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Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
 Science Education: Essentials of Neuroscience

An Introduction to Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

JoVE Science Education

Cellular and molecular neuroscience is one of the newest and fastest growing subdisciplines in neuroscience. By investigating the influences of genes, signaling molecules, and cellular morphology, researchers in this field uncover crucial insights into normal brain development and function, as well as the root causes of many pathological conditions.

This video introduction to the fascinating world of cellular and molecular neuroscience begins with a timeline of landmark studies, from the discovery of DNA in 1953 to more recent breakthroughs like the cloning of ion channels. Next, key questions in the field are introduced, such as how genes influence neuron activity and how the nervous system is modified by experience. This is followed by brief descriptions of some prominent methods used to analyze genetic material in neurons, manipulate expression of genes, and visualize neurons and their parts. Finally, several applications of molecular and cellular neuroscience are presented to demonstrate how cellular and molecular approaches can be used to profile neuron populations and explore their functions.

 Science Education: Essentials of Neuroscience

An Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience

JoVE Science Education

Behavioral neuroscience is the study of how the nervous system guides behavior, and how the various functional areas and networks within the brain correlate to specific behaviors and disease states. Researchers in this field utilize a wide variety of experimental methods ranging from complex animal training techniques to sophisticated imaging experiments in human subjects. This video first offers a historical overview of some of the major milestones that lead to our current understanding of the brain’s control over behavior. Then, some of the fundamental questions asked by behavioral neuroscientists are presented, which all involve the study of neural correlates, or specific brain regions whose activation is responsible for a given function. Next, prominent methods used to answer those questions are reviewed for both human and animal subjects, such as operant conditioning and functional neuroimaging. Finally, experimental applications of these techniques are presented, including animal training using a Skinner box, and the use of electroencephalography to investigate human neurological disease.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Rodent Stereotaxic Surgery and Animal Welfare Outcome Improvements for Behavioral Neuroscience

1Department of Neuroscience, Section Anatomy, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 2Animal Welfare Office, University of Groningen

JoVE 3528

Stereotaxic surgery on rodents allows for targeted administration of drugs or electrical stimulation and recordings in awake, behaving animals. In this video presentation we will demonstrate recent procedural refinements to this long-standing procedure that successfully improved survival rate and reduced post-surgical weight loss.

 JoVE Editorial

April 2014: This Month in JoVE - Bioengineering for ACL Tears, Neuroscience behind Insect Locomotion, Improved Genetic Engineering of Crops, and Synthesizing Secret Ink

1Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2JoVE Content Production

JoVE 5323

Here's a look at what's coming up in the April 2014 issue of JoVE.

 JoVE Neuroscience

High Density Event-related Potential Data Acquisition in Cognitive Neuroscience

1Department of Psychology, Boston College

JoVE 1945

Event-related potential (ERP) recording is under utilized in Cognitive Neuroscience because data acquisition techniques are not readily available and this method often has poor spatial resolution. To foster the increased use of ERPs in Cognitive Neuroscience, the present article details key techniques involved in high density ERP data acquisition.

 JoVE Behavior

Cortical Source Analysis of High-Density EEG Recordings in Children

1Cognitive Neuroscience & Neuropsychiatry Section, UCL Institute of Child Health, 2Academic Division of Neonatology, Institute for Women's Health, University College London

JoVE 51705

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in estimating the cortical sources of scalp measured electrical activity for cognitive neuroscience experiments. This article describes how high density EEG is acquired and how recordings are processed for cortical source estimation in children from the age of 2 years at the London Baby Lab.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Simultaneous Long-term Recordings at Two Neuronal Processing Stages in Behaving Honeybees

1Department of Behavioral Physiology and Sociobiology (Zoology II) Biozentrum, University of Würzburg

JoVE 51750

Simultaneous extracellular long term recordings from two different brain neuropiles or two different anatomical tracts were established in honeybees. These recordings allow the investigation of temporal aspects of neuronal processing across different brain areas at the single neuron as well as at the ensemble level in a behaving animal.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A cGMP-applicable Expansion Method for Aggregates of Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells Derived From Pluripotent Stem Cells or Fetal Brain Tissue

1Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

JoVE 51219

This protocol describes a novel mechanical chopping method that allows the expansion of spherical neural stem and progenitor cell aggregates without dissociation to a single cell suspension.  Maintaining cell/cell contact allows rapid and stable growth for over 40 passages.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Rapid Genotyping of Animals Followed by Establishing Primary Cultures of Brain Neurons

1Department of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 3EZ BioResearch LLC

