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  JoVE Developmental Biology


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October, 2006
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Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; Nanocapsules; Metal nanoparticles; Dendrimers, and Quantum dots. The uses of nanoparticles include Drug delivery systems and cancer targeting and imaging.
 JoVE Bioengineering

Biofunctionalized Prussian Blue Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging Applications

1The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children's National Medical Center, 2Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, 3Department of Radiology, George Washington University, 4Department of Pediatrics, George Washington University

JoVE 52621

This protocol describes the synthesis of biofunctionalized Prussian blue nanoparticles and their use as multimodal, molecular imaging agents. The nanoparticles have a core-shell design where gadolinium or manganese ions within the nanoparticle core generate MRI contrast. The biofunctional shell contains fluorophores for fluorescence imaging and targeting ligands for molecular targeting.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Therapeutic Gene Delivery and Transfection in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells using Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-targeted Gelatin Nanoparticles

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Northeastern University

JoVE 3612

Type B gelatin-based engineered nanovectors system (GENS) was developed for systemic gene delivery and transfection in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. By modification with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) specific peptide on the surface of nanparticles, they could target on EGFR receptor and release plasmid under reducing environment, such as high intracellular glutathione concentrations.

 JoVE Chemistry

Using Polystyrene-block-poly(acrylic acid)-coated Metal Nanoparticles as Monomers for Their Homo- and Co-polymerization

1Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Nanyang Technological University

JoVE 52954

We report protocols for “polymerizing” various types of polymer-encapsulated metal nanoparticles into long chains of “homo-“ and “co-polymers”.

 JoVE Environment

Removal of Trace Elements by Cupric Oxide Nanoparticles from Uranium In Situ Recovery Bleed Water and Its Effect on Cell Viability

1Division of Physical Therapy, Department of Orthopedics & Rehabilitation, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, University of Wyoming, 3School of Pharmacy, University of Wyoming, 4Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 5Center for Environmental Medicine, Colorado State University, 6College of Pharmacy, California Northstate University

JoVE 52715

Production bleed water (PBW) was treated with cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) and cellular toxicity was assessed in cultured human cells. The goal of this protocol was to integrate the native environmental sample into a cell culture format assessing the changes in toxicity due to CuO-NP treatment.

 JoVE Bioengineering

PLGA Nanoparticles Formed by Single- or Double-emulsion with Vitamin E-TPGS

1Barrow Brain Tumor Research Center, Barrow Neurological Institute

JoVE 51015

We describe the production and characterization of nanoparticles and microparticles composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) using vitamin E-TPGS as an emulsifier. By varying formulation parameters such as the concentration of emulsifier, it is possible to produce nanoparticles with mean diameters ranging from 220 nm to 1.98 µm.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Evaluation of Polymeric Gene Delivery Nanoparticles by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis and High-throughput Flow Cytometry

1Biomedical Engineering Department, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Translational Tissue Engineering Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 50176

A protocol for nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and high-throughput flow cytometry to evaluate polymeric gene delivery nanoparticles is described. NTA is utilized to characterize the nanoparticle particle size distribution and the plasmid per particle distribution. High-throughput flow cytometry enables quantitative transfection efficacy evaluation for a library of gene delivery biomaterials.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Formulation of Diblock Polymeric Nanoparticles through Nanoprecipitation Technique

1Laboratory of Nano- and Translational Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2Carolina Center for Nanotechnology Excellence, University of North Carolina

JoVE 3398

This article describes a nanoprecipitation method to synthesize polymer-based nanoparticles using diblock co-polymers. We will discuss the synthesis of diblock co-polymers, the nanoprecipitation technique, and potential applications.

 JoVE Chemistry

Preparation and Characterization of SDF-1α-Chitosan-Dextran Sulfate Nanoparticles

1Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 2Laboratory for Biomaterials and Drug Delivery, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Critical Care, Boston Children's Hospital

JoVE 52323

The objective of this protocol is to incorporate SDF-1α, a stem cell homing factor, into dextran sulfate-chitosan nanoparticles. The resultant particles are measured for their size and zeta potential, as well as the content, activity, and in vitro release rate of SDF-1α from the nanoparticles.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Harvesting Murine Alveolar Macrophages and Evaluating Cellular Activation Induced by Polyanhydride Nanoparticles

1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, 2Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University

JoVE 3883

Herein, we describe protocols for harvesting murine alveolar macrophages, which are resident innate immune cells in the lung, and examining their activation in response to co-culture with polyanhydride nanoparticles.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Analyzing Cellular Internalization of Nanoparticles and Bacteria by Multi-spectral Imaging Flow Cytometry

1Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, 2Amnis Corporation, 3Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University

JoVE 3884

In this article, we describe a method utilizing multi-spectral imaging flow cytometry to quantify the internalization of polyanhydride nanoparticles or bacteria by RAW 264.7 cells.

