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  JoVE Biology

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  JoVE Neuroscience

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  JoVE Immunology and Infection

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  JoVE Medicine

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  JoVE Bioengineering

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  JoVE Engineering

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  JoVE Behavior

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  JoVE Developmental Biology


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 JoVE Bioengineering

Fluorescence-quenching of a Liposomal-encapsulated Near-infrared Fluorophore as a Tool for In Vivo Optical Imaging

1Experimental Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, Jena University Hospital, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, 3Center for Electron Microscopy, Jena University Hospital

JoVE 52136

The use of fluorophores for in vivo imaging can be greatly limited by opsonization, rapid clearance, low detection sensitivity and cytotoxic effects on the host. Encapsulation of fluorophores in liposomes by film hydration and extrusion leads to fluorescence quenching and protection which enables in vivo imaging with high detection sensitivity.

 JoVE Behavior

Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy of the Sensory and Motor Brain Regions with Simultaneous Kinematic and EMG Monitoring During Motor Tasks

1Functional and Applied Biomechanics Section, Rehabilitation Medicine Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health

JoVE 52391

Monitoring brain activity during upright motor tasks is of great value when investigating the neural source of movement disorders. Here, we demonstrate a protocol that combines functional near infrared spectroscopy with continuous monitoring of muscle and kinematic activity during 4 types of motor tasks.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Using MazeSuite and Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Study Learning in Spatial Navigation

1School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University, 2College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University

JoVE 3443

MazeSuite is a complete toolset to prepare, present and analyze navigational and spatial experiments. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIR) is an optical brain imaging technique that enables noninvasive and portable monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation changes. This paper summarizes collective use of MazeSuite and fNIR within a cognitive processing learning paradigm.

 JoVE Medicine

Tissue-simulating Phantoms for Assessing Potential Near-infrared Fluorescence Imaging Applications in Breast Cancer Surgery

1Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, 2Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, Technical University of Munich

JoVE 51776

Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging may improve therapeutic outcome of breast cancer surgery by enabling intraoperative tumor localization and evaluation of surgical margin status. Using tissue-simulating breast phantoms containing fluorescent tumor-simulating inclusions, potential clinical applications of NIRF imaging in breast cancer patients can be assessed for standardization and training purposes.

 JoVE Biology

Near Infrared (NIr) Light Increases Expression of a Marker of Mitochondrial Function in the Mouse Vestibular Sensory Epithelium

1Discipline of Physiology, University of Sydney, 2Discipline of Biomedical Science, University of Sydney

JoVE 52265

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of cellular senescence. This paper uses non-invasive near-infrared (NIr) treatment to improve mitochondrial function in the aging mouse vestibular sensory epithelium.

 JoVE Medicine

In vivo Near Infrared Fluorescence (NIRF) Intravascular Molecular Imaging of Inflammatory Plaque, a Multimodal Approach to Imaging of Atherosclerosis

1Cardiovascular Research Center and Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Helmholtz Zentrum München und Technische Universität München, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University

JoVE 2257

We detail a new near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) catheter for 2-dimensional intravascular molecular imaging of plaque biology in vivo. The NIRF catheter can visualize key biological processes such as inflammation by reporting on the presence of plaque-avid activatable and targeted NIR fluorochromes. The catheter utilizes clinical engineering and power requirements and is targeted for application in human coronary arteries. The following research study describes a multimodal imaging strategy that utilizes a novel in vivo intravascular NIRF catheter to image and quantify inflammatory plaque in proteolytically active inflamed rabbit atheromata.

 JoVE Biology

Method for the Assessment of Effects of a Range of Wavelengths and Intensities of Red/near-infrared Light Therapy on Oxidative Stress In Vitro

1Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, School of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia, 2School of Animal Biology and The Oceans Institute, The University of Western Australia, 3Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia

JoVE 52221

Non-coherent Xenon light was passed through narrow-band interference and neutral density filters to deliver light of varying wavelength and intensity to cultured cells. This protocol was used to assess the effects of red/near-infrared light therapy on production of reactive species in vitro: no effects were observed using the tested parameters.

