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October, 2006
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 JoVE Engineering

Nanofabrication of Gate-defined GaAs/AlGaAs Lateral Quantum Dots

1Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke

JoVE 50581

This paper presents a detailed fabrication protocol for gate-defined semiconductor lateral quantum dots on gallium arsenide heterostructures. These nanoscale devices are used to trap few electrons for use as quantum bits in quantum information processing or for other mesoscopic experiments such as coherent conductance measurements.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Capillary Force Lithography for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

1Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, 2Department of Pathology, University of Washington

JoVE 50039

In this protocol, we demonstrate the fabrication of biomimetic cardiac cell culture substrata made from two distinct polymeric materials using capillary force lithography. The described methods provide a scalable, cost-effective technique to engineer the structure and function of macroscopic cardiac tissues for in vitro and in vivo applications.

 JoVE Engineering

Silicon Metal-oxide-semiconductor Quantum Dots for Single-electron Pumping

1School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, 2QCD Labs, COMP Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University

JoVE 52852

The fabrication process and experimental characterization techniques relevant to single-electron pumps based on silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dots are discussed.

 JoVE Engineering

Atomically Traceable Nanostructure Fabrication

1Zyvex Labs, 2Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 4Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, 5National Institute of Standards and Technology

JoVE 52900

We report a protocol for combining the atomic metrology of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope for surface patterning with selective Atomic Layer Deposition and Reactive Ion Etching. Using a robust process involving numerous atmospheric exposures and transport, 3D nanostructures with atomic metrology are fabricated.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Formation of Biomembrane Microarrays with a Squeegee-based Assembly Method

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 3Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 4Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine

JoVE 51501

Supported lipid bilayers and natural membrane particles are convenient systems that can approximate the properties of cell membranes and be incorporated in a variety of analytical strategies. Here we demonstrate a method for preparing microarrays composed of supported lipid bilayer-coated SiO2 beads, phospholipid vesicles or natural membrane particles.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube High-Frequency Nanoelectronic Biosensor for Sensing in High Ionic Strength Solutions

1Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

JoVE 50438

We describe the device fabrication and measurement protocol for carbon nanotube based high frequency biosensors. The high frequency sensing technique mitigates the fundamental ionic (Debye) screening effect and allows nanotube biosensor to be operated in high ionic strength solutions where conventional electronic biosensors fail. Our technology provides a unique platform for point-of-care (POC) electronic biosensors operating in physiologically relevant conditions.

 JoVE Chemistry

In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions

1Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

JoVE 51344

Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of novel materials. Coupled with analysis by in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), soft landing provides unprecedented insights into the interactions of well-defined species with surfaces.

 JoVE Engineering

Optical Trapping of Nanoparticles

1Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria

JoVE 4424

The following setup approach details low power optical trapping of dielectric nanoparticles using a double-nanohole in metal film.

 JoVE Engineering

Ultrahigh Density Array of Vertically Aligned Small-molecular Organic Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates

1Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta

JoVE 50706

We report a simple method for fabricating an ultrahigh density array of vertically ordered small-molecular organic nanowires. This method allows for synthesis of complex heterostructured hybrid nanowire geometries, which can be inexpensively grown on arbitrary substrates. These structures have potential applications in organic electronics, optoelectronics, chemical sensing, photovoltaics and spintronics.

 JoVE Engineering

Fabrication of Spatially Confined Complex Oxides

1Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

JoVE 50573

We describe the use of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), photolithography and wire-bonding techniques to create micrometer scale complex oxides devices. The PLD is utilized to grow epitaxial thin films. Photolithography and wire-bonding techniques are introduced to create practical devices for measurement purposes.

 JoVE Chemistry

Origami Inspired Self-assembly of Patterned and Reconfigurable Particles

1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University

JoVE 50022

We describe experimental details of the synthesis of patterned and reconfigurable particles from two dimensional (2D) precursors. This methodology can be used to create particles in a variety of shapes including polyhedra and grasping devices at length scales ranging from the micro to centimeter scale.

 JoVE Engineering

Patterning via Optical Saturable Transitions - Fabrication and Characterization

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Utah, 2Department of Chemistry, The University of Wisconsin-Madison

JoVE 52449

We report that the diffraction limit of conventional optical lithography can be overcome by exploiting the transitions of organic photochromic derivatives induced by their photoisomerization at low light intensities.1-3 This paper outlines our fabrication technique and two locking mechanisms, namely: dissolution of one photoisomer and electrochemical oxidation.

 JoVE Chemistry

Fabricating Nanogaps by Nanoskiving

1Stratingh Institute for Chemistry and Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen

JoVE 50406

The fabrication of electrically addressable, high-aspect-ratio (> 1000:1) metal nanowires separated by gaps of single nanometers using either sacrificial layers of aluminum and silver or self-assembled monolayers as templates is described. These nanogap structures are fabricated without a clean room or any photo- or electron-beam lithographic processes by a form of edge lithography known as nanoskiving.

