1Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, 3Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center
This paper presents the methods used for probing spatially correlated chemical, structural, and mechanical properties of the multilayered scale of Atractosteus spatula (A. spatula) using nanoindentation, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT). The experimental results have been used to investigate the design principles of protective biological materials.…
Published July 10, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Atractosteus spatula, structure-property relation, nanoindentation, scan electron microscopy, X-ray computed tomography, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy
Cells play an instrumental and increasing role in research, and the discovery and development of new therapeutics. With this increasing need for greater number of cells we need more efficient and effective ways for growing and harvesting attachment dependent cells. A Multilayered flask with the right features can serve this purpose.
Published December 5, 2011. Keywords: Basic Protocols, Multi-Flask, multi-layered, stackable, scale-up, cell culture, flasks
1Division of Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering, University of Nottingham, 2Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, 3Division of Immunology and Allergy, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, 4Division of Respiratory Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Nottingham, 5NIHR Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, University of Leicester, 6School of Sport, Exercise, and Health Sciences, Loughborough University
Advancements in biomaterial technologies enable the development of three-dimensional multi-cell-type constructs. We have developed electrospinning protocols to produce three individual scaffolds to culture the main structural cells of the airway to provide a 3D in vitro model of the airway bronchiole wall.
Published July 31, 2015. Keywords: Bioengineering, Electrospinning, 3D Cell Culture, Bioreactor, Airway, Tissue Engineering, In Vitro Model
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital of Geneva
The aim of this study was to mimic the native three layered architecture of the arterial wall. To accomplish this, electrospinning was employed with the use of a 3-1 (input-output) nozzle and blends of polycaprolactone, elastin, and collagen.
Published January 4, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Electrospinning, Vascular Graft, Multilayer, Polycaprolactone, Elastin
1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, 2Department of Oncology and Insigneo Institute for in silico Medicine, University of Sheffield, 3Department of Histopathology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
This manuscript describes the production, characterization and potential uses of a tissue engineered 3D esophageal construct prepared from normal primary human esophageal fibroblast and squamous epithelial cells seeded within a de-cellularized porcine scaffold. The results demonstrate the formation of a mature stratified epithelium similar to the normal human esophagus.
Published May 18, 2015. Keywords: Bioengineering, esophagus, epithelium, tissue engineering, 3D construct, esophageal cancer, Barrett’s Metaplasia
1Department of Extremity Trauma Research and Regenerative Medicine, United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin
This protocol focuses on utilizing the inherent ability of stem cells to take cue from their surrounding extracellular matrix and be induced to differentiate into multiple phenotypes. This methods manuscript extends our description and characterization of a model utilizing a bilayered hydrogel, composed of PEG-fibrin and collagen, to simultaneously co-differentiate adipose-derived stem cells1.…
Published May 25, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Tissue Engineering, chitosan, microspheres, collagen, hydrogel, PEG fibrin, cell delivery, adipose-derived stem cells, ASC, CSM
1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California Los Angeles, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of California Los Angeles
Animal models are important tools for the evaluation of tissue-engineered grafts. This paper presents the protocol for preparing an electrospun biodegradable polymer graft for use in anterior cruciate ligament tissue engineering, as well as a surgical protocol for implantation in a rat model.
Published March 26, 2015. Keywords: Bioengineering, Anterior cruciate ligament, tissue engineering, animal model, biodegradable scaffold, rat, knee
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, 2College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, 3School of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham
The ability of inflamed endothelium to recruit leukocytes from flow is regulated by mesenchymal stromal cells. We describe two in vitro models incorporating primary human cells that can be used to assess neutrophil recruitment from flow and examine the role that mesenchymal stromal cells play in regulating this process.
Published January 7, 2015. Keywords: Immunology, Endothelial cells, leukocytes, mesenchymal stromal cells, mesenchymal stem cells, co-culture, adhesion, inflammation, recruitment, flow based adhesion assay, Ibidi microslide, neutrophil
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Health Science & Technology, Cartilage Engineering & Regeneration, 2Biomaterials Department, Innovent e.V.
A bioprinter was used to create patterned hydrogels based on a sacrificial mold. The poloxamer mold was backfilled with a second hydrogel and then eluted, leaving voids which were filled with a third hydrogel. This method uses fast elution and good printability of poloxamer to generate complex architectures from biopolymers.
