Stereotaxic surgery on rodents allows for targeted administration of drugs or electrical stimulation and recordings in awake, behaving animals. In this video presentation we will demonstrate recent procedural refinements to this long-standing procedure that successfully improved survival rate and reduced post-surgical weight loss.
April 2014: This Month in JoVE - Bioengineering for ACL Tears, Neuroscience behind Insect Locomotion, Improved Genetic Engineering of Crops, and Synthesizing Secret Ink
1Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2JoVE Content Production
Here's a look at what's coming up in the April 2014 issue of JoVE.
Published April 3, 2014. Keywords: This Month in JoVE, Anterior Cruciate Ligament, ACL, ACL tear, Bioengineering, Tissue Engineering, Neuroscience, Insect Locomotion, Nucleic Acids, Genetic Engineering, Agriculture, Ancient Pigments, Synthetic Pigments
Event-related potential (ERP) recording is under utilized in Cognitive Neuroscience because data acquisition techniques are not readily available and this method often has poor spatial resolution. To foster the increased use of ERPs in Cognitive Neuroscience, the present article details key techniques involved in high density ERP data acquisition.
1Cognitive Neuroscience & Neuropsychiatry Section, UCL Institute of Child Health, 2Academic Division of Neonatology, Institute for Women's Health, University College London
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in estimating the cortical sources of scalp measured electrical activity for cognitive neuroscience experiments. This article describes how high density EEG is acquired and how recordings are processed for cortical source estimation in children from the age of 2 years at the London Baby Lab.
1Department of Behavioral Physiology and Sociobiology (Zoology II) Biozentrum, University of Würzburg
Simultaneous extracellular long term recordings from two different brain neuropiles or two different anatomical tracts were established in honeybees. These recordings allow the investigation of temporal aspects of neuronal processing across different brain areas at the single neuron as well as at the ensemble level in a behaving animal.
A cGMP-applicable Expansion Method for Aggregates of Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells Derived From Pluripotent Stem Cells or Fetal Brain Tissue
1Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
This protocol describes a novel mechanical chopping method that allows the expansion of spherical neural stem and progenitor cell aggregates without dissociation to a single cell suspension. Maintaining cell/cell contact allows rapid and stable growth for over 40 passages.
Published June 15, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, neural progenitor cell, neural precursor cell, neural stem cell, passaging, neurosphere, chopping, stem cell, neuroscience, suspension culture, good manufacturing practice, GMP
1Department of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 3EZ BioResearch LLC
We describe procedures for labeling and genotyping newborn mice and generating primary neuronal cultures from them. The genotyping is rapid, efficient and reliable, and allows for automated nucleic-acid extraction. This is especially useful for neonatally lethal mice and their cultures that require prior completion of genotyping.
1MSTP, Neuroscience Program, Washington University in St. Louis, 2Washington University Pain Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University in St. Louis
The Cold Plantar Assay (CPA) measures cold responsiveness between 30 °C and 5 °C, and can also measure cold adaptation. This protocol describes how to use the CPA to measure cold hypersensitivity, analgesia, and adaptation in mice.
1Department of Natural Sciences, Assumption College
Cell culture models provide detailed control over environmental conditions and thus provide a powerful platform to elucidate numerous aspects of neuronal cell biology. We describe a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable method to isolate, dissociate, and culture sensory neurons from chick embryos. Details of substrata preparation and immunocytochemistry are also provided.
1School of Psychology, University of Birmingham
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the cerebellum exerts a remote effect on the prefrontal cortex, which can modulate cognition and performance. This was demonstrated using two information-processing tasks of varying complexity, whereby only cathodal tDCS improved performance when the task was difficult, but not easy.
High-throughput Analysis of Mammalian Olfactory Receptors: Measurement of Receptor Activation via Luciferase Activity
1Monell Chemical Senses Center
Olfactory receptor activation patterns encode odor identity, but the lack of published data identifying odorant ligands for mammalian olfactory receptors hinders the development of a comprehensive model of odor coding. This protocol describes a method to facilitate high-throughput identification of olfactory receptor ligands and quantification of receptor activation.
