles or natural membrane particles.

 JoVE Engineering

Development of a 3D Graphene Electrode Dielectrophoretic Device

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 3XG Sciences, Inc.

JoVE 51696

A microdevice with high throughput potential is used to demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) dielectrophoresis (DEP) with novel materials. Graphene nanoplatelet paper and double sided tape were alternately stacked; a 700 μm micro-well was drilled transverse to the layers. DEP behavior of polystyrene beads was demonstrated in the micro-well.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Soft Lithographic Functionalization and Patterning Oxide-free Silicon and Germanium

1Department of Chemistry, Duke University, 2Hajim School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Rochester, 3Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rochester

JoVE 3478

Here we describe a simple method for patterning oxide-free silicon and germanium with reactive organic monolayers and demonstrate functionalization of the patterned substrates with small molecules and proteins. The approach completely protects surfaces from chemical oxidation, provides precise control over feature morphology, and provides ready access to chemically discriminated patterns.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Creating Two-Dimensional Patterned Substrates for Protein and Cell Confinement

1Department of Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis

JoVE 3164

Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed from long chain alkane thiols on gold provide well-defined substrates for the formation of protein patterns and cell confinement. Microcontact printing of hexadecanethiol using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp followed by backfilling with a glycol-terminated alkane thiol monomer produces a pattern where protein and cells adsorb only to the stamped hexadecanethiol region.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Protocol for Biofilm Streamer Formation in a Microfluidic Device with Micro-pillars

1Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, University of Alberta, 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta

JoVE 51732

Protocols for the study of biofilm formation in a microfluidic device that mimics porous media are discussed. The microfluidic device consists of an array of micro-pillars and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas fluorescens in this device is investigated.

 JoVE Biology

AC Electrokinetic Phenomena Generated by Microelectrode Structures

1Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University, 2Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University

JoVE 813

Manipulating fluids and suspended particles in the micro- and nano-scale is becoming more of a reality as enabling technologies, like AC electrokinetics, continue to develop. Here, we discuss the physics behind AC electrokinetics, how to fabricate these devices and how to interpret the experimental observations.

 JoVE Engineering

Process of Making Three-dimensional Microstructures using Vaporization of a Sacrificial Component

1Department of Physics, University of California, Irvine, 2Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine

JoVE 50459

The Vaporization of a Sacrificial Component (VaSC) process is used to fabricate microvascular structures. This procedure uses sacrificial poly(lactic) acid fibers to form hollow microchannels with precise 3D geometric positioning provided by laser micromachined guide plates.

 JoVE Biology

Assessing Neural Stem Cell Motility Using an Agarose Gel-based Microfluidic Device

1Biomedical Engineering Department, Cornell University, 2Neurosurgical Laboratory for Translational Stem Cell Research, Weill Cornell Brain Tumor Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, 3Cell Morphology Department, Instituto de Investigacion Principe Felipe, 4Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University

JoVE 674

We demonstrate that the over expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) enhances the motility of neural stem cells(NSCs) using a novel agarose gel based microfluidic device. This technology can be readily adaptable to other mammalian cell systems where cell sources are scarce, such as human neural stem cells, and the turn around time is critical.

 JoVE Biology

Shrinky-Dink Hanging Drops: A Simple Way to Form and Culture Embryoid Bodies

1School of Engineering, University of California Merced - UC Merced

JoVE 692

We show a simple and rapid method to load pre-defined numbers of cells into microfabricated wells and maintain them for embryoid body development.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Simple Microfluidic Devices for in vivo Imaging of C. elegans, Drosophila and Zebrafish

1Neurobiology, NCBS-TIFR, 2Department of Biological Sciences, TIFR

JoVE 3780

A simple microfluidic device has been developed to perform anesthetic free in vivo imaging of C. elegans, intact Drosophila larvae and zebrafish larvae. The device utilizes a deformable PDMS membrane to immobilize these model organisms in order to perform time lapse imaging of numerous processes such as heart beat, cell division and sub-cellular neuronal transport. We demonstrate the use of this device and show examples of different types of data collected from different model systems.

