Stereotaxic surgery on rodents allows for targeted administration of drugs or electrical stimulation and recordings in awake, behaving animals. In this video presentation we will demonstrate recent procedural refinements to this long-standing procedure that successfully improved survival rate and reduced post-surgical weight loss.
April 2014: This Month in JoVE - Bioengineering for ACL Tears, Neuroscience behind Insect Locomotion, Improved Genetic Engineering of Crops, and Synthesizing Secret Ink
1Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2JoVE Content Production
Here's a look at what's coming up in the April 2014 issue of JoVE.
Published April 3, 2014. Keywords: This Month in JoVE, Anterior Cruciate Ligament, ACL, ACL tear, Bioengineering, Tissue Engineering, Neuroscience, Insect Locomotion, Nucleic Acids, Genetic Engineering, Agriculture, Ancient Pigments, Synthetic Pigments
Event-related potential (ERP) recording is under utilized in Cognitive Neuroscience because data acquisition techniques are not readily available and this method often has poor spatial resolution. To foster the increased use of ERPs in Cognitive Neuroscience, the present article details key techniques involved in high density ERP data acquisition.
1Cognitive Neuroscience & Neuropsychiatry Section, UCL Institute of Child Health, 2Academic Division of Neonatology, Institute for Women's Health, University College London
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in estimating the cortical sources of scalp measured electrical activity for cognitive neuroscience experiments. This article describes how high density EEG is acquired and how recordings are processed for cortical source estimation in children from the age of 2 years at the London Baby Lab.
1Department of Behavioral Physiology and Sociobiology (Zoology II) Biozentrum, University of Würzburg
Simultaneous extracellular long term recordings from two different brain neuropiles or two different anatomical tracts were established in honeybees. These recordings allow the investigation of temporal aspects of neuronal processing across different brain areas at the single neuron as well as at the ensemble level in a behaving animal.
A cGMP-applicable Expansion Method for Aggregates of Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells Derived From Pluripotent Stem Cells or Fetal Brain Tissue
1Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
This protocol describes a novel mechanical chopping method that allows the expansion of spherical neural stem and progenitor cell aggregates without dissociation to a single cell suspension. Maintaining cell/cell contact allows rapid and stable growth for over 40 passages.
Published June 15, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, neural progenitor cell, neural precursor cell, neural stem cell, passaging, neurosphere, chopping, stem cell, neuroscience, suspension culture, good manufacturing practice, GMP
1Department of Natural Sciences, Assumption College
Cell culture models provide detailed control over environmental conditions and thus provide a powerful platform to elucidate numerous aspects of neuronal cell biology. We describe a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable method to isolate, dissociate, and culture sensory neurons from chick embryos. Details of substrata preparation and immunocytochemistry are also provided.
High-throughput Analysis of Mammalian Olfactory Receptors: Measurement of Receptor Activation via Luciferase Activity
1Monell Chemical Senses Center
Olfactory receptor activation patterns encode odor identity, but the lack of published data identifying odorant ligands for mammalian olfactory receptors hinders the development of a comprehensive model of odor coding. This protocol describes a method to facilitate high-throughput identification of olfactory receptor ligands and quantification of receptor activation.
Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors
1UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London
The molecular mechanisms that co-ordinate the formation of inhibitory GABAergic synapses during ontogeny are largely unknown. To study these processes,we have developed a co-culture model system which incorporates embryonic medium spiny GABAergic neurons cultured together with stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells expressing functional GABAA receptors.
1The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences & Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
This manuscript describes a protocol that applies comprehensive profiling for analysis of transcriptional programs induced in specific brain nuclei of rodents following behavioral paradigms. Herein, this approach is illustrated in the context of profiling genes induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice following acute cocaine exposure, utilizing microfluidic qPCR arrays.
