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General Laboratory Techniques

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Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Model Organisms I

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Essentials of
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 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Utilizing Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Human Neuromuscular System

1Ohio Musculoskeletal and Neurological Institute (OMNI) and the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University


JoVE 3387

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive tool to gain insight on the physiology and function of the human nervous system. Here, we present our TMS techniques to study cortical excitability of the upper limb and lumbar musculature.

 JoVE Behavior

Assessment of Murine Exercise Endurance Without the Use of a Shock Grid: An Alternative to Forced Exercise

1Research Service, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, 2Seattle Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Research, 3Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, 4Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, VA Puget Sound Health Care System


JoVE 51846

A method to assess exercise endurance in laboratory mice without the use of a shock grid is demonstrated. This method is a humane refinement that can decrease the confounding effects of stress on experimental parameters.

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Extracellularly Identifying Motor Neurons for a Muscle Motor Pool in Aplysia californica

1Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University


JoVE 50189

In animals with large identified neurons (e.g. mollusks), analysis of motor pools is done using intracellular techniques1,2,3,4. Recently, we developed a technique to extracellularly stimulate and record individual neurons in Aplysia californica5. We now describe a protocol for using this technique to uniquely identify and characterize motor neurons within a motor pool.

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 JoVE Behavior

Stimulating the Lip Motor Cortex with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

1Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford


JoVE 51665

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has proven to be a useful tool in investigating the role of the articulatory motor cortex in speech perception.  This article describes how to record motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the lip muscles and how to disrupt the motor lip representation using repetitive TMS.

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Membrane Potentials, Synaptic Responses, Neuronal Circuitry, Neuromodulation and Muscle Histology Using the Crayfish: Student Laboratory Exercises

1Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, 2Department of Physiology, University of Toronto


JoVE 2322

The experiments demonstrate an easy approach for students to gain experience in examining muscle structure, synaptic responses, the effects of ion gradients and permeability on membrane potentials. Also, a sensory-CNS-motor-muscle circuit is presented to show a means to test effects of compounds on a neuronal circuit.

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 JoVE Neuroscience

An In Vitro Preparation for Eliciting and Recording Feeding Motor Programs with Physiological Movements in Aplysia californica

1Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University


JoVE 4320

We describe a technique to extracellularly record and stimulate from nerves, muscles, and individual identified neurons in vitro while eliciting and observing different types of feeding behaviors in the feeding apparatus of Aplysia.

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 JoVE Biology

Efficient Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Motor Neurons

1Nemours Biomedical Research, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children


JoVE 3813

We developed a new protocol to improve efficiency of in vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into motor neurons. The differentiated ES cells acquired motor neurons features as evidenced by expression of neuronal and motor neuron markers using immunohistochemical techniques.

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Chicken Embryo Spinal Cord Slice Culture Protocol

1Research Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London


JoVE 50295

Slice cultures facilitate the manipulation of embryo development by gene and pharmacological perturbations. However, culture conditions must ensure that normal development can proceed within the reduced environment of the slice. We illustrate a protocol that facilitates normal spinal cord development to proceed for at least 24 hr.

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 JoVE Behavior

Study Motor Skill Learning by Single-pellet Reaching Tasks in Mice

1Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz


JoVE 51238

Persistent practice improves the precision of coordinated movements. Here we introduce a single-pellet reaching task, which is designed to assess the learning and memory of forelimb skill in mice. 

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 JoVE Applied Physics

Measuring Material Microstructure Under Flow Using 1-2 Plane Flow-Small Angle Neutron Scattering

1Center for Neutron Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, 2NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 3Institut Laue-Langevin


JoVE 51068

A shear cell is developed for small-angle neutron scattering measurements in the velocity-velocity gradient plane of shear and is used to characterize complex fluids. Spatially resolved measurements in the velocity gradient direction are possible for studying shear-banding materials. Applications include investigations of colloidal dispersions, polymer solutions, and self-assembled structures.

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