 JoVE Medicine

Near Infrared Optical Projection Tomography for Assessments of β-cell Mass Distribution in Diabetes Research

1Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine, Umeå University, 2Cell Transplant Center, Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami,, 3EMBL-CRG Systems Biology Program, Centre for Genomic Regulation, Catalan Institute of Research and Advanced Studies, 4Dept. of Computing Science, Umeå University

JoVE 50238

We describe the adaptation of optical projection tomography (OPT)1 to imaging in the near infrared spectrum, and the implementation of a number of computational tools. These protocols enable assessments of pancreatic β-cell mass (BCM) in larger specimens, increase the multichannel capacity of the technique and increase the quality of OPT data.

 JoVE Biology

Exploring Cognitive Functions in Babies, Children & Adults with Near Infrared Spectroscopy

1Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 2Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough

JoVE 1268

Here we describe a data collection and data analysis method for functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a novel non-invasive brain imaging system used in cognitive neuroscience, particularly in studying child brain development. This method provides a universal standard of data acquisition and analysis vital to data interpretation and scientific discovery.

 JoVE Biology

Viability Assays for Cells in Culture

1Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mylan School of Pharmacy, Duquesne University

JoVE 50645

Therapeutic compounds are often first examined in vitro with viability assays. Blind cell counts by a human observer can be highly sensitive to small changes in cell number but do not assess function. Computerized viability assays, as described here, can assess both structure and function in an objective manner.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Whole Cell Patch Clamp for Investigating the Mechanisms of Infrared Neural Stimulation

1Biotactical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Science, Swinburne University of Technology, 2Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Melbourne

JoVE 50444

Infrared nerve stimulation has been proposed as an alternative to electrical stimulation in a range of nerve types, including those associated with the auditory system. This protocol describes a patch clamp method for studying the mechanism of infrared nerve stimulation in a culture of primary auditory neurons.

 JoVE Biology

The Fastest Western in Town: A Contemporary Twist on the Classic Western Blot Analysis

1Diller Cancer Research Building, University of California, San Francisco

JoVE 51149

This protocol explores the latest advancements in performing Western blot analyses. These novel modifications employ a Bis-Tris gel system with a 35 min electrophoresis run time, a 7 min dry blotting transfer system, and infrared fluorescent protein detection and imaging that generates higher resolution, quality, sensitivity, and improved accuracy of Western data.

 JoVE Medicine

Validation of Nanobody and Antibody Based In Vivo Tumor Xenograft NIRF-imaging Experiments in Mice Using Ex Vivo Flow Cytometry and Microscopy

1Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center, Hamburg, 2Institute of Immunology, University Medical Center, Hamburg, 3University Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center, Hamburg, 4Department of Oncology and Hematology, University Medical Center, Hamburg

JoVE 52462

This protocol outlines the steps required to perform ex vivo validation of in vivo near-infrared fluorescence xenograft imaging experiments in mice using fluorophore labelled nanobodies and conventional antibodies.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Gold Nanorod-assisted Optical Stimulation of Neuronal Cells

1Biotactical Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology

JoVE 52566

This protocol outlines how to use the transient heating associated with the optical absorption of gold nanorods to stimulate differentiation and intracellular calcium activity in neuronal cells. These results potentially open up new applications in neural prostheses and fundamental studies in neuroscience.