Published August 26, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Brain, behavior, RNA, transcription, nucleus accumbens, cocaine, high-throughput qPCR, experience-dependent plasticity, gene regulatory networks, microdissection
Transferring Cognitive Tasks Between Brain Imaging Modalities: Implications for Task Design and Results Interpretation in fMRI Studies
1Medical Imaging Physics (INM-4), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH, 2Computational and Systems Neuroscience (INM-6), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH
Transferring a paradigm with a history of use in EEG experiments to an fMRI experiment is considered. It is demonstrated that manipulating the task demands in the visual oddball task resulted in different patterns of BOLD activation and illustrated how task design is crucial in fMRI experiments.
Dual Electrophysiological Recordings of Synaptically-evoked Astroglial and Neuronal Responses in Acute Hippocampal Slices
The preparation of acute brain slices from isolated hippocampi, as well as the simultaneous electrophysiological recordings of astrocytes and neurons in stratum radiatum during stimulation of schaffer collaterals is described. The pharmacological isolation of astroglial potassium and glutamate transporter currents is demonstrated.
Published November 26, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Physiology, Anatomy, Medicine, hippocampus preparation, acute brain slice, electrophysiology, patch-clamp, neurons, astrocytes, astroglial, neuroglial interactions, glutamate transporter current, potassium current, paired recordings, synaptic activity, synaptically-evoked responses
1Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, and Friedman Brain Institute, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, New York University, 3Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University
Conditioned fear can be diminished through an inhibitory process called extinction, but can resurface under conditions such as the passage of time or exposure to stress. Our protocol presents a novel way of preventing fear recovery by introducing extinction during the reconsolidation window (the re-storage phase of a reactivated memory).
1Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, 2Stem Cell Institute, University of Connecticut, 3Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine
A technique to study NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes using a slice culture system of the forebrain and cerebellum is described. This method allows examination of the dynamics of proliferation and differentiation of cells within the oligodendrocyte lineage where the extracellular environment can be easily manipulated while maintaining tissue cytoarchitecture.
1Department of Physiology and Centre for Brain Research, University of Auckland, 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University
Pair recordings are simultaneous whole cell patch clamp recordings from two synaptically connected neurons, enabling precise electrophysiological and pharmacological characterization of the synapses between individual neurons. Here we describe the detailed methodology and requirements for establishing this technique in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures in any laboratory equipped for electrophysiology.
1Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, 2Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati
In Parkinson's disease and movement disorders in general, sensitive and reliable behavioral assays are essential for testing novel potential therapeutics. Here, we describe a manageable battery of sensorimotor tests for mice that are sensitive to varying degrees of injury to the nigrostriatal system and useful for preclinical studies.
Published June 17, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Psychology, Basal Ganglia Diseases, Parkinsonian Disorders, Parkinson Disease, Genetics, Behavioral, Psychopharmacology, sensory, motor, mouse, movement disorders, beam, cylinder, animal model
Multi-unit Recording Methods to Characterize Neural Activity in the Locust (Schistocerca Americana) Olfactory Circuits
We demonstrate variations of the extracellular multi-unit recording technique to characterize odor-evoked responses in the first three stages of the invertebrate olfactory pathway. These techniques can easily be adapted to examine ensemble activity in other neural systems as well.
Published January 25, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Physiology, Anatomy, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Entomology, Olfactory Receptor Neurons, Sensory Receptor Cells, Electrophysiology, Olfactory system, extracellular multi-unit recordings, first-order olfactory receptor neurons, second-order projection neurons, third-order Kenyon cells, neurons, sensilla, antenna, locust, Schistocerca Americana, animal model
Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents
1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki
This method creates a tangible, familiar environment for the mouse to navigate and explore during microscopic imaging or single-cell electrophysiological recordings, which require firm fixation of the animal’s head.
1Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, 2School of Biomedical Engineering and Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 4VA San Diego Healthcare System
Axonal transport of BDNF, a neurotrophic factor, is critical for the survival and function of several neuronal populations. Some degenerative disorders are marked by disruption of axonal structure and function. We demonstrated the techniques used to examine live trafficking of QD-BDNF in microfluidic chambers using primary neurons.
