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Nerve Crush:
 JoVE Bioengineering

Using Microfluidics Chips for Live Imaging and Study of Injury Responses in Drosophila Larvae

1Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 4Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 5Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan


JoVE 50998

 JoVE Neuroscience

In vivo Imaging of Optic Nerve Fiber Integrity by Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Mice

1Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, 2Immunology, Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Fritz Lipmann Institute, Jena, 3Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Physics Group, Jena University Hospital


JoVE 51274

 JoVE Behavior

Electrophysiological Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) Measuring Compound Muscle Action Potential (CMAP) in Mouse Hindlimb Muscles

1Department of Neurology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, The Ohio State University, 3Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 4Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center


JoVE 52899

 JoVE Neuroscience

Live Imaging of Dorsal Root Axons after Rhizotomy

1Temple University, Shriners Hospitals Pediatric Research Center and Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, 2Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Hospital, 3Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, 4Shriners Hospitals Pediatric Research Center and Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Temple University School of Medicine


JoVE 3126

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Determining Immune System Suppression versus CNS Protection for Pharmacological Interventions in Autoimmune Demyelination

1Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 3Department of Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 4Center for Glial Biology and Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham


JoVE 54348

 Science Education: Essentials of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Lateral Canthotomy and Inferior Cantholysis

JoVE Science Education

Source: James W Bonz, MD, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Lateral canthotomy is a potentially eyesight saving procedure when performed emergently for an orbital compartment syndrome. An orbital compartment syndrome results from a buildup of pressure behind the eye; as pressure mounts both the optic nerve and its vascular supply are compressed, rapidly leading to nerve damage and blindness if the pressure is not quickly relieved. The medial and lateral canthal tendons hold the eyelids firmly in place forming an anatomical compartment with limited space for the globe. In an orbital compartment syndrome pressure rapidly increases as the globe is forced against the eyelids. Lateral canthotomy is the procedure by which the lateral canthal tendon is severed, thereby releasing the globe from its fixed position. Often, severing of the lateral canthal tendon alone is not enough to release the globe and the inferior portion (inferior crus) of the lateral canthal tendon also needs to be severed (inferior cantholysis). This increases precious space behind the eye by allowing the globe to become more proptotic and resulting in decompression. Most frequently, orbital compartment syndrome is the result of acute facial trauma with the subsequent development of a retrobulba

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 JoVE Neuroscience

In Vitro Recording of Mesenteric Afferent Nerve Activity in Mouse Jejunal and Colonic Segments

1Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Antwerp, 2Visceral Pain Group, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, 4Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Postgraduate Medicine, University of Hertfordshire, 5Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Antwerp University Hospital


JoVE 54576

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Motor Exam I

JoVE Science Education

Source: Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Abnormalities in the motor function are associated with a wide range of diseases, from movement disorders and myopathies to strokes. The motor assessment starts with observation of the patient. When the patient enters the examination area, the clinician observes their ability to walk unassisted and their speed and coordination while moving. Taking the patient's history provides an additional opportunity to observe for evidence of tremors or other abnormal movements, such as chorea or tardive dyskinesia. Such simple but important observations can yield valuable clues to the diagnosis and helps to focus the rest of the examination. The motor assessment continues in a systematic fashion, including inspection for muscle atrophy and abnormal movements, assessment of muscle tone, muscle strength testing, and finally, the examination of the muscle reflexes and coordination. The careful systematic testing of the motor system and the integration of all the findings provide insight to the level at which the motor pathway is affected, and also help the clinician to formulate the differential diagnosis and determine the course of the subsequent evaluation and treatment.

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