 JoVE Chemistry

Exfoliation of Egyptian Blue and Han Blue, Two Alkali Earth Copper Silicate-based Pigments

1Department of Chemistry, The University of Georgia

JoVE 51686

The preparation and exfoliation of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 are described. Upon stirring in hot water, CaCuSi4O10 spontaneously exfoliates into monolayers, whereas BaCuSi4O10 requires ultrasonication in organic solvents. Near infrared (NIR) imaging illustrates the NIR emission properties of these materials, and aqueous dispersions of these nanomaterials are useful for solution processing.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Non-invasive Optical Imaging of the Lymphatic Vasculature of a Mouse

1Center for Molecular Imaging (CMI), University of Texas Health Science Center-Houston

JoVE 4326

Recently developed imaging techniques using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) may help elucidate the role the lymphatic system plays in cancer metastasis, immune response, wound repair, and other lymphatic-associated diseases.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Long-term Behavioral Tracking of Freely Swimming Weakly Electric Fish

1Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, 3Centre for Neural Dynamics, University of Ottawa

JoVE 50962

We describe a set of techniques for studying spontaneous behavior of freely swimming weakly electric fish over an extended period of time, by synchronously measuring the animal's electric organ discharge timing, body position and posture both accurately and reliably in a specially designed aquarium tank inside a sensory isolation chamber.

 JoVE Behavior

fMRI Validation of fNIRS Measurements During a Naturalistic Task

1Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, 2Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, 3Department of Histology and Neurobiology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, 4ADAM Center, Department of Physical Therapy, Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, Northeastern University, 5Department of Neurobiology, Yale School of Medicine

JoVE 52116

We present a method to compare functional brain activity recorded during a naturalistic task using fNIRS with activity recorded during fMRI.

 JoVE Medicine

Dual-mode Imaging of Cutaneous Tissue Oxygenation and Vascular Function

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2Department of Biomedical Informatics, The Ohio State University, 3Comprehensive Wound Center, The Ohio State University, 4Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University

JoVE 2095

A dual-mode imaging system was developed for non-contact assessment of cutaneous tissue oxygenation and vascular function.

 JoVE Engineering

Integrating a Triplet-triplet Annihilation Up-conversion System to Enhance Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Response to Sub-bandgap Light

1ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science (ACES), Intelligent Polymer Research Institute (IPRI), The University of Wollongong, 2School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, 3School of Chemistry, The University of New South Wales

JoVE 52028

An integrated device, incorporating a dye-sensitized solar cell and triplet-triplet annihilation up-conversion unit was produced, affording enhanced light harvesting, from a wider section of the solar spectrum. Under modest irradiation levels a significantly enhanced response to low energy photons was demonstrated, yielding a record figure of merit for dye-sensitized solar cells.

 JoVE Medicine

Non-invasive Optical Measurement of Cerebral Metabolism and Hemodynamics in Infants

1Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Lab. PALM, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, 3Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4ISS, INC.

JoVE 4379

We combined frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy measures of cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation with diffuse correlation spectroscopy measures of cerebral blood flow index to estimate an index of oxygen metabolism. We tested the utility of this measure as a bedside screening tool to evaluate the health and development of the newborn brain.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Harmonic Nanoparticles for Regenerative Research

1Department of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 2Physics Department, GAP-Biophotonics, University of Geneva, 3Laboratoire d'Optique Biomédicale (LOB), Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de l'Ingénieur, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, 5School of Medicine and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, 6Nikon AG Instruments

JoVE 51333

Protocol details are provided for in vitro labeling human embryonic stem cells with second harmonic generating nanoparticles. Methodologies for hESC investigation by multi-photon microscopy and their differentiation into cardiac clusters are also presented.