 JoVE Bioengineering

High-throughput Synthesis of Carbohydrates and Functionalization of Polyanhydride Nanoparticles

1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, 2Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University

JoVE 3967

In this article, a high throughput method is presented for the synthesis of oligosaccharides and their attachment to the surface of polyanhydride nanoparticles for further use in targeting specific receptors on antigen presenting cells.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Harmonic Nanoparticles for Regenerative Research

1Department of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 2Physics Department, GAP-Biophotonics, University of Geneva, 3Laboratoire d'Optique Biomédicale (LOB), Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de l'Ingénieur, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, 5School of Medicine and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, 6Nikon AG Instruments

JoVE 51333

Protocol details are provided for in vitro labeling human embryonic stem cells with second harmonic generating nanoparticles. Methodologies for hESC investigation by multi-photon microscopy and their differentiation into cardiac clusters are also presented.

 JoVE Chemistry

Preparation of Silica Nanoparticles Through Microwave-assisted Acid-catalysis

1Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, 2Air Force Research Laboratory, Airbase Technology Division, 3School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University

JoVE 51022

Silica nanoparticles were prepared using acid-catalysis of a siloxane precursor and microwave-assisted synthetic techniques resulting in the controlled growth of nanomaterials ranging from 30-250 nm in diameter. The growth dynamics can be controlled by varying the initial silicic acid concentration, time of the reaction, and temperature of reaction.

 JoVE Biology

Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration: A “Green” Method for the Size Selection and Concentration of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles

1Department of Chemistry, Wright State University, 2Department of Neuroscience, Cell Biology, and Physiology, Wright State University

JoVE 4167

Tangential flow ultrafiltration (TFU) is a recirculation method used for the weight-based separation of biosamples. TFU was adapted to size-select (1-20 nm diameter) and highly concentrate a large volume of polydisperse silver nanoparticles (4 L of 15.2 μg ml-1 down to 4 ml of 8,539.9 μg ml-1) with minimal aggregation.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Viral Nanoparticles for In vivo Tumor Imaging

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Radiology, and Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University

JoVE 4352

Plant viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are promising platforms for applications in biomedicine. Here, we describe the procedures for plant VNP propagation, purification, characterization, and bioconjugation. Finally, we show the application of VNPs for tumor homing and imaging using a mouse xenograft model and fluorescence imaging.

 JoVE Engineering

Synthesis and Functionalization of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotube Cups with Gold Nanoparticles as Cork Stoppers

1Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh

JoVE 50383

We discussed the synthesis of individual graphitic nanocups using a series of techniques including chemical vapor deposition, acid oxidation and probe-tip sonication. By citrate reduction of HAuCl4, the graphitic nanocups were effectively corked with gold nanoparticles due to the chemically reactive edges of the cups.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Application of Fluorescent Nanoparticles to Study Remodeling of the Endo-lysosomal System by Intracellular Bacteria

1Abteilung Mikrobiologie, Fachbereich Biologie/Chemie, Universität Osnabrück

JoVE 52058

This article describes methods for the synthesis and fluorescent labeling of nanoparticles (NPs). The NPs were applied in pulse-chase experiments to label the endo-lysosomal system of eukaryotic cells. Manipulation of the endo-lysosomal system by activities of the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica were followed by live cell imaging and quantified.

 JoVE Medicine

Protocols for Assessing Radiofrequency Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles and Biological Systems for Non-invasive Hyperthermia Cancer Therapy

1Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 2Department of Chemistry, Rice University, 3Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University

JoVE 50480

We describe the protocols used to investigate the interactions of 13.56 MHz radiofrequency (RF) electric-fields with gold nanoparticle colloids in both non-biological and biological systems (in vitro/vivo). These interactions are being investigated for applications in cancer therapy.

