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JoVE Science Education

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Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
 JoVE Neuroscience

Rodent Stereotaxic Surgery and Animal Welfare Outcome Improvements for Behavioral Neuroscience

1Department of Neuroscience, Section Anatomy, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 2Animal Welfare Office, University of Groningen


JoVE 3528

Stereotaxic surgery on rodents allows for targeted administration of drugs or electrical stimulation and recordings in awake, behaving animals. In this video presentation we will demonstrate recent procedural refinements to this long-standing procedure that successfully improved survival rate and reduced post-surgical weight loss.

 JoVE Editorial

April 2014: This Month in JoVE - Bioengineering for ACL Tears, Neuroscience behind Insect Locomotion, Improved Genetic Engineering of Crops, and Synthesizing Secret Ink

1Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2JoVE Content Production


JoVE 5323

Here's a look at what's coming up in the April 2014 issue of JoVE.

 JoVE Neuroscience

High Density Event-related Potential Data Acquisition in Cognitive Neuroscience

1Department of Psychology, Boston College


JoVE 1945

Event-related potential (ERP) recording is under utilized in Cognitive Neuroscience because data acquisition techniques are not readily available and this method often has poor spatial resolution. To foster the increased use of ERPs in Cognitive Neuroscience, the present article details key techniques involved in high density ERP data acquisition.

 JoVE Behavior

Cortical Source Analysis of High-Density EEG Recordings in Children

1Cognitive Neuroscience & Neuropsychiatry Section, UCL Institute of Child Health, 2Academic Division of Neonatology, Institute for Women's Health, University College London


JoVE 51705

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in estimating the cortical sources of scalp measured electrical activity for cognitive neuroscience experiments. This article describes how high density EEG is acquired and how recordings are processed for cortical source estimation in children from the age of 2 years at the London Baby Lab.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Simultaneous Long-term Recordings at Two Neuronal Processing Stages in Behaving Honeybees

1Department of Behavioral Physiology and Sociobiology (Zoology II) Biozentrum, University of Würzburg


JoVE 51750

Simultaneous extracellular long term recordings from two different brain neuropiles or two different anatomical tracts were established in honeybees. These recordings allow the investigation of temporal aspects of neuronal processing across different brain areas at the single neuron as well as at the ensemble level in a behaving animal.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A cGMP-applicable Expansion Method for Aggregates of Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells Derived From Pluripotent Stem Cells or Fetal Brain Tissue

1Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center


JoVE 51219

This protocol describes a novel mechanical chopping method that allows the expansion of spherical neural stem and progenitor cell aggregates without dissociation to a single cell suspension.  Maintaining cell/cell contact allows rapid and stable growth for over 40 passages.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Rapid Genotyping of Animals Followed by Establishing Primary Cultures of Brain Neurons

1Department of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 3EZ BioResearch LLC


JoVE 51879

We describe procedures for labeling and genotyping newborn mice and generating primary neuronal cultures from them. The genotyping is rapid, efficient and reliable, and allows for automated nucleic-acid extraction. This is especially useful for neonatally lethal mice and their cultures that require prior completion of genotyping.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Simple and Inexpensive Method for Determining Cold Sensitivity and Adaptation in Mice

1MSTP, Neuroscience Program, Washington University in St. Louis, 2Washington University Pain Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University in St. Louis


JoVE 52640

The Cold Plantar Assay (CPA) measures cold responsiveness between 30 °C and 5 °C, and can also measure cold adaptation. This protocol describes how to use the CPA to measure cold hypersensitivity, analgesia, and adaptation in mice.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Isolation and Culture of Dissociated Sensory Neurons From Chick Embryos

1Department of Natural Sciences, Assumption College


JoVE 51991

Cell culture models provide detailed control over environmental conditions and thus provide a powerful platform to elucidate numerous aspects of neuronal cell biology. We describe a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable method to isolate, dissociate, and culture sensory neurons from chick embryos. Details of substrata preparation and immunocytochemistry are also provided.

 JoVE Behavior

Modulating Cognition Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Cerebellum

1School of Psychology, University of Birmingham


JoVE 52302

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the cerebellum exerts a remote effect on the prefrontal cortex, which can modulate cognition and performance. This was demonstrated using two information-processing tasks of varying complexity, whereby only cathodal tDCS improved performance when the task was difficult, but not easy.