JoVE 51879

We describe procedures for labeling and genotyping newborn mice and generating primary neuronal cultures from them. The genotyping is rapid, efficient and reliable, and allows for automated nucleic-acid extraction. This is especially useful for neonatally lethal mice and their cultures that require prior completion of genotyping.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Simple and Inexpensive Method for Determining Cold Sensitivity and Adaptation in Mice

1MSTP, Neuroscience Program, Washington University in St. Louis, 2Washington University Pain Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University in St. Louis

JoVE 52640

The Cold Plantar Assay (CPA) measures cold responsiveness between 30 °C and 5 °C, and can also measure cold adaptation. This protocol describes how to use the CPA to measure cold hypersensitivity, analgesia, and adaptation in mice.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Stereotaxic Infusion of Oligomeric Amyloid-beta into the Mouse Hippocampus

1Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2The Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Columbia University Medical Center, 3Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center

JoVE 52805

Here, we present a protocol for direct stereotaxic brain infusion of amyloid-beta. This methodology provides an alternative in vivo mouse model to address the short-term effects of amyloid-beta on brain neurons.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Isolation and Culture of Dissociated Sensory Neurons From Chick Embryos

1Department of Natural Sciences, Assumption College

JoVE 51991

Cell culture models provide detailed control over environmental conditions and thus provide a powerful platform to elucidate numerous aspects of neuronal cell biology. We describe a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable method to isolate, dissociate, and culture sensory neurons from chick embryos. Details of substrata preparation and immunocytochemistry are also provided.

 JoVE Behavior

Modulating Cognition Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Cerebellum

1School of Psychology, University of Birmingham

JoVE 52302

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the cerebellum exerts a remote effect on the prefrontal cortex, which can modulate cognition and performance. This was demonstrated using two information-processing tasks of varying complexity, whereby only cathodal tDCS improved performance when the task was difficult, but not easy.

 JoVE Neuroscience

High-throughput Analysis of Mammalian Olfactory Receptors: Measurement of Receptor Activation via Luciferase Activity

1Monell Chemical Senses Center

JoVE 51640

Olfactory receptor activation patterns encode odor identity, but the lack of published data identifying odorant ligands for mammalian olfactory receptors hinders the development of a comprehensive model of odor coding. This protocol describes a method to facilitate high-throughput identification of olfactory receptor ligands and quantification of receptor activation.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Juxtacellular Monitoring and Localization of Single Neurons within Sub-cortical Brain Structures of Alert, Head-restrained Rats

1Department of Physics 0374, University of California, San Diego, 2Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Centre de Recherche de l’Université Laval Robert-Giffard

JoVE 51453

This protocol describes the design and surgical implantation of a head-restraining mechanism to monitor neuronal activity in sub-cortical brain structures in alert rats. It delineates procedures to isolate single neurons in the juxtacellular configuration and to efficiently identify their anatomical locations.

 JoVE Behavior

Morris Water Maze Test: Optimization for Mouse Strain and Testing Environment

1Department of Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience, West Virginia University, 2Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, 3Department of Neurology, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, 4Department of Neuroscience, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, 5GRECC, VA Medical Center, 6Center for Neuroscience, Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research, West Virginia University

JoVE 52706

This manuscript describes a Morris water maze (MWM) protocol tailored for use with a commonly used mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The MWM is widely used in transgenic mouse models. Implementation of a procedure sensitive to the background strain of the mouse model is essential for detecting group differences.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors

1UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London

JoVE 52115

The molecular mechanisms that co-ordinate the formation of inhibitory GABAergic synapses during ontogeny are largely unknown. To study these processes,we have developed a co-culture model system which incorporates embryonic medium spiny GABAergic neurons cultured together with stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells expressing functional GABAA receptors.

 JoVE Behavior

Comprehensive Analysis of Transcription Dynamics from Brain Samples Following Behavioral Experience

1The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences & Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

JoVE 51642

This manuscript describes a protocol that applies comprehensive profiling for analysis of transcriptional programs induced in specific brain nuclei of rodents following behavioral paradigms. Herein, this approach is illustrated in the context of profiling genes induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice following acute cocaine exposure, utilizing microfluidic qPCR arrays.

 JoVE Behavior

Transferring Cognitive Tasks Between Brain Imaging Modalities: Implications for Task Design and Results Interpretation in fMRI Studies

1Medical Imaging Physics (INM-4), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH, 2Computational and Systems Neuroscience (INM-6), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH

JoVE 51793

Transferring a paradigm with a history of use in EEG experiments to an fMRI experiment is considered. It is demonstrated that manipulating the task demands in the visual oddball task resulted in different patterns of BOLD activation and illustrated how task design is crucial in fMRI experiments.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Closed-loop Neuro-robotic Experiments to Test Computational Properties of Neuronal Networks

1Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia

JoVE 52341

In this paper, an experimental framework to perform closed-loop experiments is presented, in which information processing (i.e., coding and decoding) and learning of neuronal assemblies are studied during the continuous interaction with a robotic body.