 JoVE Engineering

Analyzing the Movement of the Nauplius 'Artemia salina' by Optical Tracking of Plasmonic Nanoparticles

1Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität

JoVE 51502

We use optical tracking of plasmonic nanoparticles to probe and characterize the frequency movements of aquatic organisms.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Programming Stem Cells for Therapeutic Angiogenesis Using Biodegradable Polymeric Nanoparticles

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, 2Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University

JoVE 50736

We describe the method of programming stem cells to overexpress therapeutic factors for angiogenesis using biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. Processes described include polymer synthesis, transfecting adipose-derived stem cells in vitro, and validating the efficacy of programmed stem cells to promote angiogenesis in a murine hindlimb ischemia model.

 JoVE Engineering

Optical Trapping of Nanoparticles

1Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria

JoVE 4424

The following setup approach details low power optical trapping of dielectric nanoparticles using a double-nanohole in metal film.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Fluorescent Nanoparticles for the Measurement of Ion Concentration in Biological Systems

1Bioengineering Department, Northeastern University, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Northeastern University

JoVE 2896

Fluorescent nanoparticles produced in our lab are used for imaging ion concentrations and ion fluxes in biological systems such as cells during signaling and interstitial fluid during physiological homeostasis.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Analysis of Targeted Viral Protein Nanoparticles Delivered to HER2+ Tumors

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles

JoVE 50396

This article details the procedures for optical imaging analysis of the tumor-targeted nanoparticle, HerDox. In particular, detailed use of the multimode imaging device for detecting tumor targeting and assessing tumor penetration is described here.

 JoVE Biology

Labeling hESCs and hMSCs with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Non-Invasive in vivo Tracking with MR Imaging

1Contrast Agent Research Group at the Center for Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco

JoVE 685

For the evaluation of new stem cell therapies it is important to non-invasively track the injected cells in vivo. This video will show you how to label human mesenchymal and embryonic stem cells with iron oxide based contrast agents in vivo for subsequent MR imaging in vivo.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Hydrogel Nanoparticle Harvesting of Plasma or Urine for Detecting Low Abundance Proteins

1Center for Applied Proteomics and Molecular Medicine, George Mason University, 2Ceres Nanosciences

JoVE 51789

Several pathological biomarkers cannot be easily detected by current techniques because of their low concentration in biological fluids, the presence of degrading enzymes, and large amounts of high molecular weight proteins. Chemically functionalized hydrogel nanoparticles can harvest, preserve and concentrate low abundance proteins enabling the detection of previously undetectable biomarkers.

 JoVE Biology

Chitosan/Interfering RNA Nanoparticle Mediated Gene Silencing in Disease Vector Mosquito Larvae

1Division of Biology, Kansas State University, 2Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, 3Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, 4Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 5Department of Entomology, Kansas State University

JoVE 52523

Here we describe a procedure for inhibiting gene function in disease vector mosquitoes through the use of chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticles that are ingested by larvae.

 JoVE Chemistry

Synthesis of Immunotargeted Magneto-plasmonic Nanoclusters

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 2Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

JoVE 52090

Here, we describe a protocol for synthesis of magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles with a strong magnetic moment and a strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance. The protocol also includes antibody conjugation to the nanoparticles through the Fc moiety for various biomedical applications which require molecular specific targeting.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Detection of Fluorescent Nanoparticle Interactions with Primary Immune Cell Subpopulations by Flow Cytometry

1Center for Micro-BioRobotics @SSSA, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 2Department of Biology, University of Pisa, 3Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies @UniLe, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia

JoVE 51345

Analysis of nanoparticle interaction with defined subpopulations of immune cells by flow cytometry.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Porous Silicon Microparticles for Delivery of siRNA Therapeutics

1Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, 2MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, 3Pediatrics Department of Union Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 4CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials & Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, 5Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 6Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Cornell Medical College

JoVE 52075

Delivery remains the main challenge for the therapeutic implementation of small interfering RNA (siRNA). This protocol involves the use of a multifunctional and biocompatible siRNA delivery platform, consisting of arginine and polyethylenimine grafted porous silicon microparticles.

 JoVE Chemistry

A Technique to Functionalize and Self-assemble Macroscopic Nanoparticle-ligand Monolayer Films onto Template-free Substrates

1Naval Research Laboratory

JoVE 51282

A simple, robust and scalable technique to functionalize and self-assemble macroscopic nanoparticle-ligand monolayer films onto template-free substrates is described in this protocol.