 JoVE Neuroscience

High-throughput Analysis of Mammalian Olfactory Receptors: Measurement of Receptor Activation via Luciferase Activity

1Monell Chemical Senses Center


JoVE 51640

Olfactory receptor activation patterns encode odor identity, but the lack of published data identifying odorant ligands for mammalian olfactory receptors hinders the development of a comprehensive model of odor coding. This protocol describes a method to facilitate high-throughput identification of olfactory receptor ligands and quantification of receptor activation.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors

1UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London


JoVE 52115

The molecular mechanisms that co-ordinate the formation of inhibitory GABAergic synapses during ontogeny are largely unknown. To study these processes,we have developed a co-culture model system which incorporates embryonic medium spiny GABAergic neurons cultured together with stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells expressing functional GABAA receptors.

 JoVE Behavior

Comprehensive Analysis of Transcription Dynamics from Brain Samples Following Behavioral Experience

1The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences & Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem


JoVE 51642

This manuscript describes a protocol that applies comprehensive profiling for analysis of transcriptional programs induced in specific brain nuclei of rodents following behavioral paradigms. Herein, this approach is illustrated in the context of profiling genes induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice following acute cocaine exposure, utilizing microfluidic qPCR arrays.

 JoVE Behavior

Transferring Cognitive Tasks Between Brain Imaging Modalities: Implications for Task Design and Results Interpretation in fMRI Studies

1Medical Imaging Physics (INM-4), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH, 2Computational and Systems Neuroscience (INM-6), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH


JoVE 51793

Transferring a paradigm with a history of use in EEG experiments to an fMRI experiment is considered. It is demonstrated that manipulating the task demands in the visual oddball task resulted in different patterns of BOLD activation and illustrated how task design is crucial in fMRI experiments.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Closed-loop Neuro-robotic Experiments to Test Computational Properties of Neuronal Networks

1Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia


JoVE 52341

In this paper, an experimental framework to perform closed-loop experiments is presented, in which information processing (i.e., coding and decoding) and learning of neuronal assemblies are studied during the continuous interaction with a robotic body.

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Organotypic Slice Cultures for Studies of Postnatal Neurogenesis

1Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, 2Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 3Department of Education and Research, Taipei City Hospital


JoVE 52353

Here we describe a technique for studying hippocampal postnatal neurogenesis using the organotypic slice culture technique. This method allows for in vitro manipulation of adult neurogenesis and allows for the direct application of pharmacological agents to the cultured hippocampus.

 JoVE Behavior

Signal Attenuation as a Rat Model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University


JoVE 52287

The goal of the protocol described in this paper is to induce compulsive-like behavior in rats for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This behavior is precipitated by attenuating a signal indicating that a lever-press response was effective in producing food.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Environmental Modulations of the Number of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons in Adult Mice

1Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne


JoVE 52329

This protocol describes two different environmental manipulations and a concurrent brain infusion protocol to study environmentally-induced brain changes underlying adaptive behavior and brain repair in adult mice.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Dual Electrophysiological Recordings of Synaptically-evoked Astroglial and Neuronal Responses in Acute Hippocampal Slices

1Neuroglial Interactions in Cerebral Physiopathology, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology, CNRS UMR 7241, INSERM U1050, Collège de France, 2Paris Diderot University


JoVE 4418

The preparation of acute brain slices from isolated hippocampi, as well as the simultaneous electrophysiological recordings of astrocytes and neurons in stratum radiatum during stimulation of schaffer collaterals is described. The pharmacological isolation of astroglial potassium and glutamate transporter currents is demonstrated.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Novel Atomic Force Microscopy Based Biopanning for Isolation of Morphology Specific Reagents against TDP-43 Variants in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

1School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, 2Department of Neurology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3Department of Pathology, Georgetown University Medical Center


JoVE 52584

Using atomic force microscopy in combination with biopanning technology we created a negative and positive biopanning system to acquire antibodies against disease-specific protein variants present in any biological material, even at low concentrations. We were successful in obtaining antibodies to TDP-43 protein variants involved in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

 JoVE Developmental Biology

An Optogenetic Approach for Assessing Formation of Neuronal Connections in a Co-culture System

1Neuroscience & Behavioral Disorders, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, 2Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University


JoVE 52408

A protocol to generate a co-culture system consisting of neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), primary cortical neurons and astrocytes is described. This co-culture system allows detection of the formation of synaptic contacts and circuits between new, iPSC-derived neurons and pre-existing cortical neurons expressing channelrhodopsin-2.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Extinction Training During the Reconsolidation Window Prevents Recovery of Fear

1Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, and Friedman Brain Institute, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, New York University, 3Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University


JoVE 3893

Conditioned fear can be diminished through an inhibitory process called extinction, but can resurface under conditions such as the passage of time or exposure to stress. Our protocol presents a novel way of preventing fear recovery by introducing extinction during the reconsolidation window (the re-storage phase of a reactivated memory).

