Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or Mems
. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis
We report on techniques to micropattern nanoporous gold thin films via stencil printing and photolithography, as well as methods to culture cells on the microfabricated patterns. In addition, we describe image analysis methods to characterize morphology of the material and the cultured cells using scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy techniques.
Published July 15, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Biophysics, Physics, Nanotechnology, Nanostructures, Biomedical Technology, Miniaturization, Gold, Staining and Labeling, Cell Culture Techniques, Microscopy, Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence, Nanotechnology, thin films (theory, deposition and growth), Nanoporous gold, cell culture, image analysis, microfabrication, nanotechnology, quantitative immunochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, fluorescence microscopy, stencil printing, photolithography, cell culture
1Institute for Biological Interfaces, Karlsruhe Research Centre, 2Institute for BioMedical Technology, University of Twente, 3Department of Materials Research, Institute for Heavy Ion Research, 4Institute of Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Research Centre, 5Institute for Micro Process Engineering, Karlsruhe Research Centre
We present two processes for the microfabrication of porous polymer chips for three-dimensional cell cultivation. The first one is hot embossing combined with a solvent vapour welding process. The second one uses a recently developed microthermoforming process combined with ion track technology leading to a significant simplification of manufacture.
Published May 12, 2008. Keywords: Cellular Biology, SMART, microthermoforming, microfabrication, scaffolds, polymer
JoVE Applied Physics
1Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
This paper introduces a 3D additive micromanufacturing strategy (termed ‘micro-masonry’) for the flexible fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structures and devices. This approach involves transfer printing-based assembly of micro/nanoscale materials in conjunction with rapid thermal annealing-enabled material bonding techniques.
Published August 1, 2014. Keywords: Physics, Micro-masonry, microassembly, transfer printing, dry adhesives, additive manufacturing, printed processes, microfabrication, inks, microelectromechanical system (MEMS)
JoVE Applied Physics
1Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2IMEC, Belgium
We present methods for fabrication of patterned microstructures of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and their use as master molds for production of polymer microstructures with organized nanoscale surface texture. The CNT forests are densified by condensation of solvent onto the substrate, which significantly increases their packing density and enables self-directed formation of 3D shapes.
Published July 2, 2012. Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, Physics, Carbon nanotube, microstructure, fabrication, molding, transfer, polymer
JoVE Applied Physics
1Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
We have developed a self-contained liquid cell, which allows imaging through liquids using a transmission electron microscope. Dynamic processes of nanoparticles in liquids can be revealed in real time with sub-nanometer resolution.
Published December 20, 2012. Keywords: Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Physics, Engineering, Life sciences, Liquid cell, Transmission Electron Microscopy, TEM, In situ TEM, Single nanoparticle trajectory, dynamic imaging, nanocrystals
1Electrical Engineering Department, Polytechnique Montreal
In this article we describe different techniques for microfluidic rapid prototyping platforms. The proposed techniques are based on ultraviolet (UV) sensitive and temperature curing epoxies, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based tubing, wire-bonding, and anisotropic adhesive films. The assembling procedures presented are developed for both one-time use devices as well as reusable microfluidic systems.
Published December 23, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Microfluidics, PDMS, Lab-on-chip, Rapid-Prototyping, Microfabrication
1MEMS Sensors and Actuators Laboratory (MSAL), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, 2Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland
We present a microfluidic-based electrochemical biochip for DNA hybridization detection. Following ssDNA probe functionalization, the specificity, sensitivity, and detection limit are studied with complementary and non-complementary ssDNA targets. Results illustrate the influence of the DNA hybridization events on the electrochemical system, with a detection limit of 3.8 nM.
Published September 10, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, DNA hybridization, biosensor, biochip, microfluidics, label-free detection, restricted diffusion, microfabrication
1Centre for Integrative Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, 2Edinburgh Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Western General Hospital, 3School of Engineering, Institute for Integrated Micro and Nano Systems, The University of Edinburgh
This protocol describes a microfabrication-compatible method for cell patterning on SiO2. A predefined parylene-C design is photolithographically printed on SiO2 wafers. Following incubation with serum (or other activation solution) cells adhere specifically to (and grow according to the conformity of) underlying parylene-C, whilst being repulsed by SiO2 regions.
Published March 7, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Receptors, Cell Surface, Polymers, Cell Adhesion, Biomedical and Dental Materials, parylene-C, silicon dioxide, photolithography, cell adhesion, Cell Patterning
1Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of novel materials. Coupled with analysis by in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), soft landing provides unprecedented insights into the interactions of well-defined species with surfaces.
Published June 16, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, soft landing, mass selected ions, electrospray, secondary ion mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, organometallic, catalysis
1Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, West Virginia University, 2Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California at Riverside
A microchannels-on-a-chip platform was developed by the combination of photolithographic reflowable photoresist technique, soft lithography, and microfluidics. The endothelialized microchannels platform mimics the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of in vivo microvessels, runs under controlled continuous perfusion flow, allows for high-quality and real-time imaging and can be applied for microvascular research.
Published October 21, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Bioengineering, Tissue Engineering, Miniaturization, Microtechnology, Microfluidics, Reflow photoresist, PDMS, Perfusion flow, Primary endothelial cells