Therapeutic compounds are often first examined in vitro with viability assays. Blind cell counts by a human observer can be highly sensitive to small changes in cell number but do not assess function. Computerized viability assays, as described here, can assess both structure and function in an objective manner.
1Biotactical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Science, Swinburne University of Technology, 2Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Melbourne
Infrared nerve stimulation has been proposed as an alternative to electrical stimulation in a range of nerve types, including those associated with the auditory system. This protocol describes a patch clamp method for studying the mechanism of infrared nerve stimulation in a culture of primary auditory neurons.
Published July 31, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Biomedical Engineering, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Primary Cell Culture, Biophysics, Electrophysiology, fiber optics, infrared neural stimulation, patch clamp, in vitro models, spiral ganglion neurons, neurons, patch clamp recordings, cell culture
1Diller Cancer Research Building, University of California, San Francisco
This protocol explores the latest advancements in performing Western blot analyses. These novel modifications employ a Bis-Tris gel system with a 35 min electrophoresis run time, a 7 min dry blotting transfer system, and infrared fluorescent protein detection and imaging that generates higher resolution, quality, sensitivity, and improved accuracy of Western data.
A Video Demonstration of Preserved Piloting by Scent Tracking but Impaired Dead Reckoning After Fimbria-Fornix Lesions in the Rat
In a piloting scent tracking task, the ability of the rats to return to a refuge with food using visual an odor trail or using dead reckoning in infrared light, the integrated record of previous movements, demonstrates that the hippocampus is necessary for dead reckoning.
Published April 24, 2009. Keywords: Neuroscience, Dead reckoning, fimbria-fornix, hippocampus, odor tracking, path integration, spatial learning, spatial navigation, piloting, rat, Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience
1Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago
The present article describes how to use eye tracking methodologies to study the cognitive processes involved in text comprehension. Descriptions of eye tracking equipment, how to develop experimental stimuli, and procedural recommendations are included. The information presented can be applied to most any study using verbal stimuli.
MazeSuite is a complete toolset to prepare, present and analyze navigational and spatial experiments. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIR) is an optical brain imaging technique that enables noninvasive and portable monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation changes. This paper summarizes collective use of MazeSuite and fNIR within a cognitive processing learning paradigm.
1Department of Physics, The State University of New York at Buffalo, 2Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland, 3The National Institute of Standards and Technology, 4Cryogenics and Fluids Branch, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 5HRL Laboratories
A method for permanently bonding two silicon wafers so as to realize a uniform enclosure is described. This includes wafer preparation, cleaning, RT bonding, and annealing processes. The resulting bonded wafers (cells) have uniformity of enclosure ~1%1,2. The resulting geometry allows for measurements of confined liquids and gasses.
Recently developed imaging techniques using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) may help elucidate the role the lymphatic system plays in cancer metastasis, immune response, wound repair, and other lymphatic-associated diseases.
Published March 8, 2013. Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Cancer Biology, Optical imaging, lymphatic imaging, mouse imaging, non-invasive imaging, near-infrared fluorescence, vasculature, circulatory system, lymphatic system, lymph, dermis, injection, imaging, mouse, animal model
We describe a set of techniques for studying spontaneous behavior of freely swimming weakly electric fish over an extended period of time, by synchronously measuring the animal's electric organ discharge timing, body position and posture both accurately and reliably in a specially designed aquarium tank inside a sensory isolation chamber.
Published March 6, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, animal tracking, weakly electric fish, electric organ discharge, underwater infrared imaging, automated image tracking, sensory isolation chamber, exploratory behavior
We describe a method for in-situ tapering of As2S3 fibers to achieve efficient mid-infrared supercontinuum generation. By tapering while monitoring the supercontinuum’s spectrum, the spectral width can be maximized for a fiber taper. In-situ fiber tapering can be applied to optimize the performance of other fiber-based devices.
Published May 27, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Engineering, Photonics, Optics, infrared spectra, nonlinear optics, optical fibers, optical waveguides, wave propagation (optics), fiber optics, infrared optics, fiber tapering, chalcogenide, supercontinuum generation, mid-infrared, in-situ, frequency comb, scanning electron microscopy, SEM