Generation of Topically Transgenic Rats by In utero Electroporation and In vivo Bioluminescence Screening
1Department of Neuropathology, Medical School Düsseldorf, 2Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute for Science, 3Center of Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Düsseldorf
Genes can be manipulated during development of the cortex or the hippocampus of the rat via in utero electroporation (IUE) at E16, to enable fast and targeted modifications in neuronal connectivity for later studies of behavior or neuropathology in adult animals. Postnatal in vivo imaging for control of IUE success is performed by bioluminescence of activating co-transfected luciferase.
1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami
We describe here a revised protocol for large-scale culture of embryonic C. elegans cells. Embryonic C. elegans cells cultured in vitro using this method, appear to differentiate and recapitulate the expression of genes in a cell specific manner. Techniques that require direct access to the cells or isolation of specific cell types from the other tissues can be applied on C. elegans cultured cells.
1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Potentiation of the startle reflex is measured via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle during low (uncertain) and high (certain) probability electric shock threat in the Threat Probability Task. This provides an objective measure of distinct negative emotional states (fear/anxiety) for research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse, and broad affective science.
Published September 12, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Startle; electromyography; shock; addiction; uncertainty; fear; anxiety; humans; psychophysiology; translational
1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, SMBS, University at Buffalo, SUNY, 2Department of Biochemistry, SMBS, University at Buffalo, SUNY, 3Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Department, The Scripps Research Institute, 4Department of Biochemistry and Graduate Program in Neuroscience, SMBS, University at Buffalo, SUNY
Described here is a procedure for obtaining long stretches of current recording from one ion channel with the cell-attached patch-clamp technique. This method allows for observing, in real time, the pattern of open-close channel conformations that underlie the biological signal. These data inform about channel properties in undisturbed biological membranes.
Preparation of Primary Neurons for Visualizing Neurites in a Frozen-hydrated State Using Cryo-Electron Tomography
1Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, 3Department of Neuroscience, University of California at San Diego, 4National Center for Macromolecular Imaging, Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine
To preserve neuronal processes for ultrastructural analysis, we describe a protocol for plating of primary neurons on electron microscopy grids followed by flash freezing, yielding samples suspended in a layer of vitreous ice. These samples can be examined with a cryo-electron microscope to visualize structures at the nanometer scale.
Mapping the After-effects of Theta Burst Stimulation on the Human Auditory Cortex with Functional Imaging
Auditory processing is the basis of speech and music-related processing. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) has been used successfully to study cognitive, sensory and motor systems but has rarely been applied to audition. Here we investigated TMS combined with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to understand the functional organization of auditory cortex.
Published September 12, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Physiology, Physics, Theta burst stimulation, functional magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, auditory cortex, frameless stereotaxy, sound, transcranial magnetic stimulation
Implementing Dynamic Clamp with Synaptic and Artificial Conductances in Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells
1Discipline of Biomedical Science, School of Medical Sciences, Sydney Medical School and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, 2The MARCS Institute, University of Western Sydney, 3Discipline of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Sydney Medical School and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney
This video article illustrates the set-up, the procedures to patch cell bodies and how to implement dynamic clamp recordings from ganglion cells in whole-mount mouse retinae. This technique allows the investigation of the precise contribution of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs, and their relative magnitude and timing to neuronal spiking.
Published May 16, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Neurons, Retinal Neurons, Retinal Ganglion Cells, Eye, Retina, Neurosciences, retina, ganglion cells, synaptic conductance, artificial conductance, tetrodotoxin (TTX), patch clamp, dynamic clamp, conductance clamp, electrophysiology, mouse, animal model
The Crossmodal Congruency Task as a Means to Obtain an Objective Behavioral Measure in the Rubber Hand Illusion Paradigm
We demonstrate how an objective measure can be employed in the widely employed rubber hand illusion paradigm. This measure is obtained by modifying the well-established crossmodal congruency task. This task allows the investigation of multisensory processes which are critical for modulations of body representations as in the rubber hand illusion.