 JoVE Engineering

Micropunching Lithography for Generating Micro- and Submicron-patterns on Polymer Substrates

1Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington

JoVE 3725

A micropunching lithography approach is developed to generate micro- and submicron-patterns on top, sidewall and bottom surfaces of polymer substrates. It overcomes the obstacles of patterning conducting polymers and generating sidewall patterns. This method allows rapid fabrication of multiple features and is free of aggressive chemistry.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Preparation of Hydroxy-PAAm Hydrogels for Decoupling the Effects of Mechanotransduction Cues

1Laboratoire Interfaces et Fluides Complexes, Université de Mons

JoVE 51010

We present a new polyacrylamide hydrogel, called hydroxy-PAAm, that allows a direct binding of ECM proteins with minimal cost or expertise. The combination of hydroxy-PAAm hydrogels with microcontact printing facilitates independent control of many cues of the natural cell microenvironment for studying cellular mechanostransduction.

 JoVE Biology

A Gradient-generating Microfluidic Device for Cell Biology

1Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Center for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital

JoVE 271

We describe a protocol for the microfabrication of the gradient-generating microfluidic device that can generate spatial and temporal gradients in well-defined microenvironment. In this approach, the gradient-generating microfluidic device can be used to study directed cell migration, embryogenesis, wound healing, and cancer metastasis.

 JoVE Bioengineering

A Microfluidic Chip for ICPMS Sample Introduction

1Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich

JoVE 52525

We present a discrete droplet sample introduction system for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). It is based on a cheap and disposable microfluidic chip that generates highly monodisperse droplets in a size range of 40−60 µm at frequencies from 90 to 7,000 Hz.

 JoVE Biology

Reduced-gravity Environment Hardware Demonstrations of a Prototype Miniaturized Flow Cytometer and Companion Microfluidic Mixing Technology

1DNA Medicine Institute, 2Harvard Medical School, 3NASA Glenn Research Center, 4ZIN Technologies

JoVE 51743

Spaceflight blood diagnostics need innovation. Few demonstrations have been published illustrating in-flight, reduced-gravity health diagnostic technology. Here we present a method for construction and operation of a parabolic flight test rig for a prototype point-of-care flow-cytometry design, with components and preparation strategies adaptable to other setups.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Controlled Microfluidic Environment for Dynamic Investigation of Red Blood Cell Aggregation

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa

JoVE 52719

The protocol described details an experimental procedure to quantify Red Blood Cell (RBC) aggregates under a controlled and constant shear rate, based on image processing techniques. The goal of this protocol is to relate RBC aggregate sizes to the corresponding shear rate in a controlled microfluidic environment.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Galvanotaxis Assay for Analysis of Neural Precursor Cell Migration Kinetics in an Externally Applied Direct Current Electric Field

1Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 2Lyndhurst Centre, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, 3Department of Surgery, University of Toronto

JoVE 4193

In this protocol we demonstrate how to construct custom chambers that permit the application of a direct current electric field to enable time-lapse imaging of adult brain derived neural precursor cell translocation during galvanotaxis.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Nanomechanics of Drug-target Interactions and Antibacterial Resistance Detection

1London Centre for Nanotechnology and Departments of Medicine, University College London

JoVE 50719

Acquired resistance to antibiotics is a major public healthcare problem and is presently ranked by the WHO as one of the greatest threats to human life. Here we describe the use of cantilever technology to quantify antibacterial resistance, critical to the discovery of novel and powerful agents against multidrug resistant bacteria.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Microfluidic Fabrication of Polymeric and Biohybrid Fibers with Predesigned Size and Shape

1Center for Bio/Molecular Science & Engineering, US Naval Research Laboratory, 2Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

JoVE 50958

Two adjacent fluids passing through a grooved microfluidic channel can be directed to form a sheath around a prepolymer core; thereby determining both shape and cross-section. Photoinitiated polymerization, such as thiol click chemistry, is well suited for rapidly solidifying the core fluid into a microfiber with predetermined size and shape.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Microfluidic Genipin Deposition Technique for Extended Culture of Micropatterned Vascular Muscular Thin Films

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota

JoVE 52971

We present a method for microfluidic deposition of patterned genipin and fibronectin on PDMS substrates, allowing extended viability of vascular smooth muscle cell-dense tissues. This tissue fabrication method is combined with previous vascular muscular thin film technology to measure vascular contractility over disease-relevant time courses.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Design, Surface Treatment, Cellular Plating, and Culturing of Modular Neuronal Networks Composed of Functionally Inter-connected Circuits

1Department of Neurobiology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 3School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, 4School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, 5Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and System Engineering, University of Genova

JoVE 52572

This manuscript describes a protocol to grow in vitro modular networks consisting of spatially confined, functionally inter-connected neuronal circuits. A polymeric mask is used to pattern a protein layer to promote cellular adhesion over the culturing substrate. Plated neurons grow on coated areas establishing spontaneous connections and exhibiting electrophysiological activity.