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Organotypic Slice Cultures for Studies of Postnatal Neurogenesis

1Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, 2Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 3Department of Education and Research, Taipei City Hospital

JoVE 52353

Here we describe a technique for studying hippocampal postnatal neurogenesis using the organotypic slice culture technique. This method allows for in vitro manipulation of adult neurogenesis and allows for the direct application of pharmacological agents to the cultured hippocampus.

 JoVE Behavior

Signal Attenuation as a Rat Model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University

JoVE 52287

The goal of the protocol described in this paper is to induce compulsive-like behavior in rats for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This behavior is precipitated by attenuating a signal indicating that a lever-press response was effective in producing food.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Environmental Modulations of the Number of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons in Adult Mice

1Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne

JoVE 52329

This protocol describes two different environmental manipulations and a concurrent brain infusion protocol to study environmentally-induced brain changes underlying adaptive behavior and brain repair in adult mice.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Dual Electrophysiological Recordings of Synaptically-evoked Astroglial and Neuronal Responses in Acute Hippocampal Slices

1Neuroglial Interactions in Cerebral Physiopathology, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology, CNRS UMR 7241, INSERM U1050, Collège de France, 2Paris Diderot University

JoVE 4418

The preparation of acute brain slices from isolated hippocampi, as well as the simultaneous electrophysiological recordings of astrocytes and neurons in stratum radiatum during stimulation of schaffer collaterals is described. The pharmacological isolation of astroglial potassium and glutamate transporter currents is demonstrated.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Novel Atomic Force Microscopy Based Biopanning for Isolation of Morphology Specific Reagents against TDP-43 Variants in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

1School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, 2Department of Neurology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3Department of Pathology, Georgetown University Medical Center

JoVE 52584

Using atomic force microscopy in combination with biopanning technology we created a negative and positive biopanning system to acquire antibodies against disease-specific protein variants present in any biological material, even at low concentrations. We were successful in obtaining antibodies to TDP-43 protein variants involved in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

 JoVE Developmental Biology

An Optogenetic Approach for Assessing Formation of Neuronal Connections in a Co-culture System

1Neuroscience & Behavioral Disorders, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, 2Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University

JoVE 52408

A protocol to generate a co-culture system consisting of neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), primary cortical neurons and astrocytes is described. This co-culture system allows detection of the formation of synaptic contacts and circuits between new, iPSC-derived neurons and pre-existing cortical neurons expressing channelrhodopsin-2.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Extinction Training During the Reconsolidation Window Prevents Recovery of Fear

1Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, and Friedman Brain Institute, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, New York University, 3Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University

JoVE 3893

Conditioned fear can be diminished through an inhibitory process called extinction, but can resurface under conditions such as the passage of time or exposure to stress. Our protocol presents a novel way of preventing fear recovery by introducing extinction during the reconsolidation window (the re-storage phase of a reactivated memory).

 JoVE Neuroscience

Organotypic Slice Cultures to Study Oligodendrocyte Dynamics and Myelination

1Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, 2Stem Cell Institute, University of Connecticut, 3Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine

JoVE 51835

A technique to study NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes using a slice culture system of the forebrain and cerebellum is described. This method allows examination of the dynamics of proliferation and differentiation of cells within the oligodendrocyte lineage where the extracellular environment can be easily manipulated while maintaining tissue cytoarchitecture.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Real-time Electrophysiology: Using Closed-loop Protocols to Probe Neuronal Dynamics and Beyond

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp

JoVE 52320

Closed-loop protocols are becoming increasingly widespread in modern day electrophysiology. We present a simple, versatile and inexpensive way to perform complex electrophysiological protocols in cortical pyramidal neurons in vitro, using a desktop computer and a digital acquisition board.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Paired Whole Cell Recordings in Organotypic Hippocampal Slices

1Department of Physiology and Centre for Brain Research, University of Auckland, 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University

JoVE 51958

Pair recordings are simultaneous whole cell patch clamp recordings from two synaptically connected neurons, enabling precise electrophysiological and pharmacological characterization of the synapses between individual neurons. Here we describe the detailed methodology and requirements for establishing this technique in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures in any laboratory equipped for electrophysiology.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Investigating the Function of Deep Cortical and Subcortical Structures Using Stereotactic Electroencephalography: Lessons from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

1Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 3Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 4School of Medicine, King's College London

JoVE 52773

Stereotactic Electroencephalography (SEEG) is an operative technique used in epilepsy surgery to help localize seizure foci. It also affords a unique opportunity to investigate brain function. Here we describe how SEEG can be used to investigate cognitive processes in human subjects.