Published July 26, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Psychology, Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms, Psychological Phenomena and Processes, Behavioral Sciences, rubber hand illusion, crossmodal congruency task, crossmodal congruency effect, multisensory processing, body ownership, peripersonal space, clinical techniques
1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of California Riverside, 2Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California Riverside, 3Center for Glial-Neuronal Interactions, University of California Riverside
Here we describe an adaptation of protocols used to induce homeostatic plasticity in neurons for the study of plasticity of astrocytic G protein-coupled receptors. Recently used to examine changes in astrocytic group I mGluRs in juvenile mice, the method can be applied to measure scaling of various astrocytic GPCRs, in tissue from adult mice in situ and in vivo, and to gain a better appreciation of the sensitivity of astrocytic receptors to changes in neuronal activity.
1Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California-Santa Cruz
Lipoxygenase (LOX) isozymes can generate products that may increase or decrease neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. A gene-environment interaction study could identify LOX isozyme-specific effects. Using the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of nigrostriatal damage in two LOX isozyme-deficient transgenic lines allows for comparison of the contribution of LOX isozymes on dopaminergic integrity and inflammation.
Published January 7, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, MPTP, dopamine, Iba1, TH, GFAP, lipoxygenase, transgenic, gene-environment interactions, mouse, Parkinson's disease, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation
1Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, 2School of Healthcare Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University
This article describes the use of chronic resident intruder social stress as an ethologically relevant paradigm to model postpartum depression and anxiety in lactating rodents.
Published June 10, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Physiology, Anatomy, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Neurobehavioral Manifestations, Mental Health, Mood Disorders, Depressive Disorder, Anxiety Disorders, behavioral sciences, Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms, Mental Disorders, Stress, Depression, Anxiety, Postpartum, Maternal Behavior, Nursing, Growth, Transgenerational, animal model
Slow-release Drug Delivery through Elvax 40W to the Rat Retina: Implications for the Treatment of Chronic Conditions
1Biotechnology and Applied Clinical Sciences Department, University of L'Aquila, 2ARC Centre of Excellence in Vision Science, 3John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, 4ANU Medical School, Australian National University
This paper details how Elvax 40W can be used as a slow-release method for drug delivery to the adult rat retina. The protocol for preparing, loading, and delivering the drug-resin complex to the eye is described.
Extracting Visual Evoked Potentials from EEG Data Recorded During fMRI-guided Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University
This paper describes a method for collecting and analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) data during concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) guided by activations revealed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A method for TMS artifact removal and extraction of event related potentials is described as well as considerations in paradigm design and experimental setup.
Published May 12, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Neuroimaging, Neuronavigation, Visual Perception, Evoked Potentials, Electroencephalography, Event-related potential, fMRI, Combined Neuroimaging Methods, Face perception, Body Perception
1Materials Engineering Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2UCSF Center for Integrative Neuroscience and the Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco
Insertion of flexible neural microelectrode probes is enabled by attaching probes to rigid stiffeners with polyethylene glycol (PEG). A unique assembly process ensures uniform and repeatable attachment. After insertion into tissue, the PEG dissolves and the stiffener is extracted. An in vitro test method evaluates the technique in agarose gel.
Published September 27, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Nervous System Diseases, Surgical Procedures, Operative, Investigative Techniques, Nonmetallic Materials, Engineering (General), neural interfaces, polymer neural probes, surgical insertion, polyethylene glycol, microelectrode arrays, chronic implantation
A Video Demonstration of Preserved Piloting by Scent Tracking but Impaired Dead Reckoning After Fimbria-Fornix Lesions in the Rat
In a piloting scent tracking task, the ability of the rats to return to a refuge with food using visual an odor trail or using dead reckoning in infrared light, the integrated record of previous movements, demonstrates that the hippocampus is necessary for dead reckoning.
Published April 24, 2009. Keywords: Neuroscience, Dead reckoning, fimbria-fornix, hippocampus, odor tracking, path integration, spatial learning, spatial navigation, piloting, rat, Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience
Stereotaxic Microinjection of Viral Vectors Expressing Cre Recombinase to Study the Role of Target Genes in Cocaine Conditioned Place Preference
1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Weill Cornell Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 2Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College
This article describes how to microinject viral vectors into mouse brain and then test in a conditioned place preference paradigm that includes an acquisition, extinction and reinstatement phase.