Juxtacellular Monitoring and Localization of Single Neurons within Sub-cortical Brain Structures of Alert, Head-restrained Rats
1Department of Physics 0374, University of California, San Diego, 2Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Centre de Recherche de l’Université Laval Robert-Giffard
This protocol describes the design and surgical implantation of a head-restraining mechanism to monitor neuronal activity in sub-cortical brain structures in alert rats. It delineates procedures to isolate single neurons in the juxtacellular configuration and to efficiently identify their anatomical locations.
Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors
1UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London
The molecular mechanisms that co-ordinate the formation of inhibitory GABAergic synapses during ontogeny are largely unknown. To study these processes,we have developed a co-culture model system which incorporates embryonic medium spiny GABAergic neurons cultured together with stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells expressing functional GABAA receptors.
1The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences & Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
This manuscript describes a protocol that applies comprehensive profiling for analysis of transcriptional programs induced in specific brain nuclei of rodents following behavioral paradigms. Herein, this approach is illustrated in the context of profiling genes induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice following acute cocaine exposure, utilizing microfluidic qPCR arrays.
Published August 26, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Brain, behavior, RNA, transcription, nucleus accumbens, cocaine, high-throughput qPCR, experience-dependent plasticity, gene regulatory networks, microdissection
Transferring Cognitive Tasks Between Brain Imaging Modalities: Implications for Task Design and Results Interpretation in fMRI Studies
1Medical Imaging Physics (INM-4), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH, 2Computational and Systems Neuroscience (INM-6), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH
Transferring a paradigm with a history of use in EEG experiments to an fMRI experiment is considered. It is demonstrated that manipulating the task demands in the visual oddball task resulted in different patterns of BOLD activation and illustrated how task design is crucial in fMRI experiments.
1Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
In this paper, an experimental framework to perform closed-loop experiments is presented, in which information processing (i.e., coding and decoding) and learning of neuronal assemblies are studied during the continuous interaction with a robotic body.
1Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, 2Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 3Department of Education and Research, Taipei City Hospital
Here we describe a technique for studying hippocampal postnatal neurogenesis using the organotypic slice culture technique. This method allows for in vitro manipulation of adult neurogenesis and allows for the direct application of pharmacological agents to the cultured hippocampus.
1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University
The goal of the protocol described in this paper is to induce compulsive-like behavior in rats for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This behavior is precipitated by attenuating a signal indicating that a lever-press response was effective in producing food.
1Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne
This protocol describes two different environmental manipulations and a concurrent brain infusion protocol to study environmentally-induced brain changes underlying adaptive behavior and brain repair in adult mice.
Dual Electrophysiological Recordings of Synaptically-evoked Astroglial and Neuronal Responses in Acute Hippocampal Slices
The preparation of acute brain slices from isolated hippocampi, as well as the simultaneous electrophysiological recordings of astrocytes and neurons in stratum radiatum during stimulation of schaffer collaterals is described. The pharmacological isolation of astroglial potassium and glutamate transporter currents is demonstrated.
Published November 26, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Physiology, Anatomy, Medicine, hippocampus preparation, acute brain slice, electrophysiology, patch-clamp, neurons, astrocytes, astroglial, neuroglial interactions, glutamate transporter current, potassium current, paired recordings, synaptic activity, synaptically-evoked responses
Novel Atomic Force Microscopy Based Biopanning for Isolation of Morphology Specific Reagents against TDP-43 Variants in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
1School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, 2Department of Neurology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3Department of Pathology, Georgetown University Medical Center
Using atomic force microscopy in combination with biopanning technology we created a negative and positive biopanning system to acquire antibodies against disease-specific protein variants present in any biological material, even at low concentrations. We were successful in obtaining antibodies to TDP-43 protein variants involved in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
1Neuroscience & Behavioral Disorders, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, 2Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University
A protocol to generate a co-culture system consisting of neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), primary cortical neurons and astrocytes is described. This co-culture system allows detection of the formation of synaptic contacts and circuits between new, iPSC-derived neurons and pre-existing cortical neurons expressing channelrhodopsin-2.
Published February 17, 2015. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Neuroscience, Channelrhodopsin-2, Co-culture, Neurons, Astrocytes, induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Neural progenitors, Differentiation, Cell culture, Cortex
1Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, and Friedman Brain Institute, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, New York University, 3Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University
Conditioned fear can be diminished through an inhibitory process called extinction, but can resurface under conditions such as the passage of time or exposure to stress. Our protocol presents a novel way of preventing fear recovery by introducing extinction during the reconsolidation window (the re-storage phase of a reactivated memory).
1Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, 2Stem Cell Institute, University of Connecticut, 3Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine
A technique to study NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes using a slice culture system of the forebrain and cerebellum is described. This method allows examination of the dynamics of proliferation and differentiation of cells within the oligodendrocyte lineage where the extracellular environment can be easily manipulated while maintaining tissue cytoarchitecture.
1Department of Physiology and Centre for Brain Research, University of Auckland, 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University
Pair recordings are simultaneous whole cell patch clamp recordings from two synaptically connected neurons, enabling precise electrophysiological and pharmacological characterization of the synapses between individual neurons. Here we describe the detailed methodology and requirements for establishing this technique in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures in any laboratory equipped for electrophysiology.
Investigating the Function of Deep Cortical and Subcortical Structures Using Stereotactic Electroencephalography: Lessons from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex
1Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 3Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 4School of Medicine, King's College London
Stereotactic Electroencephalography (SEEG) is an operative technique used in epilepsy surgery to help localize seizure foci. It also affords a unique opportunity to investigate brain function. Here we describe how SEEG can be used to investigate cognitive processes in human subjects.
1Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, 2Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati
In Parkinson's disease and movement disorders in general, sensitive and reliable behavioral assays are essential for testing novel potential therapeutics. Here, we describe a manageable battery of sensorimotor tests for mice that are sensitive to varying degrees of injury to the nigrostriatal system and useful for preclinical studies.
Published June 17, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Psychology, Basal Ganglia Diseases, Parkinsonian Disorders, Parkinson Disease, Genetics, Behavioral, Psychopharmacology, sensory, motor, mouse, movement disorders, beam, cylinder, animal model
Multi-unit Recording Methods to Characterize Neural Activity in the Locust (Schistocerca Americana) Olfactory Circuits
We demonstrate variations of the extracellular multi-unit recording technique to characterize odor-evoked responses in the first three stages of the invertebrate olfactory pathway. These techniques can easily be adapted to examine ensemble activity in other neural systems as well.
Published January 25, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Physiology, Anatomy, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Entomology, Olfactory Receptor Neurons, Sensory Receptor Cells, Electrophysiology, Olfactory system, extracellular multi-unit recordings, first-order olfactory receptor neurons, second-order projection neurons, third-order Kenyon cells, neurons, sensilla, antenna, locust, Schistocerca Americana, animal model
Immunohistochemical Visualization of Hippocampal Neuron Activity After Spatial Learning in a Mouse Model of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
1Centre for Integrative Biology (CIBIO), University of Trento, 2CNR Neuroscience Institute, Pisa, Italy
We describe an immunohistochemistry protocol to study the profile of hippocampal neuron activation following exposure to a spatial learning task in a mouse model characterized by cognitive deficits of neurodevelopmental origin. This protocol can be applied to both genetic or pharmacological mouse models characterized by cognitive deficits.
Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents
1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki
This method creates a tangible, familiar environment for the mouse to navigate and explore during microscopic imaging or single-cell electrophysiological recordings, which require firm fixation of the animal’s head.
1Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, 2School of Biomedical Engineering and Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 4VA San Diego Healthcare System
Axonal transport of BDNF, a neurotrophic factor, is critical for the survival and function of several neuronal populations. Some degenerative disorders are marked by disruption of axonal structure and function. We demonstrated the techniques used to examine live trafficking of QD-BDNF in microfluidic chambers using primary neurons.
Design and Implementation of an fMRI Study Examining Thought Suppression in Young Women with, and At-risk, for Depression
1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, 2McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study, McMaster University, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, 4Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University
We aim to identify the neural correlates underlying sustained and transient thought suppression, and thought re-emergence in controls, at-risk and depressed individuals. Activation was greatest for controls compared to the at-risk and the depressed group in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during thought suppression and anterior cingulate cortex during thought re-emergence.