 JoVE Chemistry

Mass Spectrometric Approaches to Study Protein Structure and Interactions in Lyophilized Powders

1Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University

JoVE 52503

Here, we present detailed protocols for solid-state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (ssHDX-MS) and solid-state photolytic labeling mass spectrometry (ssPL-MS) for proteins in solid powders. The methods provide high-resolution information on protein conformation and interactions in the amorphous solid-state, which may be useful in formulation design.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Optogenetic Stimulation of the Auditory Nerve

1InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 2Bernstein Focus for Neurotechnology, University of Goettingen, 3Auditory Systems Physiology Group, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 4Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, University of Goettingen, 5Department of Chemical, Electronic, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Guanajuato

JoVE 52069

Cochlear implants (CIs) enable hearing by direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. However, poor frequency and intensity resolution limits the quality of hearing with CIs. Here we describe optogenetic stimulation of the auditory nerve in mice as an alternative strategy for auditory research and developing future CIs.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Gold Nanostar Synthesis with a Silver Seed Mediated Growth Method

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., 3Department of Biology and Neurosciences Institute, The University of Texas at San Antonio

JoVE 3570

We synthesized star shaped gold nanostars using a silver seed mediated growth method. The diameter of the nanostars ranges from 200 to 300 nm and the number of tips vary from 7 to 10. The nanoparticles have a broad surface plasmon resonance mode centered in the near infrared.

 JoVE Engineering

Evaluating Plasmonic Transport in Current-carrying Silver Nanowires

1Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne CNRS-UMR 6303, Université de Bourgogne, 2Department of Optics and Optical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, 3CEMES, CNRS-UPR 8011

JoVE 51048

Silver nanowires can simultaneously transport electrons and optical information in the form of surface plasmons. A procedure is described here to realize such a shared circuitry and the limitations at propagating both information carriers are evaluated.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Hybrid µCT-FMT imaging and image analysis

1Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH Aachen University, 2Institute for Biomedical Engineering - Biointerface Laboratory, RWTH Aachen University, 3Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University

JoVE 52770

We describe a protocol for hybrid imaging, combining fluorescence-mediated tomography (FMT) with micro computed tomography (µCT). After fusion and reconstruction, we perform interactive organ segmentation to extract quantitative measurements of the fluorescence distribution.

 JoVE Biology

Combining Single-molecule Manipulation and Imaging for the Study of Protein-DNA Interactions

1LENS - European Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy, University of Florence, 2Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, 3Department of Biology, University of Florence, 4Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, 5National Institute of Optics-National Research Council, Italy, 6International Center of Computational Neurophotonics

JoVE 51446

Here we describe the instrumentation and methods for detecting single fluorescently-labeled protein molecules interacting with a single DNA molecule suspended between two optically trapped microspheres.

 JoVE Medicine

A Modified Heterotopic Swine Hind Limb Transplant Model for Translational Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) Research

1Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 50475

Vascularized Composite Allotransplantations (VCA) have become a clinical reality. However, broad clinical application of VCA is limited by chronic multi-drug immunosuppression. The authors present a reliable and reproducible large animal model to translate novel immunomodulatory strategies that can minimize or potentially eliminate the need of immunosuppression in VCA.

 JoVE Application Notes

Abcam Quantitative Cleaved PARP-1 High-Throughput In-Cell ELISA (ICE) Assay - ADVERTISEMENT

1Abcam, plc

JoVE 4200

Quantitative measurement of cleaved PARP-1 in fixed adherent or suspension cells by high-throughput In-Cell ELISA for using infra-red Li-Cor imaging system.

 JoVE Engineering

Simulation, Fabrication and Characterization of THz Metamaterial Absorbers

1School of Engineering, University of Glasgow

JoVE 50114

This protocol outlines the simulation, fabrication and characterization of THz metamaterial absorbers. Such absorbers, when coupled with an appropriate sensor, have applications in THz imaging and spectroscopy.

 JoVE Chemistry

Synthesis of Immunotargeted Magneto-plasmonic Nanoclusters

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 2Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

JoVE 52090

Here, we describe a protocol for synthesis of magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles with a strong magnetic moment and a strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance. The protocol also includes antibody conjugation to the nanoparticles through the Fc moiety for various biomedical applications which require molecular specific targeting.