Published July 30, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Pharmacology, Animals, Genetically Modified, Behavior, Animal, Drug-Seeking Behavior, Psychophysiology, Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms, viral vectors, stereotaxic surgery, microinjection, conditioned place preference, mouse, behavior, neuroscience, extinction, cocaine-induced reinstatement, animal model
1Neuroglial Interactions in Cerebral Physiopathology, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology, CNRS UMR 7241, INSERM U1050, Collège de France, 2Infantile Epilepsies & Brain Plasticity, INSERM U1129, PRES, Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CEA, 3Neurosurgery Department, Necker Hospital, AP-HP, Paris Descartes University, 4Rare Epilepsies Reference Center, Necker Hospital, AP-HP, Paris Descartes University, 5Neurophysiology Department, La Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, Sorbonne and Pierre and Marie Curie University
We here describe how to perform multi-electrode array recordings of human epileptic cortical tissue. Epileptic tissue resection, slice preparation and multi-electrode array recordings of interictal and ictal events are demonstrated in detail.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Investigating Causal Brain-behavioral Relationships and their Time Course
1Cognitive, Perceptual & Brain Sciences, University College London
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique for non-invasively disrupting neural information processing and measuring its effect on behavior. When TMS interferes with a task, it indicates that the stimulated brain region is necessary for normal task performance, allowing one to systematically relate brain regions to cognitive functions.
Methods to Characterize Spontaneous and Startle-induced Locomotion in a Rotenone-induced Parkinson's Disease Model of Drosophila
1Department of Biology, Colby College
Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system, causing locomotion defects. Rotenone models Parkinson’s disease in Drosophila. This paper outlines two assays that characterize both spontaneous and startle-induced locomotion deficiencies caused by rotenone.
The Rabbit Blood-shunt Model for the Study of Acute and Late Sequelae of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Technical Aspects
1Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University and Bern University Hospital (Inselspital), 2Department of Neurosurgery, Kantonsspital Aarau, 3Laboratories for Neuroscience Research in Neurosurgery, Boston Children's Hospital, 4Harvard Medical School, Boston Children's Hospital, 5Department of Neurosurgery, University and Bern University Hospital (Inselspital), 6Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Cologne, 7Institute of Pathology, Länggasse Bern
The experimental intracranial pressure-controlled blood shunt subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model in the rabbit combines the standard procedures — subclavian artery cannulation and transcutaneous cisterna magna puncture, which enables close mimicking of human pathophysiological conditions after SAH. We present step-by-step instructions and discuss key surgical points for successful experimental SAH creation.
1Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, 2Departments of Neurobiology and Cell Biology, Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, Duke University Medical Center
Neural progenitor mitosis is a critical parameter of neurogenesis. Much of our understanding of neural progenitor mitosis is based on analysis of fixed tissue. Live imaging in embryonic brain slices is a versatile technique to assess mitosis with high temporal and spatial resolution in a controlled environment.
1Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 2Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, and Ophthalamology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Radiation Oncology & Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, University Of Washington Medical Center, 5Institute for Cell Engineering and High-Throughput Biology Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
The function of adult-born mammalian neurons remains an active area of investigation. Ionizing radiation inhibits the birth of new neurons. Using computer tomography-guided focal irradiation (CFIR), three-dimensional anatomical targeting of specific neural progenitor populations can now be used to assess the functional role of adult neurogenesis.
Published November 14, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neural Stem Cells (NSCs), Body Weight, Radiotherapy, Image-Guided, Metabolism, Energy Metabolism, Neurogenesis, Cell Proliferation, Neurosciences, Irradiation, Radiological treatment, Computer-tomography (CT) imaging, Hypothalamus, Hypothalamic Proliferative Zone (HPZ), Median Eminence (ME), Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP)
1Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam
Reading in color is a new method for training letter-color associations that are typically found only in grapheme-color synesthetes. It involves an implicit form of training that has potential for long-term associative training methods because the training is a byproduct of reading and any text can be colored.