 JoVE Neuroscience

Organotypic Slice Cultures to Study Oligodendrocyte Dynamics and Myelination

1Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, 2Stem Cell Institute, University of Connecticut, 3Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine


JoVE 51835

A technique to study NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes using a slice culture system of the forebrain and cerebellum is described. This method allows examination of the dynamics of proliferation and differentiation of cells within the oligodendrocyte lineage where the extracellular environment can be easily manipulated while maintaining tissue cytoarchitecture.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Paired Whole Cell Recordings in Organotypic Hippocampal Slices

1Department of Physiology and Centre for Brain Research, University of Auckland, 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University


JoVE 51958

Pair recordings are simultaneous whole cell patch clamp recordings from two synaptically connected neurons, enabling precise electrophysiological and pharmacological characterization of the synapses between individual neurons. Here we describe the detailed methodology and requirements for establishing this technique in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures in any laboratory equipped for electrophysiology.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Investigating the Function of Deep Cortical and Subcortical Structures Using Stereotactic Electroencephalography: Lessons from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

1Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 3Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 4School of Medicine, King's College London


JoVE 52773

Stereotactic Electroencephalography (SEEG) is an operative technique used in epilepsy surgery to help localize seizure foci. It also affords a unique opportunity to investigate brain function. Here we describe how SEEG can be used to investigate cognitive processes in human subjects.

 JoVE Behavior

Assessment of Sensorimotor Function in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

1Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, 2Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati


JoVE 50303

In Parkinson's disease and movement disorders in general, sensitive and reliable behavioral assays are essential for testing novel potential therapeutics. Here, we describe a manageable battery of sensorimotor tests for mice that are sensitive to varying degrees of injury to the nigrostriatal system and useful for preclinical studies.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Multi-unit Recording Methods to Characterize Neural Activity in the Locust (Schistocerca Americana) Olfactory Circuits

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis


JoVE 50139

We demonstrate variations of the extracellular multi-unit recording technique to characterize odor-evoked responses in the first three stages of the invertebrate olfactory pathway. These techniques can easily be adapted to examine ensemble activity in other neural systems as well.

 JoVE Behavior

Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents

1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki


JoVE 51869

This method creates a tangible, familiar environment for the mouse to navigate and explore during microscopic imaging or single-cell electrophysiological recordings, which require firm fixation of the animal’s head.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Real-time Imaging of Axonal Transport of Quantum Dot-labeled BDNF in Primary Neurons

1Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, 2School of Biomedical Engineering and Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 4VA San Diego Healthcare System


JoVE 51899

Axonal transport of BDNF, a neurotrophic factor, is critical for the survival and function of several neuronal populations. Some degenerative disorders are marked by disruption of axonal structure and function. We demonstrated the techniques used to examine live trafficking of QD-BDNF in microfluidic chambers using primary neurons.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Generation of Topically Transgenic Rats by In utero Electroporation and In vivo Bioluminescence Screening

1Department of Neuropathology, Medical School Düsseldorf, 2Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute for Science, 3Center of Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Düsseldorf


JoVE 50146

Genes can be manipulated during development of the cortex or the hippocampus of the rat via in utero electroporation (IUE) at E16, to enable fast and targeted modifications in neuronal connectivity for later studies of behavior or neuropathology in adult animals. Postnatal in vivo imaging for control of IUE success is performed by bioluminescence of activating co-transfected luciferase.

 JoVE Biology

A Method for Culturing Embryonic C. elegans Cells

1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami


JoVE 50649

We describe here a revised protocol for large-scale culture of embryonic C. elegans cells. Embryonic C. elegans cells cultured in vitro using this method, appear to differentiate and recapitulate the expression of genes in a cell specific manner. Techniques that require direct access to the cells or isolation of specific cell types from the other tissues can be applied on C. elegans cultured cells.