 JoVE Engineering

Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Detection of Biomolecules Using EBL Fabricated Nanostructured Substrates

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, 2National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council of Canada

JoVE 52712

We describe the fabrication and characterization of nano-biological systems interfacing nanostructured substrates with immobilized proteins and aptamers. The relevant experimental steps involving lithographic fabrication of nanostructured substrates, bio-functionalization, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) characterization, are reported. SERS detection of surface-immobilized proteins, and probing of protein-ligand and aptamer-ligand binding is demonstrated.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Using Microfluidics Chips for Live Imaging and Study of Injury Responses in Drosophila Larvae

1Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 4Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 5Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan

JoVE 50998

Drosophila larvae are an attractive model system for live imaging due to their translucent cuticle and powerful genetics. This protocol describes how to utilize a single-layer PDMS device, called the 'larva chip' for live imaging of cellular processes within neurons of 3rd instar Drosophila larvae.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Utilization of Microscale Silicon Cantilevers to Assess Cellular Contractile Function In Vitro

1NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida

JoVE 51866

This protocol describes the use of microscale silicon cantilevers as pliable culture surfaces for measuring the contractility of muscle cells in vitro. Cellular contraction causes cantilever bending, which can be measured, recorded, and converted into readouts of force, providing a non-invasive and scalable system for measuring contractile function in vitro.

 JoVE Engineering

Evaluating Plasmonic Transport in Current-carrying Silver Nanowires

1Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne CNRS-UMR 6303, Université de Bourgogne, 2Department of Optics and Optical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, 3CEMES, CNRS-UPR 8011

JoVE 51048

Silver nanowires can simultaneously transport electrons and optical information in the form of surface plasmons. A procedure is described here to realize such a shared circuitry and the limitations at propagating both information carriers are evaluated.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Preparation of Hydroxy-PAAm Hydrogels for Decoupling the Effects of Mechanotransduction Cues

1Laboratoire Interfaces et Fluides Complexes, Université de Mons

JoVE 51010

We present a new polyacrylamide hydrogel, called hydroxy-PAAm, that allows a direct binding of ECM proteins with minimal cost or expertise. The combination of hydroxy-PAAm hydrogels with microcontact printing facilitates independent control of many cues of the natural cell microenvironment for studying cellular mechanostransduction.

 JoVE Engineering

Real-Time DC-dynamic Biasing Method for Switching Time Improvement in Severely Underdamped Fringing-field Electrostatic MEMS Actuators

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, 2Digital Light Projection (DLP) Technology Development, Texas Instruments, 3Birck Nanotechnology Center and the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University

JoVE 51251

The robust device design of fringing-field electrostatic MEMS actuators results in inherently low squeeze-film damping conditions and long settling times when performing switching operations using conventional step biasing. Real-time switching time improvement with DC-dynamic waveforms reduces the settling time of fringing-field MEMS actuators when transitioning between up-to-down and down-to-up states.

 JoVE Engineering

Simulation, Fabrication and Characterization of THz Metamaterial Absorbers

1School of Engineering, University of Glasgow

JoVE 50114

This protocol outlines the simulation, fabrication and characterization of THz metamaterial absorbers. Such absorbers, when coupled with an appropriate sensor, have applications in THz imaging and spectroscopy.

 JoVE Engineering

Dry Oxidation and Vacuum Annealing Treatments for Tuning the Wetting Properties of Carbon Nanotube Arrays

1Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories, California Institute of Technology

JoVE 50378

This article describes a simple method to fabricate vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays by CVD and to subsequently tune their wetting properties by exposing them to vacuum annealing or dry oxidation treatment.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Creating Two-Dimensional Patterned Substrates for Protein and Cell Confinement

1Department of Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis

JoVE 3164

Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed from long chain alkane thiols on gold provide well-defined substrates for the formation of protein patterns and cell confinement. Microcontact printing of hexadecanethiol using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp followed by backfilling with a glycol-terminated alkane thiol monomer produces a pattern where protein and cells adsorb only to the stamped hexadecanethiol region.

 JoVE Engineering

Fabrication, Densification, and Replica Molding of 3D Carbon Nanotube Microstructures

1Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2IMEC, Belgium

JoVE 3980

We present methods for fabrication of patterned microstructures of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and their use as master molds for production of polymer microstructures with organized nanoscale surface texture. The CNT forests are densified by condensation of solvent onto the substrate, which significantly increases their packing density and enables self-directed formation of 3D shapes.

 JoVE Engineering

Revealing Dynamic Processes of Materials in Liquids Using Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy

1Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

JoVE 50122

We have developed a self-contained liquid cell, which allows imaging through liquids using a transmission electron microscope. Dynamic processes of nanoparticles in liquids can be revealed in real time with sub-nanometer resolution.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Generation of Shear Adhesion Map Using SynVivo Synthetic Microvascular Networks

1Biomedical Technology, CFD Research Corporation

JoVE 51025

Flow chambers used in adhesion experiments typically consist of linear flow paths and require multiple experiments at different flow rates to generate a shear adhesion map. SynVivo-SMN enables the generation of shear adhesion map using a single experiment utilizing microliter volumes resulting in significant savings in time and consumables.

 JoVE Engineering

A Method to Fabricate Disconnected Silver Nanostructures in 3D

1School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 2Department of Physics, Harvard University

JoVE 4399

Femtosecond-laser direct-writing is frequently used to create three-dimensional (3D) patterns in polymers and glasses. However, patterning metals in 3D remains a challenge. We describe a method for fabricating silver nanostructures embedded inside a polymer matrix using a femtosecond laser centered at 800 nm.

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