 JoVE Behavior

Assessment of Sensorimotor Function in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

1Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, 2Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati

JoVE 50303

In Parkinson's disease and movement disorders in general, sensitive and reliable behavioral assays are essential for testing novel potential therapeutics. Here, we describe a manageable battery of sensorimotor tests for mice that are sensitive to varying degrees of injury to the nigrostriatal system and useful for preclinical studies.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Multi-unit Recording Methods to Characterize Neural Activity in the Locust (Schistocerca Americana) Olfactory Circuits

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis

JoVE 50139

We demonstrate variations of the extracellular multi-unit recording technique to characterize odor-evoked responses in the first three stages of the invertebrate olfactory pathway. These techniques can easily be adapted to examine ensemble activity in other neural systems as well.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Immunohistochemical Visualization of Hippocampal Neuron Activity After Spatial Learning in a Mouse Model of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

1Centre for Integrative Biology (CIBIO), University of Trento, 2CNR Neuroscience Institute, Pisa, Italy

JoVE 52919

We describe an immunohistochemistry protocol to study the profile of hippocampal neuron activation following exposure to a spatial learning task in a mouse model characterized by cognitive deficits of neurodevelopmental origin. This protocol can be applied to both genetic or pharmacological mouse models characterized by cognitive deficits.

 JoVE Behavior

Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents

1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki

JoVE 51869

This method creates a tangible, familiar environment for the mouse to navigate and explore during microscopic imaging or single-cell electrophysiological recordings, which require firm fixation of the animal’s head.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Real-time Imaging of Axonal Transport of Quantum Dot-labeled BDNF in Primary Neurons

1Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, 2School of Biomedical Engineering and Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 4VA San Diego Healthcare System

JoVE 51899

Axonal transport of BDNF, a neurotrophic factor, is critical for the survival and function of several neuronal populations. Some degenerative disorders are marked by disruption of axonal structure and function. We demonstrated the techniques used to examine live trafficking of QD-BDNF in microfluidic chambers using primary neurons.

 JoVE Behavior

Design and Implementation of an fMRI Study Examining Thought Suppression in Young Women with, and At-risk, for Depression

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, 2McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study, McMaster University, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, 4Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University

JoVE 52061

We aim to identify the neural correlates underlying sustained and transient thought suppression, and thought re-emergence in controls, at-risk and depressed individuals. Activation was greatest for controls compared to the at-risk and the depressed group in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during thought suppression and anterior cingulate cortex during thought re-emergence.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Generation of Topically Transgenic Rats by In utero Electroporation and In vivo Bioluminescence Screening

1Department of Neuropathology, Medical School Düsseldorf, 2Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute for Science, 3Center of Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Düsseldorf

JoVE 50146

Genes can be manipulated during development of the cortex or the hippocampus of the rat via in utero electroporation (IUE) at E16, to enable fast and targeted modifications in neuronal connectivity for later studies of behavior or neuropathology in adult animals. Postnatal in vivo imaging for control of IUE success is performed by bioluminescence of activating co-transfected luciferase.

 JoVE Biology

A Method for Culturing Embryonic C. elegans Cells

1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami

JoVE 50649

We describe here a revised protocol for large-scale culture of embryonic C. elegans cells. Embryonic C. elegans cells cultured in vitro using this method, appear to differentiate and recapitulate the expression of genes in a cell specific manner. Techniques that require direct access to the cells or isolation of specific cell types from the other tissues can be applied on C. elegans cultured cells.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Imaging Ca2+ Dynamics in Cone Photoreceptor Axon Terminals of the Mouse Retina

1Institute for Ophthalmic Research, University of Tübingen, 2Graduate School of Cellular & Molecular Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, 3Bernstein Centre for Computational Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, 4Molecular Genetics Laboratory, University of Tübingen, 5Centre for Ophthalmology, University of Tübingen

JoVE 52588

We describe a protocol to monitor Ca2+ dynamics in the axon terminals of cone photoreceptors using an ex-vivo slice preparation of the mouse retina. This protocol allows comprehensive studies of cone Ca2+ signaling in an important mammalian model system, the mouse.