 JoVE Behavior

Using the Threat Probability Task to Assess Anxiety and Fear During Uncertain and Certain Threat

1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison


JoVE 51905

Potentiation of the startle reflex is measured via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle during low (uncertain) and high (certain) probability electric shock threat in the Threat Probability Task. This provides an objective measure of distinct negative emotional states (fear/anxiety) for research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse, and broad affective science.

 JoVE Biology

One-channel Cell-attached Patch-clamp Recording

1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, SMBS, University at Buffalo, SUNY, 2Department of Biochemistry, SMBS, University at Buffalo, SUNY, 3Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Department, The Scripps Research Institute, 4Department of Biochemistry and Graduate Program in Neuroscience, SMBS, University at Buffalo, SUNY


JoVE 51629

Described here is a procedure for obtaining long stretches of current recording from one ion channel with the cell-attached patch-clamp technique. This method allows for observing, in real time, the pattern of open-close channel conformations that underlie the biological signal. These data inform about channel properties in undisturbed biological membranes.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Preparation of Primary Neurons for Visualizing Neurites in a Frozen-hydrated State Using Cryo-Electron Tomography

1Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, 3Department of Neuroscience, University of California at San Diego, 4National Center for Macromolecular Imaging, Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine


JoVE 50783

To preserve neuronal processes for ultrastructural analysis, we describe a protocol for plating of primary neurons on electron microscopy grids followed by flash freezing, yielding samples suspended in a layer of vitreous ice. These samples can be examined with a cryo-electron microscope to visualize structures at the nanometer scale.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Design, Surface Treatment, Cellular Plating, and Culturing of Modular Neuronal Networks Composed of Functionally Inter-connected Circuits

1Department of Neurobiology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 3School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, 4School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, 5Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and System Engineering, University of Genova


JoVE 52572

This manuscript describes a protocol to grow in vitro modular networks consisting of spatially confined, functionally inter-connected neuronal circuits. A polymeric mask is used to pattern a protein layer to promote cellular adhesion over the culturing substrate. Plated neurons grow on coated areas establishing spontaneous connections and exhibiting electrophysiological activity.

 JoVE Biology

Mapping the After-effects of Theta Burst Stimulation on the Human Auditory Cortex with Functional Imaging

1Montreal Neurological Institute and International laboratory for Brain, Music, and Sound (BRAMS), McGill University


JoVE 3985

Auditory processing is the basis of speech and music-related processing. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) has been used successfully to study cognitive, sensory and motor systems but has rarely been applied to audition. Here we investigated TMS combined with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to understand the functional organization of auditory cortex.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Implementing Dynamic Clamp with Synaptic and Artificial Conductances in Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells

1Discipline of Biomedical Science, School of Medical Sciences, Sydney Medical School and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, 2The MARCS Institute, University of Western Sydney, 3Discipline of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Sydney Medical School and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney


JoVE 50400

This video article illustrates the set-up, the procedures to patch cell bodies and how to implement dynamic clamp recordings from ganglion cells in whole-mount mouse retinae. This technique allows the investigation of the precise contribution of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs, and their relative magnitude and timing to neuronal spiking.

 JoVE Behavior

The Crossmodal Congruency Task as a Means to Obtain an Objective Behavioral Measure in the Rubber Hand Illusion Paradigm

1Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, 2ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, 3Department of Psychology, Macquarie University


JoVE 50530

We demonstrate how an objective measure can be employed in the widely employed rubber hand illusion paradigm. This measure is obtained by modifying the well-established crossmodal congruency task. This task allows the investigation of multisensory processes which are critical for modulations of body representations as in the rubber hand illusion.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Inducing Plasticity of Astrocytic Receptors by Manipulation of Neuronal Firing Rates

1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of California Riverside, 2Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California Riverside, 3Center for Glial-Neuronal Interactions, University of California Riverside


JoVE 51458

Here we describe an adaptation of protocols used to induce homeostatic plasticity in neurons for the study of plasticity of astrocytic G protein-coupled receptors. Recently used to examine changes in astrocytic group I mGluRs in juvenile mice, the method can be applied to measure scaling of various astrocytic GPCRs, in tissue from adult mice in situ and in vivo, and to gain a better appreciation of the sensitivity of astrocytic receptors to changes in neuronal activity.

