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General Laboratory Techniques

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Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Model Organisms I

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 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Utilizing Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Human Neuromuscular System

1Ohio Musculoskeletal and Neurological Institute (OMNI) and the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University


JoVE 3387

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive tool to gain insight on the physiology and function of the human nervous system. Here, we present our TMS techniques to study cortical excitability of the upper limb and lumbar musculature.

 JoVE Biology

Methods to Assess Subcellular Compartments of Muscle in C. elegans

1MRC/ARUK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, University of Nottingham


JoVE 52043

Skeletal muscle is essential for locomotion and is the bodies’ main protein store. Muscle health measurements within C. elegans are described. Prospective changes to muscle structure and function are assessed using localized GFP and cationic dyes.

 JoVE Behavior

Assessment of Murine Exercise Endurance Without the Use of a Shock Grid: An Alternative to Forced Exercise

1Research Service, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, 2Seattle Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Research, 3Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, 4Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, VA Puget Sound Health Care System


JoVE 51846

A method to assess exercise endurance in laboratory mice without the use of a shock grid is demonstrated. This method is a humane refinement that can decrease the confounding effects of stress on experimental parameters.

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Extracellularly Identifying Motor Neurons for a Muscle Motor Pool in Aplysia californica

1Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University


JoVE 50189

In animals with large identified neurons (e.g. mollusks), analysis of motor pools is done using intracellular techniques1,2,3,4. Recently, we developed a technique to extracellularly stimulate and record individual neurons in Aplysia californica5. We now describe a protocol for using this technique to uniquely identify and characterize motor neurons within a motor pool.

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 JoVE Behavior

Stimulating the Lip Motor Cortex with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

1Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford


JoVE 51665

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has proven to be a useful tool in investigating the role of the articulatory motor cortex in speech perception.  This article describes how to record motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the lip muscles and how to disrupt the motor lip representation using repetitive TMS.

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Membrane Potentials, Synaptic Responses, Neuronal Circuitry, Neuromodulation and Muscle Histology Using the Crayfish: Student Laboratory Exercises

1Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, 2Department of Physiology, University of Toronto


JoVE 2322

The experiments demonstrate an easy approach for students to gain experience in examining muscle structure, synaptic responses, the effects of ion gradients and permeability on membrane potentials. Also, a sensory-CNS-motor-muscle circuit is presented to show a means to test effects of compounds on a neuronal circuit.

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 JoVE Neuroscience

The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism

1Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota


JoVE 51631

This article aims to describe a basic protocol for combining transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) measurements to investigate the effects of bilateral stimulation on primary motor cortex metabolism.

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 JoVE Neuroscience

An In Vitro Preparation for Eliciting and Recording Feeding Motor Programs with Physiological Movements in Aplysia californica

1Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University


JoVE 4320

We describe a technique to extracellularly record and stimulate from nerves, muscles, and individual identified neurons in vitro while eliciting and observing different types of feeding behaviors in the feeding apparatus of Aplysia.

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Characterizing the Composition of Molecular Motors on Moving Axonal Cargo Using "Cargo Mapping" Analysis

1Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Dorris Neuroscience Center, The Scripps Research Institute, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, 4Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego School of Medicine


JoVE 52029

Intracellular transport of cargoes, such as vesicles or organelles, is carried out by molecular motor proteins that track on polarized microtubules. This protocol describes the correlation of the directionality of transport of individual cargo particles moving inside neurons, to the relative amount and type of associated motor proteins.

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 JoVE Applied Physics

Measuring Material Microstructure Under Flow Using 1-2 Plane Flow-Small Angle Neutron Scattering

1Center for Neutron Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, 2NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 3Institut Laue-Langevin


JoVE 51068

A shear cell is developed for small-angle neutron scattering measurements in the velocity-velocity gradient plane of shear and is used to characterize complex fluids. Spatially resolved measurements in the velocity gradient direction are possible for studying shear-banding materials. Applications include investigations of colloidal dispersions, polymer solutions, and self-assembled structures.

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