 JoVE Bioengineering

High Throughput Single-cell and Multiple-cell Micro-encapsulation

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University

JoVE 4096

Combining monodisperse drop generation with inertial ordering of cells and particles, we describe a method to encapsulate a desired number of cells or particles in a single drop at kHz rates. We demonstrate efficiencies twice exceeding those of unordered encapsulation for single- and double-particle drops.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Printing Thermoresponsive Reverse Molds for the Creation of Patterned Two-component Hydrogels for 3D Cell Culture

1Department of Health Science & Technology, Cartilage Engineering & Regeneration, 2Biomaterials Department, Innovent e.V.

JoVE 50632

A bioprinter was used to create patterned hydrogels based on a sacrificial mold. The poloxamer mold was backfilled with a second hydrogel and then eluted, leaving voids which were filled with a third hydrogel. This method uses fast elution and good printability of poloxamer to generate complex architectures from biopolymers.

 JoVE Bioengineering

A Microfluidic Technique to Probe Cell Deformability

1Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, 2Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 3Molecular Imaging Center, University of Southern California

JoVE 51474

We demonstrate a microfluidics-based assay to measure the timescale for cells to transit through a sequence of micron-scale constrictions.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Preparation of Neuronal Co-cultures with Single Cell Precision

1Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften, ISAS, 2Department of Biochemical Engineering, University College London, 3Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton

JoVE 51389

Protocols for single neuron microfluidic arraying and water masking for the in-chip plasma patterning of biomaterial coatings are described. Highly interconnected co-cultures can be prepared using minimal cell inputs.

 JoVE Engineering

Fabrication, Operation and Flow Visualization in Surface-acoustic-wave-driven Acoustic-counterflow Microfluidics

1NEST Center for Nanotechnology Innovation, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 2NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR

JoVE 50524

In this video we first describe fabrication and operation procedures of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) acoustic counterflow device. We then demonstrate an experimental setup that allows for both qualitative flow visualization and quantitative analysis of complex flows within the SAW pumping device.

 JoVE Chemistry

Origami Inspired Self-assembly of Patterned and Reconfigurable Particles

1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University

JoVE 50022

We describe experimental details of the synthesis of patterned and reconfigurable particles from two dimensional (2D) precursors. This methodology can be used to create particles in a variety of shapes including polyhedra and grasping devices at length scales ranging from the micro to centimeter scale.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Separating Beads and Cells in Multi-channel Microfluidic Devices Using Dielectrophoresis and Laminar Flow

1Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Micro and Nanotechnology Lab, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 3Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 4Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JoVE 2545

Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an effective method to manipulate cells. Printed circuit boards (PCB) can provide inexpensive, reusable and effective electrodes for contact-free cell manipulation within microfluidic devices. By combining PDMS-based microfluidic channels with coverslips on PCBs, we demonstrate bead and cell manipulation and separation within multichannel microfluidic devices.

 JoVE Engineering

Picoinjection of Microfluidic Drops Without Metal Electrodes

1Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, Unversity of California, San Francisco

JoVE 50913

We have developed a technique for picoinjecting microfluidic drops that does not require metal electrodes. As such, devices incorporating our technique are simpler to fabricate and to use.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Creating Transient Cell Membrane Pores Using a Standard Inkjet Printer

1Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University

JoVE 3681

A description of the methods used to convert an HP DeskJet 500 printer into a bioprinter. The printer is capable of processing living cells, which causes transient pores in the membrane. These pores can be utilized to incorporate small molecules, including fluorescent G-actin, into the printed cells.

 JoVE Bioengineering

The Submerged Printing of Cells onto a Modified Surface Using a Continuous Flow Microspotter

1Wasatch Microfluidics, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah

JoVE 51273

This 3D microfluidic printing technology prints arrays of cells onto submerged surfaces. We describe how arrays of cells are delivered microfluidically in 3D flow cells onto submerged surfaces. By printing onto submerged surfaces, cell microarrays were produced that allow for drug screening and cytotoxicity assessment in a multitude of areas.

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