Generation of Topically Transgenic Rats by In utero Electroporation and In vivo Bioluminescence Screening
1Department of Neuropathology, Medical School Düsseldorf, 2Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute for Science, 3Center of Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Düsseldorf
Genes can be manipulated during development of the cortex or the hippocampus of the rat via in utero electroporation (IUE) at E16, to enable fast and targeted modifications in neuronal connectivity for later studies of behavior or neuropathology in adult animals. Postnatal in vivo imaging for control of IUE success is performed by bioluminescence of activating co-transfected luciferase.
1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami
We describe here a revised protocol for large-scale culture of embryonic C. elegans cells. Embryonic C. elegans cells cultured in vitro using this method, appear to differentiate and recapitulate the expression of genes in a cell specific manner. Techniques that require direct access to the cells or isolation of specific cell types from the other tissues can be applied on C. elegans cultured cells.
1Institute for Ophthalmic Research, University of Tübingen, 2Graduate School of Cellular & Molecular Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, 3Bernstein Centre for Computational Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, 4Molecular Genetics Laboratory, University of Tübingen, 5Centre for Ophthalmology, University of Tübingen
We describe a protocol to monitor Ca2+ dynamics in the axon terminals of cone photoreceptors using an ex-vivo slice preparation of the mouse retina. This protocol allows comprehensive studies of cone Ca2+ signaling in an important mammalian model system, the mouse.
1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Potentiation of the startle reflex is measured via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle during low (uncertain) and high (certain) probability electric shock threat in the Threat Probability Task. This provides an objective measure of distinct negative emotional states (fear/anxiety) for research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse, and broad affective science.
Published September 12, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Startle; electromyography; shock; addiction; uncertainty; fear; anxiety; humans; psychophysiology; translational
1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, SMBS, University at Buffalo, SUNY, 2Department of Biochemistry, SMBS, University at Buffalo, SUNY, 3Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Department, The Scripps Research Institute, 4Department of Biochemistry and Graduate Program in Neuroscience, SMBS, University at Buffalo, SUNY
Described here is a procedure for obtaining long stretches of current recording from one ion channel with the cell-attached patch-clamp technique. This method allows for observing, in real time, the pattern of open-close channel conformations that underlie the biological signal. These data inform about channel properties in undisturbed biological membranes.
Preparation of Primary Neurons for Visualizing Neurites in a Frozen-hydrated State Using Cryo-Electron Tomography
1Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, 3Department of Neuroscience, University of California at San Diego, 4National Center for Macromolecular Imaging, Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine
To preserve neuronal processes for ultrastructural analysis, we describe a protocol for plating of primary neurons on electron microscopy grids followed by flash freezing, yielding samples suspended in a layer of vitreous ice. These samples can be examined with a cryo-electron microscope to visualize structures at the nanometer scale.
Design, Surface Treatment, Cellular Plating, and Culturing of Modular Neuronal Networks Composed of Functionally Inter-connected Circuits
1Department of Neurobiology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 3School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, 4School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, 5Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and System Engineering, University of Genova
This manuscript describes a protocol to grow in vitro modular networks consisting of spatially confined, functionally inter-connected neuronal circuits. A polymeric mask is used to pattern a protein layer to promote cellular adhesion over the culturing substrate. Plated neurons grow on coated areas establishing spontaneous connections and exhibiting electrophysiological activity.
Mapping the After-effects of Theta Burst Stimulation on the Human Auditory Cortex with Functional Imaging
Auditory processing is the basis of speech and music-related processing. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) has been used successfully to study cognitive, sensory and motor systems but has rarely been applied to audition. Here we investigated TMS combined with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to understand the functional organization of auditory cortex.
Published September 12, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Physiology, Physics, Theta burst stimulation, functional magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, auditory cortex, frameless stereotaxy, sound, transcranial magnetic stimulation
Implementing Dynamic Clamp with Synaptic and Artificial Conductances in Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells
1Discipline of Biomedical Science, School of Medical Sciences, Sydney Medical School and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, 2The MARCS Institute, University of Western Sydney, 3Discipline of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Sydney Medical School and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney
This video article illustrates the set-up, the procedures to patch cell bodies and how to implement dynamic clamp recordings from ganglion cells in whole-mount mouse retinae. This technique allows the investigation of the precise contribution of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs, and their relative magnitude and timing to neuronal spiking.