 JoVE Engineering

Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-film Solar cells with Plasmonic-enhanced Light-trapping

1School of Photovoltaics, University of New South Wales

JoVE 4092

Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass are fabricated by deposition of boron and phosphorous doped silicon layers followed by crystallisation, defect passivation and metallisation. Plasmonic light-trapping is introduced by forming Ag nanoparticles on the silicon cell surface capped with a diffused reflector resulting in ~45% photocurrent enhancement.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

A Quantitative Evaluation of Cell Migration by the Phagokinetic Track Motility Assay

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 2Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 4Feist-Weiller Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

JoVE 4165

The phagokinetic motility track assay is a method used to assess the movement of cells. Specifically, the assay measures chemokinesis (random cell motility) over time in a quantitative manner. The assay takes advantage of the ability of cells to create a measurable track of their movement on colloidal gold-coated coverslips.

 JoVE Engineering

Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: A New Approach for Nanoparticle's Mapping and Quantification in Organ Tissue

1ILM-FENNEC UMR 5306, CNRS - Université Lyon 1, 2ILM-PUBLI UMR 5306, CNRS - Université Lyon 1, 3ILM-SOPRANO UMR 5306, CNRS - Université Lyon 1

JoVE 51353

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy performed on thin organ and tumor tissue successfully detected natural elements and artificially injected gadolinium (Gd), issued from Gd-based nanoparticles. Images of chemical elements reached a resolution of 100 μm and quantitative sub-mM sensitivity. The compatibility of the setup with standard optical microscopy emphasizes its potential to provide multiple images of a same biological tissue.

 JoVE Chemistry

In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions

1Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

JoVE 51344

Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of novel materials. Coupled with analysis by in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), soft landing provides unprecedented insights into the interactions of well-defined species with surfaces.

 JoVE Chemistry

Transport of Surface-modified Carbon Nanotubes through a Soil Column

1School of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Nalanda University, 2Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University

JoVE 52634

Surface properties of a nanoparticle are important for their interaction with the surrounding medium. Therefore the surface modification of carbon nanotubes can be critical for their transport and retention through porous media. Here, lab scale column experiments are used to understand the possible transport and retention of these nanoparticles.

 JoVE Chemistry

Activating Molecules, Ions, and Solid Particles with Acoustic Cavitation

1Marcoule Institute for Separative Chemistry, UMR 5257 CEA-CNRS-UM2-ENSCM

JoVE 51237

Acoustic cavitation in liquids submitted to power ultrasound creates transient extreme conditions inside the collapsing bubbles, which are the origin of unusual chemical reactivity and light emission, known as sonoluminescence. In the presence of noble gases, nonequilibrium plasma is formed. The "hot" particles and the photons generated by collapsing bubbles are able to excite species in solution.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Determination of the Transport Rate of Xenobiotics and Nanomaterials Across the Placenta using the ex vivo Human Placental Perfusion Model

1Department of Obstetrics, Perinatal Pharmacology, University Hospital Zurich, 2Laboratory for Materials - Biology Interactions, EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, 3Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Bern

JoVE 50401

The ex vivo dual recirculating human placental perfusion model can be used to investigate the transfer of xenobiotics and nanoparticles across the human placenta. In this video protocol we describe the equipment and techniques required for a successful execution of a placenta perfusion.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Generation of Scalable, Metallic High-Aspect Ratio Nanocomposites in a Biological Liquid Medium

1Biophysics Department, Centenary College of Louisiana, 2Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, 3Department of Integrative Physiology, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, 4Biomedical Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, 5Institute for Micromanufacturing, Louisiana Tech University

JoVE 52901

Here we present a protocol to synthesize novel, high-aspect ratio biocomposites under biological conditions and in liquid media. The biocomposites scale from nanometers to micrometers in diameter and length, respectively. Copper nanoparticles (CNPs) and copper sulfate combined with cystine are the key components for the synthesis.

 JoVE Chemistry

Microfluidic On-chip Capture-cycloaddition Reaction to Reversibly Immobilize Small Molecules or Multi-component Structures for Biosensor Applications

1Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 50772

We present a method for rapid, reversible immobilization of small molecules and functionalized nanoparticle assemblies for Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) studies, using sequential on-chip bioorthogonal cycloaddition chemistry and antibody-antigen capture.

 JoVE Bioengineering

A Step Beyond BRET: Fluorescence by Unbound Excitation from Luminescence (FUEL)

1Plate-Forme d'Imagerie Dynamique, Imagopole, Institut Pasteur, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford School of Medicine, 3Service Hospitalier Frédéric Joliot, Institut d'Imagerie Biomédicale, 4Vanderbilt School of Medicine, 5The Walter & Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 6Unité INSERM U786, Institut Pasteur, 7Unité de Pathogénie Microbienne Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur

JoVE 51549

Expanding the foundation and applicability of Fluorescence by Unbound Excitation from Luminescence (FUEL) by surveying the relevant principles and demonstrating its compatibility with a multitude of fluorophores and antibody-targeted conditions.