 JoVE Engineering

Compact Quantum Dots for Single-molecule Imaging

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University, 2Department of Chemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology

JoVE 4236

We describe the preparation of colloidal quantum dots with minimized hydrodynamic size for single-molecule fluorescence imaging. Compared to conventional quantum dots, these nanoparticles are similar in size to globular proteins and are optimized for single-molecule brightness, stability against photodegradation, and resistance to nonspecific binding to proteins and cells.

 JoVE Bioengineering

3D Orbital Tracking in a Modified Two-photon Microscope: An Application to the Tracking of Intracellular Vesicles

1Biomedical Engineering, Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics, University of California, Irvine

JoVE 51794

In this video protocol we track - at high speed and in three dimensions - fluorescently labeled lysosomes within living cells, using the orbital tracking method in a modified two-photon microscope.

 JoVE Biology

Quantitative Immunofluorescence Assay to Measure the Variation in Protein Levels at Centrosomes

1Department of Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University

JoVE 52030

Here, a novel quantitative fluorescence assay is developed to measure changes in the level of a protein specifically at centrosomes by normalizing that protein’s fluorescence intensity to that of an appropriate internal standard.

 JoVE Engineering

Harvesting Solar Energy by Means of Charge-Separating Nanocrystals and Their Solids

1Department of Physics, Bowling Green State University, 2The Center for Photochemical Sciences, Bowling Green State University, 3Department of Chemistry, Bowling Green State University

JoVE 4296

A general strategy for the development of charge-separating semiconductor nanocrystal composites deployable for solar energy production is presented. We show that assembly of donor-acceptor nanocrystal domains in a single nanoparticle geometry gives rise to a photocatalytic function, while bulk-heterojunctions of donor-acceptor nanocrystal films can be used for photovoltaic energy conversion.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Imaging Denatured Collagen Strands In vivo and Ex vivo via Photo-triggered Hybridization of Caged Collagen Mimetic Peptides

1Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, 2Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Institute for NanoBiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University

JoVE 51052

This procedure demonstrates in vivo near IR fluorescence imaging of collagen remodeling activities in mice as well as ex vivo staining of collagens in tissue sections using caged collagen mimetic peptides that can be photo-triggered to hybridize with denatured collagen strands.

 JoVE Medicine

An “All-laser” Endothelial Transplant

1Institute of Applied Physics, Italian National Research Council, 2U.O. Oculistica, Nuovo Ospedale Santo Stefano

JoVE 52939

An all laser procedure is proposed in the endothelial transplant. The surgical technique is based on the use of a femtosecond laser to prepare the donor tissue. Laser welding technique is then used to secure the donor endothelium in the correct position.

 JoVE Engineering

Fabrication And Characterization Of Photonic Crystal Slow Light Waveguides And Cavities

1School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St Andrews

JoVE 50216

Use of photonic crystal slow light waveguides and cavities has been widely adopted by the photonics community in many differing applications. Therefore fabrication and characterization of these devices are of great interest. This paper outlines our fabrication technique and two optical characterization methods, namely: interferometric (waveguides) and resonant scattering (cavities).

 JoVE Environment

Multimodal Optical Microscopy Methods Reveal Polyp Tissue Morphology and Structure in Caribbean Reef Building Corals

1Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Department of Geology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 3Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JoVE 51824

An integrated suite of imaging techniques has been applied to determine polyp morphology and tissue structure in the Caribbean corals Montastraeaannularis and M. faveolata. Fluorescence, serial block face, and two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy have identified lobate structure, polyp walls, and estimated chromatophore and zooxanthellae densities and distributions.