1Department of Neurobiology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
In this paper we show a method for preparing acute brain slices in physiological temperature, using a conventional physiological solution without special modifications for the cutting (such as adding sucrose) and without intracardial perfusion of the animal before slice preparation.
1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin
This article describes how to record amygdala activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). In addition this article will describe how to conduct trace fear conditioning without awareness, a task that activates the amygdala. It will cover 3 topics: 1) Designing a trace conditioning paradigm using backward masking to manipulate awareness. 2) Recording brain activity during the task using magnetoencephalography. 3) Using source imaging to recover signal from subcortical structures.
Published June 3, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Physiology, Anatomy, Psychology, Amygdala, Magnetoencephalography, Fear, awareness, masking, source imaging, conditional stimulus, unconditional stimulus, hippocampus, brain, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, fMRI, imaging, clinical techniques
Imaging Analysis of Neuron to Glia Interaction in Microfluidic Culture Platform (MCP)-based Neuronal Axon and Glia Co-culture System
This study describes the procedures of setting up a novel neuronal axon and (astro)glia co-culture platform. In this co-culture system, manipulation of direct interaction between a single axon (and single glial cell) becomes feasible, allowing mechanistic analysis of the mutual neuron to glial signaling.
Published October 14, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biophysics, Microfluidics, Microfluidic culture platform, Compartmented culture, Neuron to glia signaling, neurons, glia, cell culture
1NRW Research Group 'Dendritic integration in the CNS', Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, 2Neuronal Networks Group, Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen e.V. (DZNE)
In this article we introduce fast micro-iontophoresis of neurotransmitters as a technique to investigate integration of postsynaptic signals with high spatial and temporal precision.
Published July 31, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Biochemistry, biology (general), animal biology, Nervous System, Life Sciences (General), Neurosciences, brain slices, dendrites, inhibition, excitation, glutamate, GABA, micro-iontophoresis, iontophoresis, neurons, patch clamp, whole cell recordings
A Highly Reproducible and Straightforward Method to Perform In Vivo Ocular Enucleation in the Mouse after Eye Opening
1Department of Biology, KU Leuven - University of Leuven
The removal of eyes, also called enucleation, provides a useful strategy to study aspects of visual, cross-modal, and developmental plasticity along the mammalian visual system since it induces irreversible partial (monocular) or complete (binocular) vision loss. Here we describe a highly reproducible and straightforward approach to perform in vivo enucleation.
Ex utero Electroporation and Whole Hemisphere Explants: A Simple Experimental Method for Studies of Early Cortical Development
This protocol describes an improved explant procedure that involves ex utero electroporation, dissection and culture of entire cerebral hemispheres from the embryonic mouse. The preparation facilitates pharmacological studies and assays of gene function during early cortical development.
Published April 3, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Genetics, Neurobiology, Developmental Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Bioengineering, Tissue Engineering, preplate splitting, in vitro preparation, dendritogenesis, gene function assay, in utero electroporation, GFP, hemisphere explants, gene expression, plasmid, explant, tissue, cell culture, tissue culture, animal model
Use of the Operant Orofacial Pain Assessment Device (OPAD) to Measure Changes in Nociceptive Behavior
1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Florida College of Dentistry, 2Department of Neuroscience, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, 3Stoelting Co., 4Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida
We present a user-friendly, high-throughput operant system for the evaluation of pain behaviors in awake, conscious rodents. The Orofacial Pain Assessment Device (OPAD) can assess pain through a reward/conflict paradigm thus providing a more humane way of testing. This protocol will yield more clinically relevant and translational data from rodents.
Published June 10, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Surgery, Neurologic Manifestations, Pain, Chronic Pain, Nociceptive Pain, Acute Pain, Pain Perception, Operant, mouse, rat, analgesia, nociception, thermal, hyperalgesia, animal model