 JoVE Engineering

Revealing Dynamic Processes of Materials in Liquids Using Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy

1Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

JoVE 50122

We have developed a self-contained liquid cell, which allows imaging through liquids using a transmission electron microscope. Dynamic processes of nanoparticles in liquids can be revealed in real time with sub-nanometer resolution.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Regioselective Biolistic Targeting in Organotypic Brain Slices Using a Modified Gene Gun

1Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 2MRC-Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK

JoVE 52148

Recent improvements in organotypic brain slice preparations have permitted their exploitation for biotechnological applications. Organotypic slices maintain local structural characteristics of in vivo biology, including functional synaptic connections. Here we present a regioselective biolistic delivery method to label and genetically manipulate these slices.

 JoVE Medicine

Evaluation of Nanoparticle Uptake in Tumors in Real Time Using Intravital Imaging

1Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, 2London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, 3Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University, 4Translational Prostate Cancer Research Group, London Health Science Centre

JoVE 2808

We present a novel approach to quantify nanoparticle localization in the vasculature of human xenografted tumors using dynamic, real-time intravital imaging in an avian embryo model.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Whole-animal Imaging and Flow Cytometric Techniques for Analysis of Antigen-specific CD8+ T Cell Responses after Nanoparticle Vaccination

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Michigan, 2Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan

JoVE 52771

We describe whole-animal imaging and flow cytometry-based techniques for monitoring expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in response to immunization with nanoparticles in a murine model of vaccination.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Kupffer Cell Isolation for Nanoparticle Toxicity Testing

1Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King's College London

JoVE 52989

Liver macrophages, named Kupffer cells, are responsible for the capture of circulating nanoparticles. We describe here a method, of high cell purity and yield, for Kupffer cell isolation. The modified LDH assay is used here to measure the toxicity induced by carbon nanotubes in Kupffer cells.

 JoVE Chemistry

Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopic Identification of Dispersant/Particle Bonding Mechanisms in Functional Inks

1Department of Chemistry, New York City College of Technology, City University of New York (CUNY)

JoVE 52744

Formulation of stable, functional inks is critical to expanding the applications of additive manufacturing. In turn, knowledge of the mechanisms of dispersant/particle bonding is required for effective ink formulation. Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is presented as a simple, inexpensive way to gain insight into these mechanisms.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Gold Nanorod-assisted Optical Stimulation of Neuronal Cells

1Biotactical Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology

JoVE 52566

This protocol outlines how to use the transient heating associated with the optical absorption of gold nanorods to stimulate differentiation and intracellular calcium activity in neuronal cells. These results potentially open up new applications in neural prostheses and fundamental studies in neuroscience.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Millifluidics for Chemical Synthesis and Time-resolved Mechanistic Studies

1Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), Louisiana State University, 2Center for Atomic-Level Catalyst Design, Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, 3Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Louisiana State University, 4Argonne National Laboratory

JoVE 50711

Millifluidic devices are utilized for controlled synthesis of nanomaterials, time-resolved analysis of reaction mechanisms and continuous flow catalysis.

 JoVE Chemistry

Mizoroki-Heck Cross-coupling Reactions Catalyzed by Dichloro{bis[1,1',1''-(phosphinetriyl)tripiperidine]}palladium Under Mild Reaction Conditions

1Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Zürich, 2Institute of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, Zürich University of Applied Sciences

JoVE 51444

Dichloro{bis[1,1',1''-(phosphinetriyl)tripiperidine]}palladium [(P(NC5H10)3)2Pd(Cl)2] (1) is an easy accessible, cheap, and air stable, but highly active Heck catalyst with an excellent functional group tolerance that efficiently operates under mild reaction conditions to give the coupling products in very high yields.

 JoVE Engineering

Preparation and Use of Photocatalytically Active Segmented Ag|ZnO and Coaxial TiO2-Ag Nanowires Made by Templated Electrodeposition

1MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente

JoVE 51547

Procedures are outlined to prepare segmented and coaxial nanowires via templated electrodeposition in nanopores. As examples, segmented nanowires consisting of Ag and ZnO segments, and coaxial nanowires consisting of a TiO2 shell and a Ag core were made. The nanowires were used in photocatalytic hydrogen formation experiments.

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