 JoVE Medicine

Gene-environment Interaction Models to Unmask Susceptibility Mechanisms in Parkinson's Disease

1Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California-Santa Cruz


JoVE 50960

Lipoxygenase (LOX) isozymes can generate products that may increase or decrease neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. A gene-environment interaction study could identify LOX isozyme-specific effects. Using the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of nigrostriatal damage in two LOX isozyme-deficient transgenic lines allows for comparison of the contribution of LOX isozymes on dopaminergic integrity and inflammation.

 JoVE Behavior

Using Chronic Social Stress to Model Postpartum Depression in Lactating Rodents

1Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, 2School of Healthcare Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University


JoVE 50324

This article describes the use of chronic resident intruder social stress as an ethologically relevant paradigm to model postpartum depression and anxiety in lactating rodents.

 JoVE Medicine

Slow-release Drug Delivery through Elvax 40W to the Rat Retina: Implications for the Treatment of Chronic Conditions

1Biotechnology and Applied Clinical Sciences Department, University of L'Aquila, 2ARC Centre of Excellence in Vision Science, 3John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, 4ANU Medical School, Australian National University


JoVE 51563

This paper details how Elvax 40W can be used as a slow-release method for drug delivery to the adult rat retina. The protocol for preparing, loading, and delivering the drug-resin complex to the eye is described.

 JoVE Behavior

Operant Procedures for Assessing Behavioral Flexibility in Rats

1Department of Psychology, St. Mary's College of Maryland, 2Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia


JoVE 52387

The ability to assess executive functions such as behavioral flexibility in rats is useful for investigating the neurobiology of cognition in both intact animals and disease models. Here we describe automated tasks for assessing strategy shifting and reversal learning, which are particularly sensitive to disruptions in prefrontal cortical networks.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Extracting Visual Evoked Potentials from EEG Data Recorded During fMRI-guided Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University


JoVE 51063

This paper describes a method for collecting and analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) data during concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) guided by activations revealed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A method for TMS artifact removal and extraction of event related potentials is described as well as considerations in paradigm design and experimental setup.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Analysis of Gene Expression Changes in the Rat Hippocampus After Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anterior Thalamic Nucleus

1Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Division of Brain Sciences, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London


JoVE 52457

The mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery needs investigation. The methods presented in this manuscript describe an experimental approach to examine the cellular events triggered by DBS by analyzing the gene expression profile of candidate genes that can facilitate neurogenesis post DBS surgery.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Insertion of Flexible Neural Probes Using Rigid Stiffeners Attached with Biodissolvable Adhesive

1Materials Engineering Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2UCSF Center for Integrative Neuroscience and the Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco


JoVE 50609

Insertion of flexible neural microelectrode probes is enabled by attaching probes to rigid stiffeners with polyethylene glycol (PEG). A unique assembly process ensures uniform and repeatable attachment. After insertion into tissue, the PEG dissolves and the stiffener is extracted. An in vitro test method evaluates the technique in agarose gel.

 JoVE Biology

A Video Demonstration of Preserved Piloting by Scent Tracking but Impaired Dead Reckoning After Fimbria-Fornix Lesions in the Rat

1Department of Neuroscience, Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge


JoVE 1193

In a piloting scent tracking task, the ability of the rats to return to a refuge with food using visual an odor trail or using dead reckoning in infrared light, the integrated record of previous movements, demonstrates that the hippocampus is necessary for dead reckoning.

 JoVE Behavior

Stereotaxic Microinjection of Viral Vectors Expressing Cre Recombinase to Study the Role of Target Genes in Cocaine Conditioned Place Preference

1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Weill Cornell Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 2Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College


JoVE 50600

This article describes how to microinject viral vectors into mouse brain and then test in a conditioned place preference paradigm that includes an acquisition, extinction and reinstatement phase.

 JoVE Medicine

Multi-electrode Array Recordings of Human Epileptic Postoperative Cortical Tissue

1Neuroglial Interactions in Cerebral Physiopathology, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology, CNRS UMR 7241, INSERM U1050, Collège de France, 2Infantile Epilepsies & Brain Plasticity, INSERM U1129, PRES, Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CEA, 3Neurosurgery Department, Necker Hospital, AP-HP, Paris Descartes University, 4Rare Epilepsies Reference Center, Necker Hospital, AP-HP, Paris Descartes University, 5Neurophysiology Department, La Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, Sorbonne and Pierre and Marie Curie University


JoVE 51870

We here describe how to perform multi-electrode array recordings of human epileptic cortical tissue. Epileptic tissue resection, slice preparation and multi-electrode array recordings of interictal and ictal events are demonstrated in detail.

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