Published July 10, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Immunology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Molecular Biology, Materials Science, Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials, Hydrogel, Biopolymers, Structured/Patterned Hydrogels, Bioprinter, Sacrificial Mold, Thermoresponsive Polymers, Poloxamer, tissue, polymer, matrix, cell, cell culture
1Mechanical Engineering Department, Southern Methodist University
A high-sensitivity photonic micro sensor was developed for electric field detection. The sensor exploits the optical modes of a dielectric sphere. Changes in the external electric field perturb the sphere morphology leading to shifts in its optical modes. The electric field strength is measured by monitoring these optical shifts.
Published January 29, 2013. Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, Physics, Optics, Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, electrostatics, optical fibers, optical materials, optical waveguides, optics, optoelectronics, photonics, geometrical optics, sensors, electric field, dielectric resonators, micro-spheres, whispering gallery mode, morphology dependent resonance, PDMS
1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, 3L. V. Prasad Eye Institute
We report a technique for the fabrication of micropockets within electrospun membranes in which to study cell behavior. Specifically, we describe a combination of microstereolithography and electrospinning for the production of PLGA (Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) corneal biomaterial devices equipped with microfeatures.
Published September 12, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, electrospinning, microstereolithography, stem cell niche, storage, limbal explants
1Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2JoVE Content Production
Here's a look at what's coming up in the September 2014 issue of JoVE.
Published September 2, 2014. Keywords: This Month in JoVE,
Science Education: Essentials of Biology 1
JoVE Science Education
One of the many reasons that make Drosophila an extremely valuable organism is that the molecular, cellular, and genetic foundations of development are highly conserved between flies and higher eukaryotes such as humans. Drosophila progress through several developmental stages in a process known as the life cycle and each stage provides a unique platform for developmental research. This video introduces each stage of the Drosophila life cycle and details the physical characteristics and major developmental events that occur during each stage. Next, the video discusses the genetic regulation of pattern formation, which is important for establishing the body plan of the organism and specifying individual tissues and organs. In addition, this video gives an overview of Drosophila reproduction, and how to use the reproductive characteristics of Drosophila to set up a genetic cross. Finally, we discuss examples of how the principles of Drosophila development and reproduction can be applied to research. These applications include RNA interference, behavioral assays of mating behaviors, and live imaging techniques that allow us to visualize development as a dynamic process. Overall, this video highlights the importance of understanding development and reproduction in Drosophila, and how this knowledge can be use…
1INSERM U698 Cardiovascular Remodelling, Hôpital X. Bichat, AP-HP, Paris, 2Bio-Ingénierie des Polymères Cardiovasculaires (BPC), Institut Galilée - Université Paris 13, Paris, France, 3Service de Chirurgie Vasculaire, Hôpital Henri Mondor, AP-HP, Université Paris-Est Creteil, 4Ecole de chirurgie de l'assistance publique des hôpitaux de Paris, 5Service de Chirurgie Cardiaque et Vasculaire, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, AP-HP, Université René Descartes
Histological and biochemical modifications after aneurysm endograft exclusion are still unclear. We describe a new model of endograft implantation on a murine aneurysm. Through thrombus analysis with and without persistant circulating blood stream interface, and new endovascular biomaterials evaluation, this model will help to better understand endovascular aneurysm exclusion pathobiology.…
Published July 7, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Cardiology, Aortic Diseases, Aortic Aneurysm, Aortic Aneurysm, Disease Models, Animal, Vascular Surgical Procedures, Vascular Grafting, Microsurgery, animal models, Cardiovascular Diseases, Abdominal aortic aneurysm, rat, stentgraft exclusion, EVAR, animal model
1Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, California Institute of Technology - Caltech
Jared Leadbetter takes us for a nature walk through the diversity of life resident in the termite hindgut - a microenvironment containing 250 different species found nowhere else on Earth. Jared reveals that the symbiosis exhibited by this system is multi-layered and involves not only a relationship between the termite and its gut inhabitants, but also involves a complex web of symbiosis among the gut microbes themselves.…
Published May 28, 2007. Keywords: Microbiology, issue 4, microbial community, symbiosis, hindgut