Published May 16, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Neurons, Retinal Neurons, Retinal Ganglion Cells, Eye, Retina, Neurosciences, retina, ganglion cells, synaptic conductance, artificial conductance, tetrodotoxin (TTX), patch clamp, dynamic clamp, conductance clamp, electrophysiology, mouse, animal model
The Crossmodal Congruency Task as a Means to Obtain an Objective Behavioral Measure in the Rubber Hand Illusion Paradigm
We demonstrate how an objective measure can be employed in the widely employed rubber hand illusion paradigm. This measure is obtained by modifying the well-established crossmodal congruency task. This task allows the investigation of multisensory processes which are critical for modulations of body representations as in the rubber hand illusion.
Published July 26, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Psychology, Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms, Psychological Phenomena and Processes, Behavioral Sciences, rubber hand illusion, crossmodal congruency task, crossmodal congruency effect, multisensory processing, body ownership, peripersonal space, clinical techniques
1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of California Riverside, 2Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California Riverside, 3Center for Glial-Neuronal Interactions, University of California Riverside
Here we describe an adaptation of protocols used to induce homeostatic plasticity in neurons for the study of plasticity of astrocytic G protein-coupled receptors. Recently used to examine changes in astrocytic group I mGluRs in juvenile mice, the method can be applied to measure scaling of various astrocytic GPCRs, in tissue from adult mice in situ and in vivo, and to gain a better appreciation of the sensitivity of astrocytic receptors to changes in neuronal activity.
1Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California-Santa Cruz
Lipoxygenase (LOX) isozymes can generate products that may increase or decrease neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. A gene-environment interaction study could identify LOX isozyme-specific effects. Using the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of nigrostriatal damage in two LOX isozyme-deficient transgenic lines allows for comparison of the contribution of LOX isozymes on dopaminergic integrity and inflammation.
Published January 7, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, MPTP, dopamine, Iba1, TH, GFAP, lipoxygenase, transgenic, gene-environment interactions, mouse, Parkinson's disease, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation
1Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, 2School of Healthcare Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University
This article describes the use of chronic resident intruder social stress as an ethologically relevant paradigm to model postpartum depression and anxiety in lactating rodents.
Published June 10, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Physiology, Anatomy, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Neurobehavioral Manifestations, Mental Health, Mood Disorders, Depressive Disorder, Anxiety Disorders, behavioral sciences, Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms, Mental Disorders, Stress, Depression, Anxiety, Postpartum, Maternal Behavior, Nursing, Growth, Transgenerational, animal model
3D Modeling of the Lateral Ventricles and Histological Characterization of Periventricular Tissue in Humans and Mouse
1Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, 2Department of Anatomic Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center
Using MRI scans (human), 3D imaging software, and immunohistological analysis, we document changes to the brain’s lateral ventricles. Longitudinal 3D mapping of lateral ventricle volume changes and characterization of periventricular cellular changes that occur in the human brain due to aging or disease are then modeled in mice.
Slow-release Drug Delivery through Elvax 40W to the Rat Retina: Implications for the Treatment of Chronic Conditions
1Biotechnology and Applied Clinical Sciences Department, University of L'Aquila, 2ARC Centre of Excellence in Vision Science, 3John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, 4ANU Medical School, Australian National University
This paper details how Elvax 40W can be used as a slow-release method for drug delivery to the adult rat retina. The protocol for preparing, loading, and delivering the drug-resin complex to the eye is described.
1Department of Psychology, St. Mary's College of Maryland, 2Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia
The ability to assess executive functions such as behavioral flexibility in rats is useful for investigating the neurobiology of cognition in both intact animals and disease models. Here we describe automated tasks for assessing strategy shifting and reversal learning, which are particularly sensitive to disruptions in prefrontal cortical networks.
Extracting Visual Evoked Potentials from EEG Data Recorded During fMRI-guided Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University
This paper describes a method for collecting and analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) data during concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) guided by activations revealed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A method for TMS artifact removal and extraction of event related potentials is described as well as considerations in paradigm design and experimental setup.
Published May 12, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Neuroimaging, Neuronavigation, Visual Perception, Evoked Potentials, Electroencephalography, Event-related potential, fMRI, Combined Neuroimaging Methods, Face perception, Body Perception