 JoVE Medicine

Computed Tomography-guided Time-domain Diffuse Fluorescence Tomography in Small Animals for Localization of Cancer Biomarkers

1Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 3Darmouth Medical School, Dartmouth College, 4School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham

JoVE 4050

Diffuse fluorescence tomography offers a relatively low-cost and potentially high-throughout approach to preclinical in vivo tumor imaging. The methodology of optical data collection, calibration, and image reconstruction is presented for a computed tomography-guided non-contact time-domain system using fluorescent targeting of the tumor biomarker epidermal growth factor receptor in a mouse glioma model.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Localization and Relative Quantification of Carbon Nanotubes in Cells with Multispectral Imaging Flow Cytometry

1Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes (MSC), CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, 2ImagoSeine BioImaging Core Facility, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, 3Laboratoire d'Immunopathologie et Chimie Thérapeutique, CNRS/Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire

JoVE 50566

In this study, the main purpose was to monitor the cellular uptake and eventual exocytosis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). From this perspective, we proposed here a unique method using multispectral imaging flow cytometry allowing a quantification and localization of CNTs in a statistically relevant number of cells.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Local Application of Drugs to Study Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Function in Mouse Brain Slices

1Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University

JoVE 50034

In this paper, we describe a useful method to study ligand-gated ion channel function in neurons of acutely isolated brain slices. This method involves the use of a drug-filled micropipette for local application of drugs to neurons recorded using standard patch clamp techniques.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Viral Nanoparticles for In vivo Tumor Imaging

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Radiology, and Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University

JoVE 4352

Plant viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are promising platforms for applications in biomedicine. Here, we describe the procedures for plant VNP propagation, purification, characterization, and bioconjugation. Finally, we show the application of VNPs for tumor homing and imaging using a mouse xenograft model and fluorescence imaging.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Universal Hand-held Three-dimensional Optoacoustic Imaging Probe for Deep Tissue Human Angiography and Functional Preclinical Studies in Real Time

1Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, 2Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität München

JoVE 51864

We provide herein a detailed description of the experimental protocol for imaging with a newly developed hand-held optoacoustic (photoacoustic) system for three-dimensional functional and molecular imaging in real time. The demonstrated powerful performance and versatility may define new application areas of the optoacoustic technology in preclinical research and clinical practice.

 JoVE Medicine

A Piglet Model of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

1The Perinatal Research Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital

JoVE 52454

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following perinatal asphyxia can be studied using animal models. We demonstrate the procedures necessary for establishing a piglet model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

 JoVE Engineering

Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: A New Approach for Nanoparticle's Mapping and Quantification in Organ Tissue

1ILM-FENNEC UMR 5306, CNRS - Université Lyon 1, 2ILM-PUBLI UMR 5306, CNRS - Université Lyon 1, 3ILM-SOPRANO UMR 5306, CNRS - Université Lyon 1

JoVE 51353

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy performed on thin organ and tumor tissue successfully detected natural elements and artificially injected gadolinium (Gd), issued from Gd-based nanoparticles. Images of chemical elements reached a resolution of 100 μm and quantitative sub-mM sensitivity. The compatibility of the setup with standard optical microscopy emphasizes its potential to provide multiple images of a same biological tissue.

 JoVE Biology

Single Cell Fate Mapping in Zebrafish

1Division of Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 2Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

JoVE 3172

A method is described to photoactivate single cells containing a caged fluorescent protein using two-photon absorption from a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser oscillator. To fate map the photoactivated cell, immunohistochemistry is used. This technique can be applied to any cell type.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Two-photon Imaging of Cellular Dynamics in the Mouse Spinal Cord

1Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, 2Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, 3Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, 4University of California San Francisco Diabetes Center, University of California, San Francisco, 5Pathology, University of Utah

JoVE 52580

A new ex vivo preparation for imaging the mouse spinal cord. This protocol allows for two-photon imaging of live cellular interactions throughout the spinal cord.

 JoVE Medicine

In Vivo, Percutaneous, Needle Based, Optical Coherence Tomography of Renal Masses

1Department of Urology, Academic Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, 3Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center

JoVE 52574

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high resolution imaging technique that allows analysis of tissue specific optical properties providing the means for tissue differentiation. We developed needle based OCT, providing real-time imaging combined with on-the-spot tumor differentiation. This publication describes a method for percutaneous, needle based OCT of renal masses.

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