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  JoVE Developmental Biology


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October, 2006
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 JoVE Bioengineering

Characterization Of Multi-layered Fish Scales (Atractosteus spatula) Using Nanoindentation, X-ray CT, FTIR, and SEM

1Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, 3Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center

JoVE 51535

This paper presents the methods used for probing spatially correlated chemical, structural, and mechanical properties of the multilayered scale of Atractosteus spatula (A. spatula) using nanoindentation, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT). The experimental results have been used to investigate the design principles of protective biological materials.

 JoVE Biology

Scale-Up of Mammalian Cell Culture using a New Multilayered Flask

1BD Biosciences

JoVE 3418

Cells play an instrumental and increasing role in research, and the discovery and development of new therapeutics. With this increasing need for greater number of cells we need more efficient and effective ways for growing and harvesting attachment dependent cells. A Multilayered flask with the right features can serve this purpose.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Adapting the Electrospinning Process to Provide Three Unique Environments for a Tri-layered In Vitro Model of the Airway Wall

1Division of Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering, University of Nottingham, 2Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, 3Division of Immunology and Allergy, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, 4Division of Respiratory Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Nottingham, 5NIHR Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, University of Leicester, 6School of Sport, Exercise, and Health Sciences, Loughborough University

JoVE 52986

Advancements in biomaterial technologies enable the development of three-dimensional multi-cell-type constructs. We have developed electrospinning protocols to produce three individual scaffolds to culture the main structural cells of the airway to provide a 3D in vitro model of the airway bronchiole wall.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Tri-layered Electrospinning to Mimic Native Arterial Architecture using Polycaprolactone, Elastin, and Collagen: A Preliminary Study

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital of Geneva

JoVE 2084

The aim of this study was to mimic the native three layered architecture of the arterial wall. To accomplish this, electrospinning was employed with the use of a 3-1 (input-output) nozzle and blends of polycaprolactone, elastin, and collagen.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Production, Characterization and Potential Uses of a 3D Tissue-engineered Human Esophageal Mucosal Model

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, 2Department of Oncology and Insigneo Institute for in silico Medicine, University of Sheffield, 3Department of Histopathology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

JoVE 52693

This manuscript describes the production, characterization and potential uses of a tissue engineered 3D esophageal construct prepared from normal primary human esophageal fibroblast and squamous epithelial cells seeded within a de-cellularized porcine scaffold. The results demonstrate the formation of a mature stratified epithelium similar to the normal human esophagus.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Engineering a Bilayered Hydrogel to Control ASC Differentiation

1Department of Extremity Trauma Research and Regenerative Medicine, United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin

JoVE 3953

This protocol focuses on utilizing the inherent ability of stem cells to take cue from their surrounding extracellular matrix and be induced to differentiate into multiple phenotypes. This methods manuscript extends our description and characterization of a model utilizing a bilayered hydrogel, composed of PEG-fibrin and collagen, to simultaneously co-differentiate adipose-derived stem cells1.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Athymic Rat Model for Evaluation of Engineered Anterior Cruciate Ligament Grafts

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California Los Angeles, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of California Los Angeles

JoVE 52797

Animal models are important tools for the evaluation of tissue-engineered grafts. This paper presents the protocol for preparing an electrospun biodegradable polymer graft for use in anterior cruciate ligament tissue engineering, as well as a surgical protocol for implantation in a rat model.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Analyzing the Effects of Stromal Cells on the Recruitment of Leukocytes from Flow

1School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, 2College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, 3School of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham

JoVE 52480

The ability of inflamed endothelium to recruit leukocytes from flow is regulated by mesenchymal stromal cells. We describe two in vitro models incorporating primary human cells that can be used to assess neutrophil recruitment from flow and examine the role that mesenchymal stromal cells play in regulating this process.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Printing Thermoresponsive Reverse Molds for the Creation of Patterned Two-component Hydrogels for 3D Cell Culture

1Department of Health Science & Technology, Cartilage Engineering & Regeneration, 2Biomaterials Department, Innovent e.V.

JoVE 50632

A bioprinter was used to create patterned hydrogels based on a sacrificial mold. The poloxamer mold was backfilled with a second hydrogel and then eluted, leaving voids which were filled with a third hydrogel. This method uses fast elution and good printability of poloxamer to generate complex architectures from biopolymers.

 JoVE Engineering

Development of Whispering Gallery Mode Polymeric Micro-optical Electric Field Sensors

1Mechanical Engineering Department, Southern Methodist University

JoVE 50199

A high-sensitivity photonic micro sensor was developed for electric field detection. The sensor exploits the optical modes of a dielectric sphere. Changes in the external electric field perturb the sphere morphology leading to shifts in its optical modes. The electric field strength is measured by monitoring these optical shifts.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Combination of Microstereolithography and Electrospinning to Produce Membranes Equipped with Niches for Corneal Regeneration

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, 3L. V. Prasad Eye Institute

JoVE 51826

We report a technique for the fabrication of micropockets within electrospun membranes in which to study cell behavior. Specifically, we describe a combination of microstereolithography and electrospinning for the production of PLGA (Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) corneal biomaterial devices equipped with microfeatures.

 Science Education: Essentials of Biology 1

Drosophila Development and Reproduction

JoVE Science Education

One of the many reasons that make Drosophila an extremely valuable organism is that the molecular, cellular, and genetic foundations of development are highly conserved between flies and higher eukaryotes such as humans. Drosophila progress through several developmental stages in a process known as the life cycle and each stage provides a unique platform for developmental research. This video introduces each stage of the Drosophila life cycle and details the physical characteristics and major developmental events that occur during each stage. Next, the video discusses the genetic regulation of pattern formation, which is important for establishing the body plan of the organism and specifying individual tissues and organs. In addition, this video gives an overview of Drosophila reproduction, and how to use the reproductive characteristics of Drosophila to set up a genetic cross. Finally, we discuss examples of how the principles of Drosophila development and reproduction can be applied to research. These applications include RNA interference, behavioral assays of mating behaviors, and live imaging techniques that allow us to visualize development as a dynamic process. Overall, this video highlights the importance of understanding development and reproduction in Drosophila, and how this knowledge can be use

 JoVE Medicine

A New Murine Model of Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair

1INSERM U698 Cardiovascular Remodelling, Hôpital X. Bichat, AP-HP, Paris, 2Bio-Ingénierie des Polymères Cardiovasculaires (BPC), Institut Galilée - Université Paris 13, Paris, France, 3Service de Chirurgie Vasculaire, Hôpital Henri Mondor, AP-HP, Université Paris-Est Creteil, 4Ecole de chirurgie de l'assistance publique des hôpitaux de Paris, 5Service de Chirurgie Cardiaque et Vasculaire, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, AP-HP, Université René Descartes

JoVE 50740

Histological and biochemical modifications after aneurysm endograft exclusion are still unclear. We describe a new model of endograft implantation on a murine aneurysm. Through thrombus analysis with and without persistant circulating blood stream interface, and new endovascular biomaterials evaluation, this model will help to better understand endovascular aneurysm exclusion pathobiology.

 JoVE Biology

Layers of Symbiosis - Visualizing the Termite Hindgut Microbial Community

1Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, California Institute of Technology - Caltech

JoVE 197

Jared Leadbetter takes us for a nature walk through the diversity of life resident in the termite hindgut - a microenvironment containing 250 different species found nowhere else on Earth. Jared reveals that the symbiosis exhibited by this system is multi-layered and involves not only a relationship between the termite and its gut inhabitants, but also involves a complex web of symbiosis among the gut microbes themselves.

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