 JoVE Behavior

Using the Threat Probability Task to Assess Anxiety and Fear During Uncertain and Certain Threat

1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison

JoVE 51905

Potentiation of the startle reflex is measured via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle during low (uncertain) and high (certain) probability electric shock threat in the Threat Probability Task. This provides an objective measure of distinct negative emotional states (fear/anxiety) for research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse, and broad affective science.

 JoVE Biology

One-channel Cell-attached Patch-clamp Recording

1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, SMBS, University at Buffalo, SUNY, 2Department of Biochemistry, SMBS, University at Buffalo, SUNY, 3Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Department, The Scripps Research Institute, 4Department of Biochemistry and Graduate Program in Neuroscience, SMBS, University at Buffalo, SUNY

JoVE 51629

Described here is a procedure for obtaining long stretches of current recording from one ion channel with the cell-attached patch-clamp technique. This method allows for observing, in real time, the pattern of open-close channel conformations that underlie the biological signal. These data inform about channel properties in undisturbed biological membranes.

 JoVE Behavior

A Cognitive Paradigm to Investigate Interference in Working Memory by Distractions and Interruptions

1Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, 3Department of Physiology, Center for Integrative Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco

JoVE 52226

A novel cognitive paradigm is developed to elucidate behavioral and neural correlates of interference by to-be-ignored distractors versus interference by to-be-attended interruptors during a working memory task. In this manuscript, several variants of this paradigm are detailed, and data obtained with this paradigm in younger/older adult participants is reviewed.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Preparation of Primary Neurons for Visualizing Neurites in a Frozen-hydrated State Using Cryo-Electron Tomography

1Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, 3Department of Neuroscience, University of California at San Diego, 4National Center for Macromolecular Imaging, Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine

JoVE 50783

To preserve neuronal processes for ultrastructural analysis, we describe a protocol for plating of primary neurons on electron microscopy grids followed by flash freezing, yielding samples suspended in a layer of vitreous ice. These samples can be examined with a cryo-electron microscope to visualize structures at the nanometer scale.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Design, Surface Treatment, Cellular Plating, and Culturing of Modular Neuronal Networks Composed of Functionally Inter-connected Circuits

1Department of Neurobiology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 3School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, 4School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, 5Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and System Engineering, University of Genova

JoVE 52572

This manuscript describes a protocol to grow in vitro modular networks consisting of spatially confined, functionally inter-connected neuronal circuits. A polymeric mask is used to pattern a protein layer to promote cellular adhesion over the culturing substrate. Plated neurons grow on coated areas establishing spontaneous connections and exhibiting electrophysiological activity.

 JoVE Biology

Mapping the After-effects of Theta Burst Stimulation on the Human Auditory Cortex with Functional Imaging

1Montreal Neurological Institute and International laboratory for Brain, Music, and Sound (BRAMS), McGill University

JoVE 3985

Auditory processing is the basis of speech and music-related processing. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) has been used successfully to study cognitive, sensory and motor systems but has rarely been applied to audition. Here we investigated TMS combined with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to understand the functional organization of auditory cortex.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Implementing Dynamic Clamp with Synaptic and Artificial Conductances in Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells

1Discipline of Biomedical Science, School of Medical Sciences, Sydney Medical School and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, 2The MARCS Institute, University of Western Sydney, 3Discipline of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Sydney Medical School and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney

JoVE 50400

This video article illustrates the set-up, the procedures to patch cell bodies and how to implement dynamic clamp recordings from ganglion cells in whole-mount mouse retinae. This technique allows the investigation of the precise contribution of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs, and their relative magnitude and timing to neuronal spiking.

 JoVE Behavior

The Crossmodal Congruency Task as a Means to Obtain an Objective Behavioral Measure in the Rubber Hand Illusion Paradigm

1Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, 2ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, 3Department of Psychology, Macquarie University

JoVE 50530

We demonstrate how an objective measure can be employed in the widely employed rubber hand illusion paradigm. This measure is obtained by modifying the well-established crossmodal congruency task. This task allows the investigation of multisensory processes which are critical for modulations of body representations as in the rubber hand illusion.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Inducing Plasticity of Astrocytic Receptors by Manipulation of Neuronal Firing Rates

1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of California Riverside, 2Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California Riverside, 3Center for Glial-Neuronal Interactions, University of California Riverside

JoVE 51458

Here we describe an adaptation of protocols used to induce homeostatic plasticity in neurons for the study of plasticity of astrocytic G protein-coupled receptors. Recently used to examine changes in astrocytic group I mGluRs in juvenile mice, the method can be applied to measure scaling of various astrocytic GPCRs, in tissue from adult mice in situ and in vivo, and to gain a better appreciation of the sensitivity of astrocytic receptors to changes in neuronal activity.

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